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  • 1.
    Abraham, Fofana
    et al.
    University of Liberia, Liberia.
    Persson, Henrik
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Yesterday warlord, today presidential candidate: ex-military leaders running for office in post-civil war societies2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In many African countries where civil war raged not so long ago, former warlords are today running for office in elections. This policy note assesses the effect that these warlord democrats have on democratisation and security.

  • 2.
    Manning, Carrie
    et al.
    Georgia State University in Atlanta, Department of Political Science.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Discourses of peace and fear: the electoral navigations of Sekouh Conneh and Prince Johnson in post-war Liberia2017Inngår i: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2017, s. 95-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Swain, Ashok
    et al.
    ppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala universitet, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Zambezi River Basin: A Risk Zone of Climate Change and Vulnerability2012Inngår i: New Routes, ISSN 1403-3755, E-ISSN 2000-8082, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 17-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Themner, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Former mid-level commanders in Big Man networks2012Inngår i: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Mats Utas, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2012, s. 205-223Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A Disempowering Peace: Explaining why Ex-Combatants Re-engage in Organised Violence2012Inngår i: From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Its Resolution in Africa after the Cold War / [ed] Thomas Ohlson, Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    A Leap of Faith: When and How Ex-Combatants Resort to Violence2013Inngår i: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 295-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has given scant attention to the issue of how and when ex-combatants resort to organized violence. This article fills this research gap by comparing ex-fighters in the Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. It holds that ex-combatant violence is the result of interaction between entrepreneurs of violence, military affinities, intermediaries, and selective incentives. Ex-combatants take to arms when they have access to entrepreneurs of violence. By offering selective incentives and utilizing existing military affinities, entrepreneurs can generate the enticements and trust needed to convince ex-combatants to resort to arms. However, as entrepreneurs have limited contact with ex-fighters, they are dependent on intermediaries to do the actual recruiting for them. Contrary to previous assumptions, this article finds that ex-fighters are largely risk-averse individuals and that ex-combatant violence is seldom triggered by the mere presence of small arms, lack of economic opportunities, or experiences of insecurity.

  • 7.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Commanding abuse or abusing command?: Ex-command structures and drugs in Liberia2018Inngår i: Third World Thematics : A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 46-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Conclusion : Ambiguous Peacelords: the Diminishing Returns of Democracy2017Inngår i: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2017, s. 222-245Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Demilitarisering och säkerhets­sektorreform2012Inngår i: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2012, s. 257-272Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Demobilisering och säkerhetsreform2012Inngår i: Om krig och fred: En introduktion tilld freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Demobilisering och säkerhetsreform2017Inngår i: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2017, 2 uppl.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Former Military Networks and the Micro-Politics of Violence and Statebuilding in Liberia2015Inngår i: Comparative politics, ISSN 0010-4159, E-ISSN 2151-6227, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 334-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have highlighted the inability of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs to dismantle command structures in the aftermath of civil war. The effect that lingering military networks have on peace, however, is ambiguous. Therefore, a key question—which has so far been unanswered—is why some ex-military networks are remobilized for violent purposes while others are used for more productive ones, such as income-generating activities. In this article, I seek to address this question by comparing two former mid-level commanders (ex-MiLCs) in Liberia and the networks that they control. Based on this comparison I argue that it is ex-MiLCs who are shunned by governing elites as peacetime brokers of patronage—distributing economic resources to ex-fighters—that are most likely to remobilize their ex-combatant networks.

  • 13.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Intermediaries of peace or agents of war: the role of ex-midlevel commanders in Big Man networks2012Inngår i: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Mats Utas, London: Zed Books, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Introduction: warlord democrats : wartime investments, democratic returns?2017Inngår i: Warlord democrats in Africa: ex-military leaders and electoral politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2017, s. 1-40Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilizers and Relationships2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Violence in post-conflict societies: remarginalization, remobilizers and relationships2014 (oppl. 2nd ed.)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Warlord democrats in Africa: ex-military leaders and electoral politics2017Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-war democratization has been identified as a crucial mechanism to build peace in war-ridden societies, supposedly allowing belligerents to compete through ballots rather than bullets. A byproduct of this process, however, is that military leaders often become an integral part of the new democratic system, using resources and networks generated from the previous war to dominate the emerging political landscape.

    The crucial and thus-far overlooked question to be addressed, therefore, is what effect the inclusion of ex-militaries into electoral politics has on post-war security. Can 'warlord democrats' make a positive contribution by shepherding their wartime constituencies to support the building of peace and democracy, or are they likely to use their electoral platforms to sponsor political violence and keep war-affected communities mobilized through aggressive discourses?

    This important volume, containing a wealth of fresh empirical detail and theoretical insight, and focussing on some of Africa's most high-profile political figures – from Paul Kagame to Riek Machar to Afonso Dhlakama – represents a crucial intervention in the literature of post-war democratization.

  • 18.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Conflict, peace and security2015Inngår i: The Future of Swedish Research!: Overview 2014 : Development Research, Stockholm: Swedish Research Council , 2015, s. 12-21Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Research on Conflict, Peace, and Security: [Draft 140523]2015Inngår i: Forskningens framtid!: ämnesöversikt 2014 : humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Stockholm: Swedish Research Council , 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Ohlson, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Legitimate Peace in Post-Civil War States: Towards Attaining the Unattainable2014Inngår i: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 61-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, Uppsala universitet.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, Uppsala universitet.
    Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflicts in Southern Africa2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify regions in the Zambezi River Basin in Southern Africa that are prone to risk of violent conflicts (collective violence, popular unrest) induced by climatic changes/variability. The Zambezi River is 575 kilometres long and the basin covers eight countries: Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, Botswana, Mozambique and Namibia. Besides the ecological impact, the study argues that socio-economic and political problems are disproportionately multiplied by climate change/variability. Climate change/variability amplifies stresses on the socio-political fabric because it affects the governance of resources, and hence, is linked to the weakened mitigation and adaptation capacity of societies, that are already facing economic challenges (rising food prices, etc.). Society becomes highly vulnerable to climate induced conflicts when it suffers from poor central leadership, weak institutions and polarized social identities. Taking all these factors into consideration, this study identifies Bulawayo/Matableleland-North in Zimbabwe and the Zambezia Province in Mozambique as the most likely regions to experience climate induced conflicts in the near future. The reasons for arriving at this conclusion are: a) Climate change/variability will have a significant impact on these two regions; due to increasing water scarcity in Bulawayo/Matabeleland-North; and intensified flooding, sea-level rise, and costal erosion in the Zambezia Province. b) Due to climate change/variability, agricultural production in these two regions will become highly volatile, leading to severe food insecurity. c) Both regions are suffering from low quality political governance, having unscrupulous elites, weak institutions, and polarized social identities.

  • 22.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Utas, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Governance through Brokerage: Informal Governance in Post-Civil War Societies2016Inngår i: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 255-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a lack of knowledge about how elites rule post-civil war societies without strong state institutions. This paper argues that elites oftentimes overcome such institutional deficiencies by engaging in governance through brokerage. According to this perspective, elites outsource central state functions to influential broker figures. This is particularly true when dealing with war-affected groups that possess much violent agency. By functioning as social membranes, brokers can help elites and war-affected groups to redefine a new social contract. Liberia is employed as an example to illustrate the paper’s central arguments.

  • 23.
    Utas, Mats
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Commanders for good and bad: alternative post-war reconstruction and ex-commanders in Liberia2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the general conviction, collaboration with ex-commanders and their informal networks can actually promote postwar stability. When former generals are integrated into the post-conflict societal structure as brokers of socioeconomic service and mediators between governing elites and former combatants, they can help to provide security and stability. In the case of Liberia their direct access to ex-combatants makes them suitable for distributing jobs, money, food, scholarships and other resources.

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