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  • 1.
    Mususa, Patience
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, CristinaThe Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Africa's urban future: conference report, Helsinki 12 May 20172017Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Navarra, Cecilia
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Debt, aid and poverty in Mozambique: lessons learned from the Mozambican debt crisis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In opaque and unregulated financial markets, there can be strong incentives for banks to provide loans even when the appropriate guaranties or assessments are lacking. This is part of the Mozambican debt story, according to NAI researchers Navarra and Rodrigues. In this case, the consequences are most likely to be borne by Mozambican people, strongly affecting their living conditions.

  • 3.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Angola Since the Civil War: Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, Magnificent and Beggar Land: Angola Since the Civil War2017In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1112-1114Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Changes to Urban Society in Angola: From Limited to Multi-Criteria Stratification2017In: African Studies Review, ISSN 0002-0206, E-ISSN 1555-2462, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the transformations to urban social stratification inAngola during the last decades. The analysis is centered on the indicators of socialdifference throughout these years: the racial criteria of the colonial times; the politicalprecedence in the first years after independence; and the multi-criteria of thepostwar period. Based on research conducted before and after the end of the civilwar in 2002, the article explores the construction and reconfiguration of urban societytoday, providing evidence of increased social mobility—despite the poverty anddeeper inequalities—and of the importance of economic and residential criteria.

  • 5.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Climate change and DIY urbanism in Luanda and Maputo: new urban strategies?2019In: International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, ISSN 1946-3138, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-related phenomena historically have had an impact on the lives of urbandwellers of Luanda and Maputo. Recently, however, urban expansion and congestionof different sorts, aggravated by climate change impacts, call for renewedresponses on the part of residents. Rising sea levels and harder impacts of floodingare the most disturbing issues in the two coastal capitals, demanding both institutionalresponses and strategies of urban residents, particularly the most vulnerable.Based on qualitative data collected in Luanda and Maputo, this article describes howurban residents aim to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change and bydoing so, shape the cities they live in and their environment.

  • 6.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Configuring the living environment in mining areas in Angola: contestations between mining companies, workers, local communities and the state2017In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 727-734Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Emergent Urbanism in Angola and Mozambique: Management of the Unknown2020In: Routledge Handbook of Urban Planning in Africa1st EditionEdited by Routledge / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, London/New York: Routledge, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impressive urbanisation and the growth of cities – and migration and mobility related to this trend – are important concerns today. While major cities increasingly concentrate economic growth, global networks and relations, they also capture and absorb significantly the efforts for urban management and governance. Evidence of this fact can be seen in the recently issued Sustainable Development Goals or Habitat III's New Urban Agenda. At the same time though, emergent towns and cities – which attract urban and rural populations to new opportunities – are potentially transforming themselves into new forms of urbanism that are not always clearly addressed by standard urban management and policy. This chapter contributes to identifying and discussing the features of these trends in African contexts, particularly in settings affected by rapid transformations, such as those of Angola and Mozambique. More specifically, it discusses the importance of emergent towns for urban policy and management, describing some types of new towns that are increasingly prevalent. Based on field research, the chapter highlights the main features of the urban transformation in such towns, referring to important dimensions to better understand these realities: state and urban dwellers' investments and the consolidation of urban type of living.

  • 8.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Emergent urbanism in Angola and Mozambique: management of the unknown2019In: Routledge Handbook of Urban Planning in Africa / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, London and New York: Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Migração, Movimento e Urbanização em Angola e Moçambique2018In: Desafios para Moçambique 2018 / [ed] Salvador Forquilha, Maputo: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Económicos , 2018, p. 449-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Nationalisms in Lusophone Africa2016In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 793-795Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    No walk in the park: Transboundary cooperation in the Angolan war-torn Okavango2017In: Environmental Practice, ISSN 1466-0466, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango region is currently part of a transboundary project extending to three neighboringcountries—Angola, Namibia, and Botswana. This article discusses the unequal trajectory and presentconditions for such cross-border cooperation, with a particular focus on Angola. Angola’s disadvantageousposition is above all due to the lasting effects of war that adversely hindered the developmentof structures and resources to engage in such joint programs. The central argument is that theinequalities pose particular challenges to the country to accompany the pace of the neighboringcountries. The article looks at the fragilities focusing on institutional resources, Angolan policy background,existing dedicated institutions, and human resources, as they are major concerns for post-warreconstruction. On the other hand, it poses questions regarding resilience effects on local levellivelihoods and on the future environmental management of the Okavango. This article is based ona literature and documental review and on data from fieldwork where local communities have to relymore heavily on the available natural resources in absence of others.

  • 12.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Organization and Representation of Informal Workers in São Tomé and Príncipe: State Agency and Sectoral Informal Alternatives2017In: African Studies Quarterly: The Online Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1093-2658, ISSN 2152-2448, no 2, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In São Tomé and Príncipe, both the size of the informal economy and the scope of the mechanisms of organization and representation are little known. A research conducted recently showed that the almost always limited and irregular incomes generated in this sector are also associated with precarity and a lack of social protection mechanisms. While initiatives led by the state and supported by international funders positioned unions as privileged organizations for representing and supporting the workers in this sector, the limited results generated opportunities for the creation of sectoral bottom-up initiatives. The discussion is then focused on the areas addressed by the initiatives of specific sectors and types of activity – taxi and motorbike drivers and money exchangers – comparing the outcomes with those of the unions in terms of increased social protection and representation.   

  • 13.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Precarity in Angolan diamond mining towns, 1920–2014: tracing agency of the state, mining companies and urban households2018In: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 113-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After nearly 30 years of civil war, Angola gained peace in 2002. The country’s diamond and oil wealth affords the national government the means to pursue economic reconstruction and urban development. However, in the diamond-producing region of Lunda Sul, where intense fighting between MPLA and UNITA forces was waged, the legacy of war lingers on in the form of livelihood uncertainty and uneven access to the benefits of the state’s urban development programmes. There are three main interactive agents of urban change: the Angolan state, the mining corporations, and not least urban residents. The period has been one of shifting alignments of responsibility for urban housing, livelihoods and welfare provisioning. Beyond the pressures of post-war adjustment, the wider context of global capital investment and labour market restructuring has introduced a new surge of corporate mining investment and differentiated patterns of prosperity and precarity in Lunda Sul.

  • 14.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Private condominiums in Luanda: more than just the safety of walls, a new way of living2018In: Social Dynamics, ISSN 0253-3952, E-ISSN 1940-7874, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 341-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its independence in 1975, Angola’s capital Luanda has beengoing through deep processes of demographic, economic, socialand physical transformations. In this article, apart from introducing the case study of private condominiums in the general discussion on urban studies in the Global South, we focus on the dynamics of transformations regarding housing for the mid/upper strata, providing the background for the emergence and recent expansion ofgated communities/condominiums, a phenomenon that has acquired major importance in the recent decades in Luanda. The specialised literature relates the demand for and multiplication of these residential structures in Africa with issues such as the search for safety associated with demonstrations of exclusive lifestyles. In the case of Luanda, the authors found––through a case study and qualitative data collected among residents and non-residents of condominiums––that, contrary to the results from other studies, condominiums in Luanda are essentially sought after primarily for functional reasons such as access to infrastructure and better living.

  • 15.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Renovações da Polícia em Angola: cooperação e formação internacional2017In: Politeia : Revista do Instituto Superior de Ciências Policiais e Segurança Interna, ISSN 1640-0367, Vol. X-XII, p. 87-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The training of Angolan police officers under various international cooperation programs contributes to the construction of an original policing model in the country. The end of the war, the creation of training facilities in the country and the development of public policies favourable to the development of the national police lead to the renewal of the sector based on a model in a way hybrid as a result of various influences progressively built over the years. This article analyses these changes based on data collected in Angola as part of a wider research about the context of international cooperation in the area of training ofpolice officers.

  • 16.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Strategies of Urban Inclusion in the Imagined Modern Luanda2016In: Governing Urban Africa / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, p. 191-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luanda, the capital of Angola, has recently been subjected to extraordinary changes, supported by increased wealth and investments associated with the end of the war. The ideas of modernity that clearly stand out are deeply rooted in the city’s configuration and reconfiguration over the years. They inform not only the modernising perspectives and philosophy of policymakers and investors but also those of the urban dwellers. Often, however, the imagined modernity and its benefits do not match the lived realities. This chapter makes reference to the evolution of the city, emphasising the differences between main periods and identifying the underlining strategies in terms of inclusions and exclusions. The conclusions presented, based on empirical and documentary research, point to shifting strategies of urban inclusion and changing categories of the excluded.

  • 17.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The Kwanhama partitioned by the border and the Angolan perspective of cross-border identity2017In: African Studies, ISSN 0002-0184, E-ISSN 1469-2872, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 423-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kwanhama, whose ancient kingdom occupies a vast area in Angola and in Namibia, are one of the African cases of people partitioned by the establishment of colonial borders. This division, along with the profound transformations of the last decades in the region – war, displacement and conditioned circulation – shaped the way a common identity has acquired different features in both countries. In the (under-researched) Angolan side, cross-border identity has progressively concentrated on the idea of a split between the two countries, as the Kwanhama king, Mandume, is believed to be buried on both sides of the border; and at the same time on the notion of a common belonging across the border. Based on data collected through fieldwork interviews in the Cunene province in Angola, this article adds to the discussion of the apparently ambiguous ideas of partitioned and shared notions of belonging.

  • 18.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The Portuguesinhos: Experiences of Return and Reintegration of Angolan Police Commissioned Officers Who Studied in Portugal2016In: Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective, ISSN 1930-3009, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-98, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses individual pathways of Angolan commissioned officers educated in Portugal, focusing specifically on their return to their country of origin and on the features of their reintegration into professional life. It aims at contributing to the discussion of mobility and migration, discussing issues of qualification and circulation of ‘brains’ between developed and developing countries. The analysis is based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained by conducting field research. It calls for the elaboration of strategies to deal simultaneously with the individual, the organisational and the societal conditions and consequently provides an important viewpoint of the processes of transformation of the Angolan society and institutions.

  • 19.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Urban Modernity versus the Blood Diamond Legacy: Angola’s Urban Mining Settlements in the Aftermath of War2017In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1215-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most of the latter half of the 20th century, war carved the contours of settlement and mining activity in Angola. The aim of this article is twofold: first, to contrast migrant andurban livelihoods during the war, distinguishing between artisanal guerrilla diamond-diggingsettlements and the refuge ‘government cities’, and, secondly, to compare recent patternsof migration, livelihoods, mineral production and aspirations among urban residents. This article focuses on four urban settlements in the Lundas’ diamond-producing provinces, tracing wartime diamond growth in boom towns and cantonment in government cities. Post-war urban regeneration is characterised by investment in formal planned cities, and constraints on the informal mining boom towns and their garimpo artisanal miners. Questions are posed regarding these settlements’ population movements, livelihoods, residents’ conceptions of urban life and their quest for modernity. Amidst the multiplicity of wartime legacies and the envisaged reconstruction, renewed perceptions of urban life are increasingly focused on non-mining livelihoods.

  • 20.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Urban Dynamics.
    Frias, Sónia
    University of Lisbon.
    Between the City Lights and the Shade of Exclusion: Post-war accelerated urban transformation of Luanda, Angola2015In: Urban Forum, ISSN 1015-3802, E-ISSN 1874-6330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With nearly five centuries of history and major war-related impacts in the second half of the twentieth century, Luanda has recently been subject to outstanding changes that make the capital of Angola an important urban case study for Africa. Today, the city is not only an evident materialization of the oil wealth being channelled into reconstruction after decades of civil war, but also reflects and translates the diverse perspectives of its residents and policy makers regarding the city and urban life. As it is reconfigured, it also transforms the mentalities and daily lives of urban dwellers and policy stakeholders, reinforcing the idea of improvement and modernity. In order to better understand the processes of physical and social change that have taken place within the city and the intertwined logics, this article makes reference to three distinct key stages of its history, pointing out their main features and the transformations that have occurred: the colonial period of sociospatial dualization (1576-1974), the period between independence and the last peace agreement (1975-2002) of profound and extensive urban mixture, and the post-war period (2002-present) marked by accelerated sociospatial reconfigurations. More specifically, it analyses the very recent urban phenomena, the urban plans and new urban features, discussing the correlations between physical transformations and the rationalities and perspectives that accompany them, both of the urban planners and of the urban dwellers, discussing the implications in terms of new inclusions and exclusions in the city.

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