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  • 1.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Cocoa in post-conflict Liberia: the role of institutions for the development of inclusive agricultural markets2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liberia has a long history of non-inclusive development with dire consequences for its population, in terms of poverty and conflict. This research explores recent trends in the post-war Liberian cocoa market that suggest a possible break with the past. Structural changes in the cocoa market are found to have strengthened the bargaining power of smallholder farmers and increased their market participation on increasingly beneficial terms in a number of ways – such as a larger share of the world-market price and better access to inputs and services. The cocoa market has become more inclusive. The research explains how a series of institutional changes – changes in the formal and informal rules of the game – have contributed to this process and suggests why. It identifies four major causal mechanisms that help us better understand the role that institutions can play in making agricultural markets more inclusive – in Liberia and beyond.

  • 2.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Liberia: Would Reconstruction Zones Work?2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reformed cocoa market benefits Liberian farmers: but watch out for new forms of market power and elite capture2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment for smallholder cocoa farmers in Liberia has improved. Game-changing efforts by the government have increased competition among cocoa buyers and led to higher producer prices. Farmers are also encouraged by new investors to improve the quality of cocoa, for which they earn more. In addition, famers organisations have strengthened their bargaining power. However, policy-makers must be alert to a possible backlash if competion is not ensured, and from elite capture of farmers’ organisations.

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