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  • 1.
    Adu, George
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Amporfu, Eugenia
    Does Stock Market Development Enhance Private Investment in Ghana?2016In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, ISSN 2371-1655, Vol. 2, 68-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the extent to which stock market development enhances private investment in Ghana. Quarterly times series data for the period 1991(Q1) to 2011(Q4) are used. Stock market development is proxy by market capitalization. The paper adopts the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) method of estimation. The results for deposit interest rates, GDP per capita, and public investment confirm complementarity hypothesis, accelerator principle, as well as “crowding-in” effect for Ghana in the long-run in their respective cases. Market capitalization also increases private investment in the long-run. However, inflation reduces private investment. In the short-run, one quarter lag and two quarters lag values of private investment and public investment respectively increases private investment, while one quarter lag value of market capitalization reduces current levels of private investment. The paper recommends further development of the stock market since doing so will attract more investors and ultimately enhance private investment.

  • 2.
    Adu, George
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Natural resource revenues and public investment in resource-rich economies in sub-Saharan Africa2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general policy prescription for resource-rich countries is that, for sustainable consumption, a greater percentage of the windfall from resource rents should be channelled into accumulating foreign assets such as a sovereign public fund as done in Norway and other developed but resource-rich countries. This might not be a correct policy prescription for resource-rich sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, where public capital is very low to support the needed economic growth. In such countries, rents from resources serve as opportunity to scale-up the needed public capital. Using panel data for the period 1990–2013, we find in line with the scaling-up hypothesis that resource rents significantly increase public investment in SSA and that this tends to depend on the quality of political institutions. We also find evidence of a positive effect of public investment on economic growth, which also depends on the level of resource rents. Using some of the components of public investment, such as health and education expenditure, we find a negative effect of resource rents, suggesting among other things that public spending of resource rents is directed more to other infrastructure investments.

  • 3.
    Adu, George
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    What Drives Structural Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa?2016In: African Development Review, ISSN 1017-6772, E-ISSN 1467-8268, Vol. 28, no 2, 157-169 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of the driving forces behind structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa, and to further access the role of structural reforms in accounting for cross-country differences in transformation. Evidence from this paper reveals that country specific fundamentals, institutions and policy reforms as well as governance and fiscal reforms are the key drivers of transformation in the region. A set of policy strategies is proposed to engender sustained transformation and development in the region.

  • 4.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Adu Asamoah, Lawrence
    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
    An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Interest Rates in Ghana2016In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 17, no 3, 377-396 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of the bank lending rate in Ghana using annual time series data from 1970 to 2013. We found evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the average lending rate charged by commercial banks and its determining factors. In the long run, bank lending rates in Ghana are positively influenced by nominal exchange rates and Bank of Ghana’s monetary policy rate but negatively with fiscal deficit, real GDP and inflation. We also find positive dependence of the bank lending rate on exchange rates, and the monetary policy rate both in the short and long run. Specifically, our findings reveal that the Bank of Ghana’s monetary policy rate and the exchange rate, by far, show strong contemporaneous effects on the average bank lending rate in Ghana.

  • 5.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Alagidede, Paul
    Climate, Technological Change and Economic Growth2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the incentive for developing adaptation technology in a world with changing climate within the directed technical change framework. Consistent with the market size effect, we show that technological change will tend to be biased in favour of the sector that employs the greater share of the work force over time, when the inputs are sufficiently substitutable. An economy with dominant climate sensitive sector can maintain sustained economic growth if it is capable of undertaking frontier innovations in the form of adaptation technology that increases the productivity of the inputs employed in the climate sensitive sector

  • 6.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
    Alagidede, Paul
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Boakye Frimpong, Prince
    Garden City University College.
    The effect of climate change on economic growth: evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa2016In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 18, no 3, 417-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a contribution to the empirics of climate change and its effect on sustainable economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using data on two climate variables: temperature and precipitation, and employing panel cointegration econometric technique of the long- and short-run effects of climate change on growth, we establish that temperatures beyond 24.9 °C would significantly reduce economic performance in SSA. Furthermore, we show that the relationship between real GDP per capita on one hand and temperature on the other is intrinsically nonlinear.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Gun-Britt
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Kooperation i u-land: ett seminarium om Östafrika1966Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Per-Åke
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Bigsten, Arne
    Persson, Håkan
    Foreign aid, debt and growth in Zambia2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study first discusses the structural problems of Zambia and the policies of adjustment that have been tried. It then uses a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the impact of various strategies with regard to external resource transfers. It compares the impacts of foreign loans or grants to the private and the public sectors, as well as the impact of a turnaround of the country's fortunes with regard to its external terms of trade. The results of the policy analysis show that the scope for growth is highly dependent on the tightness of the external resource constraint.

  • 9. Anglin, Douglas
    et al.
    Widstrand, Carl GöstaThe Nordic Africa Institute.
    Canada, Scandinavia and Southern Africa1978Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Arkhangelskaya, Alexandra A.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    India, Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum: A Bridge between Three Continents: Challenges, achievements and policy options2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum is a trilateral development initiative to promote South-South cooperation and exchange. The forum was launched with the adoptionof the Brasília Declaration in June 2003. Each of the three countries has ambitions to play a leading role in regional and global affairs. The role of the Group of Twenty (G20) in respondingto the global financial crisis reflects growing acceptance of IBSA’s emerging position by the world’s established powers. An analysis of IBSA as a rising global power bloc is therefore critical to understanding the new dimensions of South-South relations, particularly in a post-Cold War world. This policy note addresses IBSA’s framework, principles, achievements and challenges in Africa’s development perspective.

  • 11.
    Bhagavan, Malur Ramanna
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Angola's political economy 1975-19851986Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Danielson, Anders
    Tanzania: is the ugly duckling finally growing up?2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The title of this report is inspired by the great Danish author Hans Christian Andersen who in the child's tale "Den Grimme Ælling" ("The Ugly Duckling") tells the story of a particularly ugly duckling. She is so ugly, in fact, that she is despised and disliked by all other ducks and ducklings. After a long and painful period of time, however, she grows up - but not to become an ugly duck. Instead she becomes a beautiful white swan, admired by all. So Andersen's tale has a happy ending-at least as far as the ugly duckling goes. The major question tackled in this report is whether a similar fate is awaiting Tanzania. Having been something of an enfant terrible since the deep crisis in the early 1980s, economic progress since 1995 provides some hope that the duckling period is Tanzania is finally over.

    The study initially emerged as part of the "Emerging Africa" research program launched by the OECD's Development Centre in 1997. Comments from participants in that research program are gratefully acknowledged, particularly Jean-Claude Berthélemy (project leader), Aristomene Varoudakis and Ludvig Söderlind. Jean Bonvin, President of the Development Centre (until spring, 1999) guided the project from the start. The project was financed by generous grants from the governments of Switzerland and Belgium.

     

  • 13.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Durevall, Dick
    The African economy and its role in the world economy2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a broad survey this issue of Current African Issues presents a multifaceted picture of the current state of the African economy. After a period of falling per capita incomes that started in the 1970s, Africa finally saw a turnaround from about 1995. The last few years have seen average per capita incomes in Africa grow by above 3 per cent per year on average, partly due to the resource boom but also due to improved economic policies. Africa receives more aid per capita than any other major region in the world and there is a significantly positive effect of aid on growth. One of the most notable aspects of the current process of globalisation is the increase in trade between Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, particularly China and India. The authors conclude with a call for policy coherence among donors. The politically most problematic areas for policy change of those discussed in the paper are not aid policy but trade policy and the European Union CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). This is a challenge to EU policy makers, since the latter areas are probably the most important to change if we take our commitment to development seriously.

  • 14.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve
    Is Uganda an emerging economy?: a report for the OECD project "Emerging Africa"2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of serious external shocks and political destabilisation in part of the country, Uganda has remained a good economic performer since the late 1980s, with over a decade of high per capita growth in excess of three per cent.

    This study concludes that Uganda's medium to long-term success will depend on the achievements in institutional reforms, including raising the quality of the civil service, curbing corruption and implementing an effective regulatory framework. This is important as a poorly functioning public sector is both unable to uphold the rule of law, thus losing the public goodwill necessary for implementing new measures, and a burden on the private sector as it implies increased transaction costs.

    There is a widespread domestic and international concern that the civil strife in the Great Lakes Region might lead Uganda and its neighbours from the path of economic reform back to socio-economic instability.

  • 15.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Kebede, BereketShimeles, Abebe
    Poverty, income distribution and labour markets in Ethiopia2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world with a per capita income of just over US$100. Understanding the causes of the country's widespread poverty is of the utmost importance. Until recently, however, very little household data was available. This study deals with the many aspects of poverty and income distribution in Ethiopia. It analyses the determinants of poverty and how its conditions have changed in both rural and urban areas over time. Rural and urban poverty profiles and the dynamics of poverty are examined, measurements taken of consumption poverty are compared with individual perceptions of poverty, and an analysis is made of the distribution of intra-household expenditure and the dynamics of income distribution. In addition, the functioning of the urban labour market returns to education, and the effects of education on household welfare are investigated. Finally, there is extensive discussion of the wide range of policies that need to be coordinated for poverty reduction in Ethiopia.

  • 16. Brüntrup, Michael
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Taylor, Ian
    Africa, regional cooperation and the world market: socio-economic strategies in times of global trade regimes2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the regime of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), local and regional policies are increasingly determined by global factors. One example is the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). It stresses an earlier notion of African Renaissance, which includes the emphasis on collective self-reliance, but at the same time seeks closer cooperation with the global trade system and its international agencies. Bi- and multilateral trade relations between external actors and individual African states or regional blocs are becoming ever more decisive. This is also true of the more recently negotiated Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the post-Lomé era of EU-African relations. In light of such trends the question of coherence between trade as aid and other areas of development strategy and cooperation remains to be answered. The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon related matters of socio-economically viable strategies seeking to reconcile the global and the regional in an African perspective. They were originally presented to the Panel 'Regional Cooperation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Between Collective Self-Reliance and Global Trade Regimes'” organised by the Nordic Africa Institute within the 11th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) in September 2005 in Bonn.

  • 17.
    Campbell, Bonnie
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Mining in Africa: regulation and development2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continent of Africa is rich in minerals needed by Western economies. Yet the mining industry contributes very little to African development.

    Investigating the impact of the 2003 Extractive Industries Review on a number of African countries, the contributors find that a key dimension of the problem lies in the regulatory frameworks imposed on African countries by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. They aim to convince academics, governments, and industry that regulation needs to be reformed to create a mining industry favourable to social and economic development and environmental protection.

    The book takes a multidisciplinary approach and provides an historical perspective of each country, making it ideal for students of development studies.

    CONTENT

    Acknowledgements

    Introduction - Bonnie Campbell

    Chapter 1. Mining in Ghana: Implications for National Economic Development and Poverty Reduction – Thomas Akabzaa

    Chapter 2. Guinea and Bauxite-Aluminum: The Challenges of Development and Poverty Reduction – Bonnie Campbell

    Chapter 3. Mining, Poverty Reduction, the Protection of the Environment and the Role of the World Bank Group in Mali – Gisèle Belem

    Chapter 4. Mining and Protection of the Environment in Madagascar – Bruno Sarrasin

    Chapter 5. Governance, Human Rights and Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo – Marie Mazalto

    Chapter 6. Conclusion: What Development Model? What Government Agenda? – Bonnie Campbell

    Index

  • 18.
    Carlsen, John
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Economic and social transformation in rural Kenya1980Book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Carlsson, Jerker
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Transnational companies in Liberia: the role of transnational companies in the economic development of Liberia1977Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the direct-investing foreign companies and the Government of Liberia (GOL). The report emphasis is put on three aspects. Firstly, the direct income-generating effects of the companies. Secondly, The GOL's policy towards these companies and their part in a development strategy. Thirdly, the distribution of purchase of goods and services.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Jerker
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Recession in Africa: background papers to the seminar Africa - which way out of the recession?, Uppsala, September 19821983Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In September 1982 a number of researcers and representatives of the Nordic development agencies as well as members of several international organizations were invited to discuss the nature and origin of the "recession" in Sub-Saharan Africa. In preparing the seminar a number of scholars were invited to write background papers.

    The country case studies and a paper on strategic issues are presented in this volume. By way of an introduction a presentation is given of the World Bank Report "Accelerated Development in Sub-Saharan Africa - An Agenda for Action", and of the Lagos Plan of Action, adopted by the Organization of African Unity.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Jerker
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    The limits to structural change: a comparative study of foreign direct investments in Liberia and Ghana 1950-19711981Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Cervenka, Zdenek
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Salih, M. A. Mohamed
    Burundi: a brief survey of the country and its economy and on its investment potential1991Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Cheru, Fantu
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Creating a Conducive International Environment for Africa’s Development: China’s role in Global Governance Reform!2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is at a critical juncture: there is the opportunity to come together to pursue a common agenda, or it can break into opposing groups based on differences in income, interests, religion or race. Globalisation exacerbates this tension between opportunity and threats. The most keenly felt tension is the sense that globalisation creates greater inequality in an already unequal world. If the world is unequal, then it must be undemocratic as well. As a result, globalisation and democracy come togetheras simultaneous challenges. As far as Africa is concerned, the challenge is how to gain voice in global governance.

  • 24.
    Cissé, Daouda
    The Nordic Africa Institute, African International Links.
    Globalisation and sustainable Africa-China trade: what role play the African regional organisations?2015Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ehrenpreis, Dag
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Svensson, Bengt
    Tunisien1972Book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Migrant remittances. An overview of global and Swedish flows2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant remittances – money and gifts sent to relatives back home – have attracted increasing international attention. The flow of remittances has become a major source of revenue for developing countries, exceeding the volume of aid. Three recent studies at Uppsala University bring this issue to light in the context of Sweden’s Policy for Global Development.

    Very little has so far been known about the flow of remittances from Sweden; official data indicate an amount exceeding 4 billion kronor in 2006. The real flows are most likely higher; Swedish and international studies estimate that real remittances are 30-50 per cent above the officially recorded amounts. Statistics Sweden (SCB) is recommended to enhance its records of remittances in terms of desirable scope and reliability, for instance regarding specification of the amounts remitted to different countries.

    Remittance flows from Sweden are linked to the remitters’ incomes and, hence, vary with the business cycle. Experience suggests that the ongoing world economic crisis will have a negative impact on remittance flows also from Sweden.

    It is suggested that enhanced knowledge in Sweden about available remittance services and their costs and measures to promote a better functioning remittance market could increase the net value of these money.

  • 27.
    Eriksen, Tore Linné
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Den europeiske unionen, Loméavtalen og Afrika: en oversikt og en kommentert bibliografi1996Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reformed cocoa market benefits Liberian farmers: but watch out for new forms of market power and elite capture2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment for smallholder cocoa farmers in Liberia has improved. Game-changing efforts by the government have increased competition among cocoa buyers and led to higher producer prices. Farmers are also encouraged by new investors to improve the quality of cocoa, for which they earn more. In addition, famers organisations have strengthened their bargaining power. However, policy-makers must be alert to a possible backlash if competion is not ensured, and from elite capture of farmers’ organisations.

  • 29.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Cocoa in post-conflict Liberia: the role of institutions for the development of inclusive agricultural markets2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liberia has a long history of non-inclusive development with dire consequences for its population, in terms of poverty and conflict. This research explores recent trends in the post-war Liberian cocoa market that suggest a possible break with the past. Structural changes in the cocoa market are found to have strengthened the bargaining power of smallholder farmers and increased their market participation on increasingly beneficial terms in a number of ways – such as a larger share of the world-market price and better access to inputs and services. The cocoa market has become more inclusive. The research explains how a series of institutional changes – changes in the formal and informal rules of the game – have contributed to this process and suggests why. It identifies four major causal mechanisms that help us better understand the role that institutions can play in making agricultural markets more inclusive – in Liberia and beyond.

  • 30.
    Fold, Niels
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Nylandsted Larsen, Marianne
    Globalization and restructuring of African commodity flows2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    African countries have been incorporated into present processes of economic globalization in a more nuanced way than is usually claimed. Obviously, structural changes and economic growth have not been on the scale seen in other developing country regions, Southeast Asia in particular. However, the increasing global interaction between functionally integrated foci of production and services has also affected Africa in ways that are changing the material foundations of economic and social life on the continent. These processes are not uniform throughout Africa, but affect local, national and regional actors and institutions in diverse and complex ways. In short, globalization in Africa is an uneven process, integrating or re-integrating some localities and communities in global flows of goods, finance and information, while marginalizing or excluding others.

    The aim of this book is to grasp the diversity of these globalization processes in a systematic way by adopting a common analytical framework, the Global Value Chain approach. Commodity-specific data in two or more countries are taken as a point of departure and the variations and similarities in linkages between local, national, regional and global chain segments are examined. The book is based on original quantitative and qualitative data, collected during fieldwork by the authors.

  • 31.
    Gaidzanwa, Rudo B.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Voting with their feet: migrant Zimbabwean nurses and doctors in the era of structural adjustment1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report examines the ways in which medical professionals have responded to the changing environment of work and livelihood in Zimbabwe since the adoption of a structural adjustment programme. Of particular interest are those doctors and nurses who took a decision to migrate from Zimbabwe to Botswana and South Africa in search of "greener" pastures.

  • 32.
    Gao, Xuan
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The proliferation of anti-dumping and poor governance in emerging economies: case studies of China and South Africa2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through examination of the alleged rationale of the anti-dumping (AD) instrument, this paper argues that it has little to do with fairness or with level playing fields. AD trade protection enjoys broad political support merely because its convoluted technical complexities prevent all but a few insiders and experts from understanding the reality that underlies the rhetoric, thus enabling inefficient but well-organised domestic producers to safely utilise the instrument to protect themselves from foreign competition, at times in collusion with foreign exporters and with the national AD authorities as a broker. While the best option for AD reform, i.e., complete removal, is not practically available, this paper proposes improving AD’s procedural institutions by enhancing the quality of public governance in the formulation of AD decisions by national authorities. It further examines the AD practices and laws of China and South Africa, arguing that poor governance in emerging economies contributes to their prolific use of AD, usually disproportionate to their small share of world imports. These economies already maintain higher tariff barriers than industrial countries, so that without effective steps to ensure better governance to restrain the arbitrary and proliferating use of AD, they may lose out significantly on the gains from the trade liberalisation for which they have been striving for decades.

    CONTENTS

    Foreword

    1. Introduction

    2. Anti-dumping: Rhetoric vs. Reality

    2.1 The Rehtoric of AD: To Ensure Level Playing Fields by Offsetting Unfair Competition

    2.1.1 The Economic Rationale of Free Trade and Competition

    2.1.2 AD: A Competition-Distorting and Protectionist Instrument

    2.2 AD: Misundertanding, Ignorance and Indifference

    2.2.1 Collaboration between Special Interest Groups and Decision Makers

    3. Harnessing Anti-Dumping: A Good Governance Approach

    3.1 Good Governance in AD Decision Making

    3.2 The Prolific Use of AD by Emerging Economies and the Low Quality of Governance

    3.2.1 AD Desicion Making in China

    3.2.2 AD Decision Formulation in South Africa

    4. Conclusions

    References

     

     

  • 33.
    Ghai, Yash P.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Law in the political economy of public enterprise: African perspectives1977Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gibbon, Peter
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Structural Adjustment and the Working Poor in Zimbabwe1995Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Gibbon, Peter
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Social change and economic reform in Africa1993Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The African-based authors of this volume provide a series of objective, detailed, factually up-to-date, and theoretically informed studies of reent developments in agriculture, the informal sector, the social sector and 'civil society' in Kenya, Lesotho, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. They analyse the main trends and forces operating in these fields and consider the economic reform programme's impact against this background.

  • 36.
    Gibbon, Peter
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Liberalised development in Tanzania: studies on accumulation processes and local institutions1995Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Gibbon, Peter
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Markets, civil society and democracy in Kenya1995Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The studies in this volume provide extended empirical analysis of some of the issues at the heart of current social and political changes and divisions: the outcome on the ground of the long fought-over cereals reforms, the changing nature of the local development arena in the multi-party era, and the polarised relation of the churches to political liberalisation.

  • 38.
    Gibbon, Peter
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Olukoshi, Adebayo O.
    Structural adjustment and socio-economic change in Sub-Saharan Africa: some conceptual, methodological and research issues1996Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The African-based authors of this volume provide a series of objective, detailed, factually up-to-date, and theoretically informed studies of reent developments in agriculture, the informal sector, the social sector and 'civil society' in Kenya, Lesotho, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. They analyse the main trends and forces operating in these fields and consider the economic reform programme's impact against this background.

  • 39.
    Goodison, Paul
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Situating the EPA negotiations: Issues and unresolved debates in Africa-EU trade relations2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time it has been necessary to move beyond sterile debates for or against Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The real issue is: what kind of EPAs will support African governments in their efforts to promote the structural transformation of their economies, so that they can move beyond the production of simple and unprocessed products to the production of a range of higher value products, for national, regional and international markets, and in the process help them tackle poverty and employment issues. This paper seeks to situate the ongoing EPA negotiations and debate around contentious issues in the context of the wider European Union (EU) trade policy and African aspirations for sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  • 40.
    Goodison, Paul
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The impact of common agricultural policy (CAP) reform on Africa-EU trade in food and agricultural products2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to look at certain fundamental features of the EU food and agricultural sector adjustment process as it manifests itself through the reform of the CAP. It highlights the shift in policy tools, from price support for agricultural products to income support for EU farmers and the shift in policy emphasis from the quantity of agricultural products to the quality of food and agriculturalproducts. It reviews the implications of this policy shift for the EU’s diminishing tolerance of the use of trade policy tools as part of agricultural development policies in third countries. It highlights in passing the implications of these developments for the African food and agriculturalsectors, before drawing out some broad conclusions and recommendations.

  • 41.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Tanzania: the limits to development from above1993Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The people of Tanzania have been subjected to a development from above, often implemented by force by the colonial and post-colonial state and advocated by external donor agencies, the IMF and the World Bank. This has resulted in a state-dominated, externally dependent and undemocratic society. This book aims at documenting peasant's response to state intervention, built on a case study of Rufiji district in Tanzania.

  • 42.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: conditionality, impact and alternatives1987Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Sub-Saharan African countries have, during the 1980s, implemented a program of structural adjustment in conjunction with the IMF and the World Bank. These international institutions have thus had a decisive role in the formulation of economic policies in these countries.

    In early 1987, a conference on the "IMF and the World Bank in Africa" was arranged by the Scandinavian Institute of African Studies in Uppsala. In the conference the character of the conditionality requirements attached to these programs were investigated by a group of international experts and their impacts were analysed on a macro-level and through specific studies of Nigeria, the Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, South Africa, the Ivory Coast and India for comparative purposes. The conference also aimed at suggesting alternative and improved conditionality in the African context.

  • 43.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Bryceson, Deborah
    Birgegård, Lars-Erik
    Matondi, Prosper
    Beyene, Atakilte
    African Agriculture and The World Bank: Development or Impoverishment?2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    African smallholder family farming, the backbone of the continental economy throughout the colonial and early post-colonial period, has been destabilized and eroded over the past thirty years. Despite the World Bank’s poverty alleviation concerns, agrarian livelihoods continue to unravel under the impact of economic liberalization and global value chains. Can African smallholders bounce back and compete? The World Development Report 2008 argues they can and must. How realistic is this given the history of World Bank conditionality in Africa? This essay explores the productivity and welfare concerns of Africa’s smallholder farming population in the shadow of the World Bank.

  • 44.
    Hellsten, Sirkku K.
    University of Dar es Salaam.
    Africa humanism in re-conceptualization of global development: bringing ethics back to governance2013In: Zanzibar Yearbook of Law, Vol. 3, 3-24 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45. Hermele, Kenneth
    et al.
    Odén, Bertil
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Sanction dilemmas: some implications of economic sanctions against South Africa1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses some of the arguments in the debate on economic sanctions against South Africa and why this debate at times is confused. Taking its point of departure in recent literature on sanctions, it elaborates some of the main issues: The example of Rhodesia, sanctions and the structural weaknesses of the South African economy, repercussions on the front line states, and effects of  "disinvestment" by the transnational companies.

  • 46.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    HIV and Income Inequality: If there is a link, what does it tell us?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a striking variation in the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among countries and regions of the world, with a distinct geographical pattern. This paper explores the link between income inequality and HIV. It presents empirical evidence—a meta-study and additional cross-country regression results—that clearly support the argument that such a link exists. The interpretation of this link is an open issue. Four different hypotheses are discussed, each one pointing out a transit route from income inequality to HIV. The paper presents preliminary evidence on these routes and identifies potential areas for future research.

  • 47.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Fertility impact of social transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa - What about pensions2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential link between child-related cash transfers and increased fertility is often raised asan issue of concern when debating their use. Old-age pension is a form of cash transfer wheretheory would suggest the opposite impact, i.e. pensions equal decreasing fertility. A handful ofSub-Saharan African countries have introduced non-contributory social pensions that cover thegreat majority of the older population. It makes them into a distinct group in relation to the rest ofthe region where public old-age security arrangements, if existing at all, are largely reserved forthe formal sector. This paper attempts to trace any impact these high-coverage pensionschemes may have had on fertility. Findings suggest that there has been such an impact, in therange of 0,5 to 1,5 children less per woman depending on model specification.

  • 48.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Impact of the Financial crisis on Africa: The unpredictable flows: remittances and aid2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forecast of economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa have repeatedly been revised downwards over the last 6 months. It has now reached 2% which is close to a third of what it was a year ago, implying negative growth in per capita terms. Considerable uncertainties remain in these forecasts. Oil- and mineral exporters are likely to take a severe first hit, as collapsing commodity prices translate to reduced export revenues and foreign direct investments are paralyzed. Two additional flows that connect Africa to the global economy, where impact is harder to predict, are aid and remittances. This note explores how these flows have reacted in OECD countries during previous episodes of severe financial crises. It is shown that if these past episodes serve as a guide to the present, then a considerable reduction is to be expected. Remittances would react immediately, while the impact on aid would be lagged but being more prolonged. Given that projection, the critical need for more of accountability in international aid commitments is discussed.

  • 49.
    Horm, Peeter
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Westman, Bo
    Zambia1972Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Hårsmar, Mats
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Why is agriculture so important to reducing poverty?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few years, there has been both talk about and action regarding the long-term neglect of agriculture in development. An agricultural revival has occurred, with African governments committing themselves to spending at least 10 per cent of their budgets on agriculture. Donors such as the World Bank and many bilateral organizations are refocusing on the sector. This is partly due to the prevalence of rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa as well as in South Asia. Despite this, the debate on the appropriate role of agriculture in economic growth lingers on among academics and policymakers. In particular, agriculture’s contribution to broader economic growth is questioned. Should growth be driven by agriculture or by something else? Recent empirical studies and earlier theoretical work demonstrate that growth in the agricultural sector has contributed more to poverty reduction than growth in non-agricultural sectors. This paper discusses this issue and highlights some of the preconditions for the achievement of this outcome.

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