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  • 1. Dietz, Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    et al.
    Havnevik, KjellNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.Kaag, MaykeOestigaard, TerjeNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    African Engagements: Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World2011Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 2.
    Gessesse, Dessie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Favouring a Demonised Plant: Khat and Ethiopian smallholder enterprises2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Khat is a plant native to Ethiopia that has been consumed over several centuries as a mental and physical stimulant. This report outlines khat’s role as a source of livelihood. Khat, dubbed a social ill by many, is at the same time part and parcel of the livelihoods of many others. With consumption of the stimulant spreading to many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, khat production has become a controversial global issue. In most European and North American countries khat is illegal. The debates so far focus on the consumption of khat and its allegedly harmful health ,economic and social effects. The argument here is that expanded khat production, driven by growing demand for the stimulant, is made possible through multidimensional links between producers, sellers and others. Today, khat production is part of the wider agro-silvi-pasture complex that characterises Ethiopian rural landscapes. At the farm level, khat shares space with food and tree crops and contributes cash to the household economy. The fact that its production is a smallholder venture andis expanding through a variety of farming systems indicates its importance to cultivators and their use of land. This paper is not exhaustive, but makes an exploratory attempt to highlight khat-related livelihood issues and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates on the stimulant and to prompt further research.

  • 3.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaag, Mayke
    Introduction: A changing world and its consequences2011Inngår i: African Engagements : Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World / [ed] Dietz, Antonius Johannes, Havnevik, Kjell, Kaag, Mayke, Oestigaard, Terje, Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, 1-32 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 4.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Oestigaard, TerjeNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.Tobisson, EvaVirtanen, TeaNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Framing African development : challenging concepts2016Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Understanding Fast Track Land Reforms in Zimbabwe2012Inngår i: Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet; Zed Books , 2012, 1-17 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 6.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform2012Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 7.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Om ritualer og sosiale relasjoner.: Refleksjoner rundt et kraftfullt bytte2007Inngår i: Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0802-7285, E-ISSN 1504-2898, Vol. 18, nr 3-4, 253-265 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes a bridewealth prestation amongthe Chagga-speaking people of Tanzania. Departingfrom approaches that rely on the notion of reciprocity,the author explores how the prestation per se constitutes,rather than represents, the relationship betweenwife-givers and wife-receivers. By investigating themateriality of the exchanged object, the relationships itforms part of are laid bare, and it is argued that theobject forms part of a reproductive network wherepersons, things and social relationships are mutuallyconstituted. Against this background, materiality andsociality, things and meanings, reality and representation,are interrelated and the problems raised by thenotion of reciprocity are transcended.

  • 8.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Changing rituals and reinventing tradition: The burnt Viking ship at Myklebostad, Western Norway2015Inngår i: Changing rituals and ritual changes: Function and Meaning in Ancient Funerary Practices / [ed] Brandt, J. R., Ingvaldsen, H. & Prusac, M., Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015, 359-377 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cosmogony2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion: Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 76-88 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogony as a term is derived from the two Greek words kosmos and genesis. Kosmos refers to the order of the universe and/or the universe as the order, whereas genesis refers to the process of coming into being (Long 1993: 94). Thus, cosmogony has to do with founding myths and the origin and the creation of the gods and cosmos and how the world came into existence. There are schematically several different types of cosmogenic myths classified according to their symbolic structure: (1) creation from nothing, (2) creation from chaos, (3) creation from a cosmic egg, (4) creation from world parents, (5) creation through a process of emergence, and (6) creation through the agency of an earth diver. Several of these motifs and typological forms may be present in a given cosmogenic myth-system, and these types are not mutually exclusive but may rather be used in parallel in creation ororigin myths (Long 1993: 94). There are cosmogenic myths in all religions. In the Hebrew myth, there is creation from nothing: ‘And God said. “Let there be light”; and there was light’ (Gen. 1: 3). Importantly, in transcendental religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam the omnipotent god exists totally independent of its own creation (Trigger 2003: 473), but still there are cosmogenic myths. Usually, however, cosmogony refers to a divine structuring principle where cosmos and the world are not independent of its original creation, but dependent upon the outcome of the ritual relation between humans and deities for its future existence, and such religions are traditionally called cosmogenic, putting the emphasis on human rituals. Thus, there are differences between cosmogenic and transcendental religions with regards to structures of beliefs and practices. A cosmogenic religion links humans’ rituals in the present with the divine glory in the past and cosmic stability and prosperity in the future. Hence, a cosmogenic religion enables and prescribes particular types of ritualpractices which are archaeologically manifest in the material culture, and all the early civilizations have been cosmogenic (Trigger 2003: 444–5) together with the majority of prehistoric religions. Although cosmogony had been an analytical term before Mircea Eliade developed these perspectives, his writings in the 1950s (e.g. Eliade 1954, 1959a [1987]) have strongly influenced researchers’ views of peoples’ beliefs of the world and universe in early civilizations (Trigger 2003: 445). Cosmogony as a religious framework for understanding the world and the universe necessitates specific types of interactions and rituals with the divinities. Hence, due to the strong influence of Eliade’s work on cosmogony as a principleand process, this article will focus on (1) his premises and analyses, (2) criticism and development of cosmogony as a concept, and (3) how it is possible to analyse cosmogenic rituals and religious practices as manifest in the archaeological record. This will include:(a) rituals, with particular emphasis on death and sacrifices in the Aztec civilization; and(b) monuments, with particular emphasis on the pyramids in the ancient Egyptian civilization, since these are processes and places where the dual interaction between humans and divinities took place, which recreated cosmos against the threat of chaos. Together, these case studies will illuminate the possibilities of a cosmogenic perspective in the archaeology of ritual and religion despite the difficulties with Eliade’s structural universalism.

  • 10.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremating Corpses: Destroying, defying or Deifying Death?2015Inngår i: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16-17 May 2013 / [ed] Hackwitz, K. v. & Peyroteo-Stjerna, R., Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, 65-83 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cremation as a funeral practice is unique in the sense that throughfire as a medium the dead are actively incorporated into otherspheres and realms. The problem of decaying corpses has beensolved through history in one way or another, irrespective of culture.Although Christianity has seen cremation as destructive andnegative, obliterating death and destroying the corpse, consequentlyhindering resurrection, in other cultures and time periodsthe cremation fire has been a positive and transformative medium.It is through transformation that the deceased is revitalised andgains new life in another existence, and it may even enable divineexistences. Thus, with different comparative cremation practicesin the past and the present, this paper discusses concepts of death.

  • 11.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremations in culture and cosmology2013Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial / [ed] Tarlow, S & Nilsson, L. S, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 497-509 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Developing the ‘Other’: Challenging Concepts2016Inngår i: Framing African Development: Challenging Concepts / [ed] Havnevik, K., Oestigaard, T., Tobisson, E. & Virtanen, T., Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2016, 16-34 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Holy water: the works of water indefining and understanding holiness.2017Inngår i: WIREs Water, ISSN 0935-879X, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 4, nr 3, 1-12 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Holy water has a central role in shaping the understanding and beliefs of holiness in general, but how does holy water work, and what defines holy water? By analyzing holy water in three different religious traditions—Christianity in Northern Europe, Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and Hinduism—the aim is to discuss the metaphysical essence of water in human understanding and ideas of holiness embodied in water. On the one hand, holy water represents purity and has to be protected from defilement, but on the other hand, many holy rivers are severely polluted. This seeming paradox will be analyzed by focusing on actual beliefs and uses of holy water in ritual and religious practices. Holy water transmits purity and holiness, but it also transfers, transports, and transforms impurities. In the process of obtaining spiritual purity, devotees may pollute the holy because holy water is believed to have a divine agency. By comparing ritual practices and beliefs in three distinct religious traditions in Europe, Africa, and Asia, it is possible to enhance the understanding of the ways holiness and holy water are perceived to work in cultural-specific religious worldviews based on essential capacities of water cross-culturally. This directs the attention to the structuring mechanisms at work because water is conceptualized and used as holy in remarkably similar ways in many religions.

  • 14.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation ca. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Death and the life-giving waters of the Nile were intimately interwoven in ancient Egyptian religion. The principal objective of this study is to develop a synthetic perspective for enhancing the understanding of the religious roles water had in the rise and constitution of the Egyptian civilisation during the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom. The author employs an archaeological, inter-disciplinary and comparative ‘water perspective’ in which water not only forms the analytical framework, but also provides empirical data that allow for new questions to be addressed. Thus, the Nile itself is used as the primary point of departure to analyse how, why and when religious changes took place, with a particular emphasis on the development of the Osiris cult. Use is made of contemporary written sources, in particular the Pyramid Texts, but also other mortuary texts as well as flood records. The evolution of the Osiris cult is then analysed in relation to the development of the mortuary monuments; the mastabas in the First and the Second Dynasties and the emergence of the pyramids from the Third Dynasty. Hence, by comparing the different funerary monuments and practices with the emergence of the Osiris cult in relation to climatic changes and fluctuations in the Nile’s yearly inundation, Ancient Egyptian religion and the rise of the civilisation is analyzed according to a water perspective. It is noted that the Blue Nile was not blue, but red-brownish during the flood. When the flood started, the White Nile was not white, but green. The author argues that these fundamental characteristics of the Nile water formed the basis for the Osiris mythology. The red floodwaters in particular represented the blood of the slain Osiris.

  • 15.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Nile River2012Inngår i: Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability Volume 9: Afro-Eurasia: Assessing Sustainability, Berkshire Publishing Group LLC , 2012, 228-230 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Nature of Archaeology: Beyond the Linguistic Turn: (Comments on discussion article by Brit Solli)2011Inngår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 44, nr 1, 30-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion / [ed] Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 38-50 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in the archaeology of ritual and religion includes water as a perspective and water as empirical data. The life-giving waters in society and religion are the fresh waters in their many facets in the hydrological cycle. Water is always in a flux. The fluid matter changes qualities and capacities wherever it is, and it always takes new forms. This transformative character of water is forcefully used in ritual practices and religious constructions. Water represents the one and the many at the same time, and the plurality of ritual institutionalizations and religious perceptions puts emphasis on water’s structuring principles and processes in culture and the cosmos. Water is fundamental in many ritual practices and to conceptions of the divinities and cosmos in prehistoric religions, and consequently the study of water in ritual and religion may reveal insights into both what religion is and how devotees perceive themselves, the divine spheres, and their own religious practices and rituals. The pervasive role of water-worlds in society and cosmos unites micro and macro cosmos, creates life, and legitimizes social hierarchies and religious practices and beliefs. Water is a medium which links or changes totally different aspects of humanity and divinities into a coherent unit; it bridges paradoxes, transcends the differenthuman and divine realms, allows interactions with gods, and enables the divinities to interfere with humanity. Water is a medium for everything—it has human character because we are humans; it is a social matter but also a spiritual substance and divine manifestation with immanent powers; and, still, it belongs to the realm of nature as a fluid liquid. The hydrological cycle links all places and spheres together, and water transcends the common categories by which we conceptualize the world and cosmos (Tvedt and Oestigaard 2006). The religious water-worlds, cosmologies, beliefs, and ritual practices are evident in the archaeological record, mythology, and written sources. Hence, it is necessaryto identify different types of water, the particular qualities associated with each of them,and how water materializes as religious and ritual structures, practices, and beliefs.

  • 18.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water, Christianity and the Rise of Capitalism2013Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water Scarcity and Food Security along the Nile: Politics, population increase and climate change2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2050, the population in all the Nile Basin countries is expected to be ten times higher than it was in 1950. This will put ever increasing pressure on water as a resource for development. The Nile Basin catchment area is shared by 11 countries covering about one-tenth of the African continent. Globally, around 70 per cent of fresh water consumption is used in agriculture. This puts the spotlight on future scenarios regarding food production: will there be enough water for food security in the Nile Basin countries? In this Current African Issues publication, water scarcity and food security are analysed from a range of perspectives. What are the future predictions regarding population increase and climate change, and how will these affect development in Nile Basin countries? What are the current water theories addressing the above issues, and what are the main challenges the Nile Basin countries will face in a context that is also strongly shaped by its history?

  • 20.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Abawa Firew, Gedef
    University of Bergen.
    Gish Abay – the source of the Blue Nile2011Inngår i: Water and Society / [ed] In Pepper, D. W. & Brebbia, C. A., Southampton. Boston: WIT Press, 2011, 27-38 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Nile is by many seen as the most important river in the world. The source of the Blue Nile is a spring called Gish Abay in Ethiopia. This is the source of Gilgal Abay (meaning the little Abay), which is the most voluminous of the some sixty rivers flowing into Lake Tana. Although the Nile Quest has attracted emperors and explorers alike since Antiquity, after the sources of the Nile were discovered the majority of studies have focused on hydrology and not on cultural and religious aspects of the river. Gish Abay has been seen as the outlet of the river Gihon flowing directly from Paradise linking this world with Heaven. The holiness of Abay and the source in particular have had and still have an important role in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Moreover, before the source was Christianised it had a central role in the indigenous religion where lavish ox sacrifices were conducted. Thus, in this article we highlight the ritual and religious role of Gish Abay in a historic perspective.

  • 21.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 1. Vol. 3: The World of Water2013Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 2, Vol. 1.: Ideas of Water : From Ancient Societies to the Modern World2015Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization2014Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    Urban Water Systems: A Conceptual Framework2014Inngår i: A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization / [ed] Terje Tvedt and Terje Oestigaard, London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2014, 1-21 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Olanya, David Ross
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    From Global Land Grabbing for Biofuels to Acquisitions of African Water for Commercial Agriculture2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion of biofuel investment in Africa has been supported by indebted poor governments because of perceived potential benefits such as sustainable energy development, support to poor farmers, development of rural economies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the intensity of the biofuels political economy in poor countries worsens inequality for the vulnerable poor. This is evidenced by large-scale land acquisitions in Africa for biofuel and crop production primarily for foreign consumption – food, animal feeds and energy crops. The search for land in African countrieshas been triggered by growing concerns over food and energy security in developed countries following the global food crisis of 2008. Moreover, these recent developments in large-scale land acquisitions in Africa are not a new phenomenon, but represent the renewal of old practices incommercial agriculture, which is either conducted through purchases or long-term leases. In addition to biofuel expansion, this study notes that current large-scale land acquisitions in sub-Saharan Africa have been further driven by demands to access water resources for other commercial agricultural crops. The land purchases or leases automatically guarantee access to African water. This demand for water is a response to climate change: most industrialists believe that acquiring land near a main water reservoir will guarantee future agricultural potential. Few analyses have been done on the land-water access nexus. This article considers recent developments in large-scaleland acquisitions in Africa in terms of water security for commercial agriculture to safeguard the production of agricultural crops with a large water footprint. Using political economy analysis, this article examines national policy on these acquisitions, the rights accorded to foreign investors and how land acquisitions undermine indigenous rights to the common resources that have been the mainsource of livelihood in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 26.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Consequences and challenges of tourism and seaweed farming: a narrative on a coastal community in Zanzibar2013Inngår i: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, nr 2, 169-184 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although international influences have affected Zanzibar for centuries, some rural areas have remained largely unaffected by globalization until a few decades ago when Zanzibar emerged as a tourist destination and commercial seaweed farming was introduced. This paper focuses on local responses to these two external drivers of change, from the perspectives of women and men on the south-eastern coast of Unguja Island where they strive to improve their livelihoods. Longitudinal social anthropological surveys using interactive methods were used to reveal the perspectives and coping strategies of individuals under multidimensional poverty. The study thus focused on micro-level diversity and diversification in the modes of livelihood over time and within broader national and global frameworks. The tourist boom in the 1990s was followed by fluctuations and a decline in backpackers who had until then benefited the local economy. Seaweed production, undertaken almost exclusively by women, has steadily increased since the late 1980s. Although it entails hard work for limited returns, seaweed has become highly significant in boosting women’s empowerment and securing their livelihood; economic diversification is central to the livelihood of poor women.

  • 27.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Notions of Poverty and Wealth in Coastal Zanzibar: The Policy Relevance of Local Perspectives2009Inngår i: Ethnographic Practice and Public Aid: Methods and Meanings in Development Cooperation / [ed] Sten Hagberg & Charlotta Widmark, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2009, 125-159 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
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