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  • 1.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Changing rituals and reinventing tradition: The burnt Viking ship at Myklebostad, Western Norway2015Inngår i: Changing rituals and ritual changes: Function and Meaning in Ancient Funerary Practices / [ed] Brandt, J. R., Ingvaldsen, H. & Prusac, M., Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015, 359-377 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cosmogony2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion: Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 76-88 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogony as a term is derived from the two Greek words kosmos and genesis. Kosmos refers to the order of the universe and/or the universe as the order, whereas genesis refers to the process of coming into being (Long 1993: 94). Thus, cosmogony has to do with founding myths and the origin and the creation of the gods and cosmos and how the world came into existence. There are schematically several different types of cosmogenic myths classified according to their symbolic structure: (1) creation from nothing, (2) creation from chaos, (3) creation from a cosmic egg, (4) creation from world parents, (5) creation through a process of emergence, and (6) creation through the agency of an earth diver. Several of these motifs and typological forms may be present in a given cosmogenic myth-system, and these types are not mutually exclusive but may rather be used in parallel in creation ororigin myths (Long 1993: 94). There are cosmogenic myths in all religions. In the Hebrew myth, there is creation from nothing: ‘And God said. “Let there be light”; and there was light’ (Gen. 1: 3). Importantly, in transcendental religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam the omnipotent god exists totally independent of its own creation (Trigger 2003: 473), but still there are cosmogenic myths. Usually, however, cosmogony refers to a divine structuring principle where cosmos and the world are not independent of its original creation, but dependent upon the outcome of the ritual relation between humans and deities for its future existence, and such religions are traditionally called cosmogenic, putting the emphasis on human rituals. Thus, there are differences between cosmogenic and transcendental religions with regards to structures of beliefs and practices. A cosmogenic religion links humans’ rituals in the present with the divine glory in the past and cosmic stability and prosperity in the future. Hence, a cosmogenic religion enables and prescribes particular types of ritualpractices which are archaeologically manifest in the material culture, and all the early civilizations have been cosmogenic (Trigger 2003: 444–5) together with the majority of prehistoric religions. Although cosmogony had been an analytical term before Mircea Eliade developed these perspectives, his writings in the 1950s (e.g. Eliade 1954, 1959a [1987]) have strongly influenced researchers’ views of peoples’ beliefs of the world and universe in early civilizations (Trigger 2003: 445). Cosmogony as a religious framework for understanding the world and the universe necessitates specific types of interactions and rituals with the divinities. Hence, due to the strong influence of Eliade’s work on cosmogony as a principleand process, this article will focus on (1) his premises and analyses, (2) criticism and development of cosmogony as a concept, and (3) how it is possible to analyse cosmogenic rituals and religious practices as manifest in the archaeological record. This will include:(a) rituals, with particular emphasis on death and sacrifices in the Aztec civilization; and(b) monuments, with particular emphasis on the pyramids in the ancient Egyptian civilization, since these are processes and places where the dual interaction between humans and divinities took place, which recreated cosmos against the threat of chaos. Together, these case studies will illuminate the possibilities of a cosmogenic perspective in the archaeology of ritual and religion despite the difficulties with Eliade’s structural universalism.

  • 3.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremating Corpses: Destroying, defying or Deifying Death?2015Inngår i: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16-17 May 2013 / [ed] Hackwitz, K. v. & Peyroteo-Stjerna, R., Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, 65-83 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cremation as a funeral practice is unique in the sense that throughfire as a medium the dead are actively incorporated into otherspheres and realms. The problem of decaying corpses has beensolved through history in one way or another, irrespective of culture.Although Christianity has seen cremation as destructive andnegative, obliterating death and destroying the corpse, consequentlyhindering resurrection, in other cultures and time periodsthe cremation fire has been a positive and transformative medium.It is through transformation that the deceased is revitalised andgains new life in another existence, and it may even enable divineexistences. Thus, with different comparative cremation practicesin the past and the present, this paper discusses concepts of death.

  • 4.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremations in culture and cosmology2013Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial / [ed] Tarlow, S & Nilsson, L. S, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 497-509 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dammed divinities: the water powers at Bujagali Falls, Uganda2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The damming of Bujagali Falls, located only 8 kilometers north of the historic source of the White Nile or the outlet of Lake Victoria, has been seen as one of the most controversial dams in modern times. In 2012, the dam was eventually inaugurated after years of anti-dam opposition and delays. A unique aspect of the controversies was the river spirit Budhagaali living in the falls blocking the dam and opposing the destruction of the waterfalls. This spirits embodies a particular healer – Jaja Bujagali, but he was bypassed by another healer who conducted no less than three grandiose appeasement and relocation ceremonies for the Budhagaali spirit clearing the way for the dam. Why has this particular dam been so controversial? How can a water spirit block a nearly billion dollar dam? What was the ritual drama behind the construction of the dam and is it possible to move a spirit? And what happened to Budhagaali and the indigenous religion after the falls were flooded and can a river spirit be drowned in its own element – water?

  • 6.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Holy water: the universal and the particular : discussion2014Inngår i: Archaeological Dialogues, ISSN 1380-2038, E-ISSN 1478-2294, Vol. 21, nr 2, 162-165 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux:: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation c. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Inngår i: Ostrakon. Norsk egyptologisk selskaps bulletin., Vol. 3, 23-24 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation ca. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Death and the life-giving waters of the Nile were intimately interwoven in ancient Egyptian religion. The principal objective of this study is to develop a synthetic perspective for enhancing the understanding of the religious roles water had in the rise and constitution of the Egyptian civilisation during the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom. The author employs an archaeological, inter-disciplinary and comparative ‘water perspective’ in which water not only forms the analytical framework, but also provides empirical data that allow for new questions to be addressed. Thus, the Nile itself is used as the primary point of departure to analyse how, why and when religious changes took place, with a particular emphasis on the development of the Osiris cult. Use is made of contemporary written sources, in particular the Pyramid Texts, but also other mortuary texts as well as flood records. The evolution of the Osiris cult is then analysed in relation to the development of the mortuary monuments; the mastabas in the First and the Second Dynasties and the emergence of the pyramids from the Third Dynasty. Hence, by comparing the different funerary monuments and practices with the emergence of the Osiris cult in relation to climatic changes and fluctuations in the Nile’s yearly inundation, Ancient Egyptian religion and the rise of the civilisation is analyzed according to a water perspective. It is noted that the Blue Nile was not blue, but red-brownish during the flood. When the flood started, the White Nile was not white, but green. The author argues that these fundamental characteristics of the Nile water formed the basis for the Osiris mythology. The red floodwaters in particular represented the blood of the slain Osiris.

  • 9.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Ian Kuijt, Colin P. Quinn, and Gabriel Cooney: Transformation by Fire: The Archaeology of Cremation in Cultural Context. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2014. 322 pp. ISBN 978-0-8165-3114-12015Inngår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 48, nr 1, 53-55 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Religion at work in globalised traditions: rainmaking, witchcraft and christianity in Tanzania2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sol- og vannkult i Egypt2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Nature of Archaeology: Beyond the Linguistic Turn: (Comments on discussion article by Brit Solli)2011Inngår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 44, nr 1, 30-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Source of the Blue Nile: Water Rituals and Traditions in the Lake Tana Region2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion / [ed] Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 38-50 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in the archaeology of ritual and religion includes water as a perspective and water as empirical data. The life-giving waters in society and religion are the fresh waters in their many facets in the hydrological cycle. Water is always in a flux. The fluid matter changes qualities and capacities wherever it is, and it always takes new forms. This transformative character of water is forcefully used in ritual practices and religious constructions. Water represents the one and the many at the same time, and the plurality of ritual institutionalizations and religious perceptions puts emphasis on water’s structuring principles and processes in culture and the cosmos. Water is fundamental in many ritual practices and to conceptions of the divinities and cosmos in prehistoric religions, and consequently the study of water in ritual and religion may reveal insights into both what religion is and how devotees perceive themselves, the divine spheres, and their own religious practices and rituals. The pervasive role of water-worlds in society and cosmos unites micro and macro cosmos, creates life, and legitimizes social hierarchies and religious practices and beliefs. Water is a medium which links or changes totally different aspects of humanity and divinities into a coherent unit; it bridges paradoxes, transcends the differenthuman and divine realms, allows interactions with gods, and enables the divinities to interfere with humanity. Water is a medium for everything—it has human character because we are humans; it is a social matter but also a spiritual substance and divine manifestation with immanent powers; and, still, it belongs to the realm of nature as a fluid liquid. The hydrological cycle links all places and spheres together, and water transcends the common categories by which we conceptualize the world and cosmos (Tvedt and Oestigaard 2006). The religious water-worlds, cosmologies, beliefs, and ritual practices are evident in the archaeological record, mythology, and written sources. Hence, it is necessaryto identify different types of water, the particular qualities associated with each of them,and how water materializes as religious and ritual structures, practices, and beliefs.

  • 15.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Witchcraft, witch killings and Christianity: The works of religion and parallel cosmologies in Tanzania2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa: a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 182-199 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaliff, Anders
    Cremation, Corpses and Cannibalism. : Comparative Cosmologies and Centuries of CosmicConsumption.2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Death matters and the matters of death are initially, and to a large extent, the decaying flesh of the corpse. Cremation as a ritual practice is the fastest and most optimal way of dissolving the corpse’s flesh, either by annihilation or purification, or a combination. Still, cremation was not the final rite, and the archaeological record testifies that the dead represented a means to other ends – the flesh, and not the least the bones – have been incorporated in a wide range of other ritual contexts. While human sacrifices and cannibalism as ritual phenomena are much discussed in anthropology, archaeology has an advantage, since the actual bone material leaves traces of ritual practices that are unseen and unheard of in the contemporary world. As such, this book fleshes out a broader and more coherent understanding of prehistoric religions and funeral practices in Scandinavia by focusing on cremation, corpses and cannibalism.

  • 17.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaliff, Anders
    Kremation och kosmologi: en komparativ arkeologisk introduktion2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization2014Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    Urban Water Systems: A Conceptual Framework2014Inngår i: A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization / [ed] Terje Tvedt and Terje Oestigaard, London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2014, 1-21 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
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