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  • 1.
    Åkesson, Lisa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, African International Links.
    Making migrants responsible for development: Cape Verdean returnees and Northern migration policies2011Inngår i: Africa Spectrum, ISSN 0002-0397, E-ISSN 1868-6869, Vol. 41, nr 1, 61-83 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a surge of “Northern” policy documents concerned with increasing the positive effects of international migration in countries of origin. This article contrasts some basic assumptions in policies on migration, return and development with an anthropological study of Cape Verdean returnees, and it reveals some important disparities between the returnees’ experiences and the ideas underpinning policy documents. The article analyses the role returnees’ savings and skills play in local change in Cape Verde, and in particular it looks into entrepreneurial activities. This is related to a discussion of the conditions that must be fulfilled in order to make it possible for return migrants to contribute to positive social change. In conclusion, the article shows that structural conditions have a fundamental impact on individual migrants’ abilities to support development, a perspective often left out of contemporary policies.

  • 2.
    Åkesson, Lisa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, African International Links.
    The queue outside the embassy: Remittances, inequality and restrictive migration regimes2013Inngår i: International Migration, Vol. 51, nr 3, e1-e12 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article juxtaposes theoretical notions concerning the relationship between migrant remittances and socio-economic inequality with an anthropological case study of remittances in Cape Verde. Contemporary theorizing involves, firstly, the idea that remittances do not benefit the poorest; secondly, the conclusion that the impact of remittances changes over time; thirdly, the notion that family structure influences the distribution of remittances; and fourthly the proposition that remittances have a stronger impact on social stratification when linked to the return of a migrant. The primary aim of the article is to use these theoretical notions as entry-points for analysing how remittances interplay with patterns of inequality in Cape Verde. A second aim is to examine the explanatory power of the theories through applying them to this specific case. The article demonstrates that remittances in some cases benefit the poorest in Cape Verde and that this has to do with the long history of migration, which means that nearly everyone, irrespective of class, has a close relative abroad. It also shows that Cape Verdeans generally receive quite small amounts of money, which implies that they are seldom able to improve their economic situation in a more substantial way.In conclusion, the article contends that in order to fully appreciate the complex relationshipbetween remittances and socio-economic inequality it is necessary to take into account theimportance of other sources of income. Moreover, it argues that the contemporary restrictiveimmigration regimes in receiving countries have a fundamental impact on the socio-economic distribution of remittances. In studies of the relationship between remittances and inequality, this is an aspect that has been left out. Instead, theorizing tends to focus on factors that are internal to the countries of origin, and on the migrants’ links to these countries.

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