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  • 1.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. University of Jos.
    Welfare Associations and the Dynamics of City Politics in Nigeria: Jos Metropolis as Case Study2002Inngår i: Under Siege: Four African Cities Freetown, Johannesburg, Kinshasa, Lagos: Documenta11_Platform 4 / [ed] Okwui Enwezor et al., Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2002, 259-379 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2. Bahru, Zewde
    et al.
    Pausewang, SiegfriedNordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethiopia: the challenge of democracy from below2002Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Constitutionally Ethiopia is a federal democratic state although in practice it is dominated by one political coalition. The opposition parties claim they have no chance of challenging the incumbent. The rural majority, as ever, feel controlled from above, unable to influence political decisions. Observers describe elections as manipulated and non-representative of the will of the people for whom the word "democracy" frequently appears to be synonymous with domination and coercion. Democracy is a concept reflecting European philosophies, struggles and concerns. Many Ethiopian ethnic groups have traditions which may offer more satisfactory and culturally acceptable foundations for a "sovereignty of the people" through time-honoured ways of voicing political ideas, ironic observations and vital interests. In line with modern urban life Ethiopians also organise and express their interests in non-governmental organisations, the independent press and advocacy groups representing political and social alternatives. The contributors to this book analyse the democratic potential of these movements and practices, their ability to give a voice to the view from below and their potential contribution to a more genuine participation by the majority of Ethiopians in democratic decision making and bringing the sovereignty of the people a step closer to reality.

  • 3.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Supra-Ethnic Nationalism: The case of Eritrea2002Inngår i: African Sociological Review, ISSN 1027-4332, Vol. 6, nr 2, 137-152 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Brock-Utne, Birgit
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Language, democracy and education in Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication comprises two papers, both written during January and February 2002 when the author was a guest researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI).

    In the first paper, "The Language Question in Africa seen in the Context of Globalisation, Social Justice and Democracy", the language question is looked at through the eyes of a social and political scientist. The choice of an official language in Africa is viewed as a question of social class, of power. What social classes profit from the continued use of European languages in Africa? Who benefits? Who loses? The focus here is not only on language use in education but also on language use in the courts and in the political domain, especially in South Africa. Examples are mostly drawn from South Africa and Tanzania, where the author is conducting two research projects in the area of language and education.

    The second paper, "The Battle over the Language of Instruction in Tanzania", describes two further research projects in which the author is currently involved. In this paper, the author focuses on the question of the language of instruction through the eyes of an educationist. The paper builds on recent research conducted in Tanzania by the author and her Tanzanian Master's degree students.

  • 5.
    Chitando, Ezra
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Singing culture: a study of gospel music in Zimbabwe2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical development, social, political and economic significance of gospel music in Zimbabwe. It approaches music with Christian theological ideas and popular appeal as a cultural phenomenon with manifold implications. Applying a history of religions approach to the study of a widespread religious phenomenon, the study seeks to link religious studies with popular culture. It argues that gospel music represents a valuable entry point into a discussion of contemporary African cultural production. Gospel music successfully blends the musical traditions of Zimbabwe, influences from other African countries, and musical styles from other parts of the world.

    Through the application of multiple methodological lenses, the study sets out to describe, analyse and interpret gospel music in Zimbabwe during the 1990s. It outlines the historical development of popular music in Zimbabwe, alongside locating the emergence of gospel music in the politically and economically challenging 1990s. The report captures the impact of Christianity on music performances, highlights the various groups of cultural workers who have derived opportunities from gospel music and undertakes an analysis of the context in which gospel music was able to thrive. Through an examination of dominant themes in Zimbabwean gospel music and its creative appropriation of various musical styles, the study illustrates the complexity underlying contemporary African artistic products.

    This study also seeks to bring to the fore the long-standing issue of the relationship between Christianity and African culture. Although many African theologians, nationalists, missiologists, Non-Governmental Organisation activists and other practitioners have proffered valuable insights, in most instances their efforts have been vitiated by a preoccupation with a frozen view of African culture. Many writers have tended to view African culture as a relic from some glorious past. Although this may please avid cultural nationalists, it obfuscates the inherently adaptive nature of African, and indeed of any other, culture. Consequently, in this study the focus is on gospel music as an integral part of contemporary African culture. By examining gospel music texts, performances by artists and audiences at gospel concerts and television presentations, the study contributes to the discourses on religion and public spaces. The report also brings to the fore the neglected theme of music and the construction of religious and other identities.

  • 6. Davids, Yul Derek
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Measuring democracy and human rights in Southern Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Are there ways and means of measuring democracy and “good governance”? The contributions to this Discussion Paper present attempts to do this by means of surveys on democratic attitudes in Mozambique and Namibia respectively as well as by exploring the degree of commitment to and violation of human rights in a comparative perspective in Namibia and South Africa. They illustrate attitudes by offering empirical evidence of the preferences and views of local people, as well as by examining the track record of a human rights culture. In doing so, by going beyond a level of theoretical analysis, they offer concrete evidence of attitudes prevalent among both individuals and state agencies in societies of Southern Africa.

  • 7.
    Englund, Harri
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    A democracy of chameleons: politics and culture in the New Malawi2002Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    After thirty years of autocratic rule under ”Life President” Kamuzu Banda, Malawians experienced a transition to multiparty democracy in 1994. A new constitution and several democratic institutions promised a new dawn in a country ravaged by poverty and injustice.

    This book presents original research on the economic, social, political and cultural consequences of the new era. The book engages with a culture of politics in order to expand the purview of critical analysis from the elite to the populace in its full diversity. A new generation of scholars, most of them from Malawi, cover virtually every issue causing debate in the New Malawi: poverty and hunger, the plight of civil servants, the role of the judiciary, political intolerance and hate speech, popular music as a form of protest, clergy activism, voluntary associations and ethnic revival, responses to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and controversies over women’s rights. Both chameleon-like leaders and the donors of Malawi’s foreign aid come under critical scrutiny for supporting superficial democratization.

    The book ends with a rare public statement on the New Malawi by Jack Mapanje, Malawi’s internationally acclaimed writer. Dismayed at the continuation of an ”oral culture of dictatorship”, Mapanje urges Malawians to confront their past in order to have a future that is free from fear and intolerance.Anyone interested in politics and culture in sub-Saharan Africa will find this book an important source of insight and detailed analysis for a comparative understanding of Africa’s democratization.

  • 8.
    Hydén, Göran
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Leslie, MichaelOgundimu, Folu Folarin
    Media and democracy in Africa2002Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA provides the first comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the role of the media in political change in sub-Saharan Africa.

    The central argument of the volume is that while the media may still be relatively weak compared to their positions in liberal democracies, they have come to play a much more important role than ever before since independence.

    This volume shows that the media scene in Africa is diverse. It stretches from the well-developed and technologically advanced situation in South Africa to the still fledgling media operations that are typical in sub-Saharan Africa. In these countries, print media as well as television and radio are just beginning to take their place in society and do so using simple and often outdated technology.

    MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA is organized to provide a historical perspective on the evolution of the African media, placing the present in the context of the past, including both colonial and post-colonial experiences. It will be of interest to Africa area specialists, students of media and communications, political scientists and sociologists.

  • 9. Juma, Monica Kathina
    et al.
    Suhrke, AstriNordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Eroding local capacity: international humanitarian action in Africa2002Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eroding Local Capacity is a critical examination of the interplay between international and local actors operating in the humanitarian arena in Africa. All sides emphasise the need to build local capacity for humanitarian action, yet the results have not been substantial. Even long-term, semi-permanent emergencies have generated little local capacity to assist and protect the victims of violence, displacement and related deprivations. In some cases, whatever local capacity did exist has been overwhelmed by the international aid presence. Why is this so? What is the case for a more even division of labour between North and South in this area, and why is it so difficult to bring about?

    The book focuses on cases from East Africa and the Horn. It considers institutional capacity in the public and private sector, as well as legal and social norms of humanitarian action. The authors are African and Nordic scholars who worked together on the NORAD-supported project over a 3-year period. Preliminary conclusions were discussed at seminars organized by the Centre for Foreign Relations (Dar es Salaam), the School of Government at the University of the Western Cape (Cape Town), and the Chr. Michelsen Institute (Bergen).

  • 10.
    Kamete, Amin Y.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Governing the poor in Harare, Zimbabwe: shifting perceptions and changing responses2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the 'terrain of urban governance', using areas of Zimbabwe's biggest city Harare as case studies. It presents and discusses sets of perceptions of poverty and the poor which influence policy development and decision making among urban 'governors'. Kamete shows the effects of positive as well as negative perceptions of the poor. He also problematises more conventional understandings of poverty and includes into his own conceptual understanding dimensions of deficient access to participation and citizenship. He shows that the relationship between power and powerlessness among the poor is much more complex than is sometimes assumed. The urban poor in Harare - since the emergence of significant political opposition in Zimbabwe in the late 1990s - have become both an important and volatile instrument to be wooed and paid by populist politicians. At the same time - in their patterns of voting - they have been a mainstay of support for opposition to the ZANU-PF government at both local and central level.

  • 11.
    Legassick, Martin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Armed struggle and democracy: the case of South Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the concept(s) of armed struggle for the notion(s) of democracy in South(ern) Africa is the focus of this paper. Originally submitted to a conference on '(Re-) Conceptualising Democracy and Liberation in Southern Africa', held in Windhoek/Namibia during July 2002, it argues from the point of departure of the personal involvement of the author in the issues raised.

    The author was part of a group which criticised the strategy of armed struggle in the ANC. For the articulation of this dissenting view they were suspended from the movement in 1979 and finally expelled in 1985. With this paper he inspires a debate, which can claim relevance for current issues of democracy in South Africa and the Southern African region more generally. Given the degree of personal involvement of its author, this analysis is contemporary history based on personal insights, and provides arguments for a necessary discussion.

  • 12.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): African perspectives2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of February 2002 the GermannHanns Seidel Foundation held its annual consultative meeting with African counterparts from projects in nine different countries on the continent. The subject oriented workshop discussed "The New Partnership for African Development" (NEPAD) and its implications from the point of view of the participants.

    This Discussion Paper publishes some of the presentations to the workshop in an effort to document the current debate just initiated from different positions. It thereby aims to contribute to a process of taking the latest programmatic document from the African heads of state serious in its possible implications for the future development of the continent.

  • 13.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe's presidential elections 2002: evidence, lessons and implications2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Presidential Elections that took place from March 9 to 11, 2002 in Zimbabwe provoked enormous internal and international controversies. The impact of the politically contested continued presidency of Robert Mugabe, head of state and leader of the government under ZANU-PF since Zimbabwe's Independence in 1980, for the country, the region and the continent might be far reaching. The consequences are not yet fully apparent, but the current debates also centre around the case of Zimbabwe as a litmus test for the notion of "good governance" and democracy as perceived and acknowledged by other African leaders especially in the context of the "New Partnership for Africa's Development" (NEPAD). The contributions to this Discussion Paper offer critical and political comments from scholars mainly in or from the Southern African region, who have been closely involved with regional and Zimbabwean issues.

  • 14. Neocosmos, Michael
    et al.
    Suttner, Raymond
    Taylor, Ian
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Political cultures in democratic South Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The democratic transition in South Africa that emerged during the 1990s and became manifest in a democratically elected government, has not yet brought to completion the post-Apartheid social and political transformation of that country. In fact, it has far from consolidated a new socio-political culture.

    The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon different but related aspects of South African democracy after Apartheid as represented in a variety of social forces, institutions and individuals. They illustrate that societies in transition have to make sustained efforts to overcome the legacies of the past, and that the present reproduces some of the past structural constraints and patterns of power and control in the new framework.

    This publication has been compiled under the aegis of the research network on “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSa), currently coordinated through the Nordic Africa Institute. The contributions were originally presented to a workshop organised in Cape Town in December 2001.

  • 15.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Number 1 January 20022002Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 16.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Number 2 May 20022002Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Number 3 October 20022002Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Obi, Cyril
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Leadership in local communities in historical perspective : pre-colonial and colonial Nigeria2002Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethnic Minority Agitation and the Specter of National Disintegration2002Inngår i: Nigeria in the Twentieth Century / [ed] Toyin Falola, Durham: Carolina Academic Press , 2002Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Oil and the Minority Question2002Inngår i: The National Question in Nigeria: Comparative Perspectives / [ed] Abubakar Momoh and Said Adejumobi, Burlington: Ashgate , 2002Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Oil and the Politics of Transition2002Inngår i: Transition Politics in Nigeria / [ed] Browne Onuoha and M.M. Fadakinte, Lagos: Malthouse Publishers , 2002Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The Politics of the Nigerian Oil Industry: Implications for Environmental Governance2002Inngår i: Democracy and Sustainable Development in Nigeria / [ed] Akinjide Osuntokun, Lagos: Frankad (For Friedrich Ebert Foundation) , 2002Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Okuku, Juma
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethnicity, state power and the democratisation process in Uganda2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the post-independence political concerns in Uganda today is that ethnicity has been detrimental to national unity, democracy and development. There is no doubt that the conflicts in Uganda have all had ethnicity as one of the driving factors. The central problem has been the politisation of ethnicity, that is, its use for purposes of group mobilisation in social conflicts that also involve the state. However, ethnicity cannot be taken as a given. The problem is not of ethnicity in itself. Ethnicity is more intimately linked to political and economic conditions such as the unequal distribution of and competition for power and wealth.

    This paper critically review the impact of ethnicity on the democratisation process in Uganda from colonialism to the present. The paper is divided into four parts. Part one is a theoretical overview of the issues of ethnicity and democratisation. Part two examines the nature of ethnicity construction and expression in the colonial period. Part three looks at the post-colonial political practices and their enhancement of ethnicity in Uganda. Part four discusses the possibility of deconstruction of ethnicity through democratisation and the 'no-party movement'-system. In conclusion, the contention is that there is a need to understand the substantive underlying political, economic and social configurations that enhance ethnicity rather than denouncing them.

  • 24.
    Palmberg, Mai
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Cultural Images and Expressions.
    Kirkegaard, Annemette
    Playing with identities in contemporary music in Africa2002Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The musics of Africa play a particularly important role in expressing and forming identities. This book brings together African and Nordic scholars from both musicology and other disciplines in an attempt to analyse various aspects of the complex playing with volatile identities in music in Africa today. Taken together the papers put new light on the assumed or real dichotomies between countryside and city, collective and individual, tradition and modernity, authentic and alien.

    The papers are based on contributions for a conference organised by the research project "Cultural Images in and of Africa" of the Nordic Africa Institute together with the Sibelius Museum/Department of Musicology and the Centre for Continuing Education at Åbo Akademi University in Åbo (Turku), Finland in Oct. 2000.

    The book includes a keynote speech by Christopher Waterman (UCLA), and an introduction by Annemette Kirkegaard, Copenhagen University. Both Southern, West and East Africa are represented in the studies, which cover a great variety of musics.

  • 25. Saasa, Oliver S.
    et al.
    Carlsson, Jerker
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Aid and poverty reduction in Zambia: mission unaccomplished2002Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Zambia, a once prosperous African country, now has 73 percent of its people below the poverty line and by the early 1990s, the country had reached a level where the UN General Assembly included it on the list of the least developed countries. With crippling indebtedness amidst poor economic performance, Zambia is at present one of the world's most heavily indebted low-income countries. And poverty continues to take its toll with the province housing the capital city registering the highest increase in poverty over the 1996 to 1998 period. This means that, although rural areas have the highest poverty levels, Zambia's urban centres are fast catching up. With help from donors, poverty reduction is at the centre stage on the Zambia development agenda after almost two decades of externally prescribed experiments with adjustment and stabilisation as a panacea for welfare improvement. But despite significant aid volumes and structural reforms, the country is getting deeper and deeper into poverty. What is the missing link between aid and positive change? Is the problem mainly that the volume of aid is not sufficient and, as is often heard, more of it would make a difference? Is the sluggish social and economic progress in Zambia appropriately diagnosed and correct remedies and strategies prescribed? This book attempts to address these and related questions.

  • 26.
    Sellström, Tor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sweden and national liberation in Southern Africa: Vol. 2, Solidarity and assistance 1970-19942002Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s and the other Nordic countries’ support for the national liberation process and struggle against apartheid was unique in the international context both in regard to the size of the financial support and the extensive popular involvement. This book attempts to document the involvement of Sweden in the Southern African struggles against colonialism, occupation and white minority rule. While Volume I set out to identify the actors and factors behind the involvement, the aim of the present volume is to illustrate the Swedish participation. The focus of this study is on official assistance to the national liberation movements but the important role played by the organized Swedish solidarity movement and other non-governmental organizations also forms part of the narration. The study also attempts to contribute to a broader understanding of the international aspects of the Thirty Years’ War in the region, a significant chapter in the quest for national self-determination, democracy and human rights towards the end of the troubled 20th century. Primarily written for the general reader interested in relations between Sweden and the Southern African liberation movements, the presentation should also provide material and theoretical enquiries with regard to, for example, Swedish foreign policy in the cold war era; regional developments in a bipolar world; and the diplomatic initiatives, political alliances and material conditions of the different movements. This book is a part of the Nordic Africa Institute’s Research Project National Liberation in Southern Africa. The Role of the Nordic Countries. The result of the project is a unique documentation, mainly drawing on hitherto restricted official primary sources. This book, together with the other studies published within the project, forms a valuable reference source for everyone interested in the 20th century history of Southern Africa in particular or North/South and international relations in general.

  • 27.
    Weiss, Holger
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Social welfare in Muslim societies in Africa2002Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades there has been an increasing attempt by Muslim intellectuals to reflect on the provision of social welfare in Muslim societies in Africa. One reason for this is the few, if not non-existent, possibilities of the states to provide for the basic needs of their subjects, a situation that has become painfully evident in most African states not only the Muslim ones.

    However, public as well as private provision of social welfare is not a new phenomenon in the Muslim world. Whereas government and public involvement in the provision of social welfare has been haphazard, despite various attempts at direct state involvement especially in the post-colonial world, private and what might be labelled semi-official activities, such as the establishment of pious foundations and the activities of the Sufi orders, have a solid foundation in local Muslim societies in Africa.

    This book attempts to emphasise the variety of both agents and ways to provide social welfare in Muslim societies in Africa. In addition, social welfare, as such, is both reflected upon and debated by Muslim intellectuals. The aim of this book has therefore been to capture both the theoretical as well as the actual dimension of social welfare.

  • 28.
    Wohlgemuth, Lennart
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The Nordic countries and Africa: old and new relations2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Institute has asked one representative from each Nordic country to give an account of how their respective countries have dealt with Africa over the years (in some cases even over the centuries) but with an emphasis on the last 50 years. They were also asked to indicate what role Africa has played in the politics, trade, etc. of their countries. The diversity of the invited authors’ backgrounds and fields of specialisation is reflected in their contributions, but the authors have one thing in common: a long experience from, and deep engagement in, Africa’s development.

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