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  • 1.
    Good, Kenneth
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Bushmen and diamonds: (un)civil society in Botswana2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Botswana's democracy is often considered to be a comparatively advanced and positive example of an African state in terms of political culture and the notion of "good governance". This paper challenges the assumption that the country's current political and socio-economic system is, in fact, exemplary. It highlights some of the limitations by focussing on the particular situation of the Bushmen/San as a margina-lized minority denied citizens' rights and losing out against the material interests accompanying the exploration and exploitation of diamonds, the most lucrative natural resource contributing to Botswana's "success story".The author has on previous occasions presented and published related analyses within the research network on "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA), which is currently coordinated through the Nordic Africa Institute. This publication is another result of the collaboration within this project.

  • 2.
    Hendricks, Fred T.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Fault-lines in South African democracy: continuing crises of inequality and injustice2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa has raised questions, on the one hand, about the tension between the imperatives of justice and equality and, on the other, reconciliation. Transforming the decades' old apartheid system under conditions of a political compromise has turned out to be a formidable challenge. This paper is about the complexity of the transformation processgoing on in South Africa. Although too early for a real assessmentof the experiment, the tensions, dilemmas, contradictions, paradoxes and some of the changes have already begun to manifest themselves.

    In this Discussion Paper, the author gives the full measure of the tensions, dilemmas, and paradoxes involved in the transformation of South Africa. Apartheid was more than formal discrimination along racial lines: it was a system of exploitation and oppression in which race, class, gender and other markers of social identity all overlapped. The paper shows how political deals affect the administration of justice, and how they impinge upon the nature of democracy, often by frustrating efforts to realise social goals in the post-authoritarian phase. It also raises the fundamental question of the broader necessities for the long-term survival of democracy in South Africa, which, the paper argues, must include:

    - addressing the enormous disparities between wealth and poverty and black and white left in the wake of apartheid and

    - creating a legitimate polity that respects the rule of law.

  • 3.
    Jega, Attahiru
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Identity transformation and identity politics under structural adjustment in Nigeria2003Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Kappel, Robert
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Structural stability in an African context2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural Stability is a particular focus for reconceptualising developmental strategy and development aid and has provoked unfore-seen responses in the course of a recent, mainly German debate. This debate began late in 2000 when a number of prominent German scholars in African Studies initiated a policy dialogue through a widely circulated and publicly discussed "Afrika Memorandum" centred on the notion of structural stability. Its arguments are relevant not only to a German audience but offer stimulating and thought-provoking inputs into the debate in the wider European context on bilateral and multilateral relations with Africa. This Discussion Paper presents the revised contributions to a Consulta- tive Workshop on Structural Stability in an African Context that took place at the Nordic Africa Institute in Uppsala on 31 March and 1 April 2003.

  • 5. Kössler, Reinhart
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Strand, Per
    Development from below: a Namibian case study2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper offers a revised lecture by Reinhart Kössler, which was originally presented to a Research Forum organised by The Nordic Africa Institute jointly with the Seminar for Development Studies of Uppsala University. It deals with aspects of rebuilding societies from below firstly in a general development studies discourse on a more theoretical level, considering aspects of the current debate on globalisation. This is followed by a concrete case study from southern Namibia. It illustrates local responses by the Witbooi-Nama in Gibeon to (re-)define identity within the context of a (nation-)state in a post-apartheid society. The paper is commented upon by two discussants (Per Strand and Henning Melber).

    The contributions reflect on the issue of social reconstruction in the context of (southern) Africa with reference to a particular marginalised group. They deal, among other things, with the question of social power and the "invention of tradition" in local efforts to gain from, or seek integration into, the nation building process.

  • 6.
    Leith, J. Clark
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Söderling, Ludvig
    Ghana - long term growth, atrophy and stunted recovery2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghana's independence in March 1957 was celebrated with great flourish. "Free at last!" Kwame Nkrumah, the country's leader, proclaimed.

    Yes, Ghana was free to follow an independent political course, and free to experiment with an independent economic direction. But the exercise of that freedom proved to be destructive. Gradually removing internal agents of restraint, and unconcerned about external constraints, Nkrumah pursued his grand vision of Ghana. But, that vision became a nightmare. More than a quarter century of increasingly chaotic political and economic turbulence followed.Eventually a major reform program was launched, but after fifteen years its success has been modest. While the downward spiral has been halted, and real growth resumed, real GDP per capita and total factor productivity have barely exceeded the levels achieved at independence.

    The long-run economic and political records are both lackluster, each limiting the potential of the other. The question is, why has Ghana not achieved sustained and rapid long-term growth? This study seeks to provide an answer.As we review the experience of the forty plus years of independence, five explanatory themes recur. The first theme is excess demand. Repeatedly, fiscal and monetary policies have been excessively expansionary, generating bouts of inflation, followed by painful adjustment. Ghanaian entrepreneurs have seldom been able to count on a stable macroeconomic environment for more than a few months into the future. Such a short-term horizon has been damaging.

    Currency overvaluation is the second theme. Initially the problem was a fixed nominal exchange rate, maintained in the face of domestic inflation. Exchange controls followed, while inflation accelerated. The real price of foreign exchange was depressed to a small fraction of its level at independence, and forced the economy to become virtually autarkic. Recovery of the real exchange rate under the reform program has occurred, but its instability remains a serious source of uncertainty for all - exporters, import competing producers, and foreign investors alike.

    Third, closely related to the foregoing, Ghana has frequently failed to realize the potential gains from pursuing and supporting its comparative advantage. Among the traditional exports, cocoa suffered from a variety of devices that suppressed the real producer price and depressed production to well belowits optimum. Minerals, until recently, endured state ownership, and neglect of infrastructure.

    The fourth theme is suppression of the financial sector. With the state heavily involved in running financial institutions, and repeated confiscation of assets both directly and via inflation, individuals are reluctant to hold financial assets. The financial sector, consequently, does not yet play its potential roles in bringing savers and investors together.

    The fifth theme concerns the role of the state. The state was stretched far beyond its abilities. The overextended reach of government and the administrative complexity of many programs pushed the state well beyond the limits of activities that it could handle efficiently and without corruption. This seriously compromised the effectiveness of nearly everything the state was involved in, ranging from education to health care to state-owned enterprises to administration of economic controls. The outcome was a near collapse of the state. Not only was the state ineffective in its economic activities, but it failed to consistently control predation by its agents. Real assets were confiscated, both by direct seizure and indirectly by economic policies. At various times agents of the state extorted huge rents from society and beat hapless victims. The lingering sense that such experiences might recur, leaves the economy achieving far less than its potential, in spite of significant economic and political reforms achieved over the past fifteen years.

    To appreciate why Ghana's modern history unfolded in this way, it is necessary to understand both the political and economic dimensions. We begin in Chapter 1 with an overview of the economic and political record of the various regimes that governed Ghana from independence through to the launch of the economic reform program in 1983. Those reforms and the consequences are the subject of Chapter 2. The major conclusions are presented in Chapter 3.

  • 7.
    Mans, Minette
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Music as instrument of diversity and unity: notes on a Namibian landscape2003Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This report explores the interface between recent socio-political changes in Namibia, and the way they are reflected in emergent musical practices and identities within the country. The potential tension between unity and diversity is investigated within musical landscapes in traditional and contemporary frames. Sadly, diversity is often seen to be the precursor of divisiveness rather than a product of human creativity and ingenuity.

    Based on a decade of field research undertaken mainly in the north and central areas of Namibia since 1993, this report poses questions about fundamental purposes of music-making, and the conscious response of people to the contemporary Namibian socio-political situation. It provides a broad overview of music emanating from different cultural practices in Namibia, and relates this to the State's political strategies for ensuring unity and nation-building through policy-making, education and broadcast media. The changes that occur in musical practices are seen as strategic cultural choices and ongoing identity-formation.

  • 8.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Re-examining liberation in Namibia: political culture since independence2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1960, SWAPO of Namibia led the organised and later armed struggle for independence. In late 1989, the liberation movement was finally elected to power under United Nations supervision as the legitimate government. When the Republic of Namibia was proclaimed on 21 March 1990, the long and bitter struggle for sovereignty came to an end. This volume takes stock of emerging trends in the country's political culture since independence. The contributions, mainly by authors from Namibia and Southern Africa who supported the anti-colonial movements, critically explore the achievements and shortcomings that have been part of liberation in Namibia.

  • 9.
    Mohamoda, Dahilon Yassin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Nile Basin cooperation: a review of the literature2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two interrelated developments can be identified in the Nile basin, during the last decade: an emphasis on potential conflict over the Nile waters on the one hand, and an evolving process of basin-wide cooperation on the other.

    The history of the Nile basin is dominated by tensions and conflicts. Relationships between major Nile basin countries are usually described in terms of mutual distrust and confrontation. The Nile basin, moreover, has frequently been referred to by many observers and analysts as an example where conflict over water resources as a result of water scarcity will lead to armed confrontation. Recent years, on the other hand, have witnessed a growing cooperation among the basin countries. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a case in point. All the ten countries that share the Nile waters agreed, for the first time, to cooperate on development of the Nile basin. This is a significant step, although a number of serious problems and challenges remain. Many donors have made formal pledges to support the initiative.

    This paper reviews literature on the Nile basin cooperation and issues related to this process, focusing on more recent publications. The literature on utilization and management of the Nile waters related to basin-wide cooperation efforts has been growing fast during the last decade. At least seven books have been published on the subject between the years 2000 to 2002, while the number of papers presented at conferences and articles in various journals and on the Internet is enormous. This review discusses and covers a wide range of issues, which include: debate on water scarcity and its potential consequences in general, and its implications for the Nile basin countries in particular; legal aspects of utilization of the Nile waters focusing on the UN Watercourse Convention of 1997; conflicts and major attempts at cooperation; divergent views and interests of the basin countries; and challenges and prospects of the recent basin-wide cooperation.

  • 10.
    Morgenstierne, Christopher Munthe
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Denmark and national liberation in Southern Africa: a flexible response2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes and documents the development of Danish support to national liberation in Southern Africa and the two-sided humanitarian and political character of this support. It is based on previously restricted Danish ministry records and on NGO archives and interviews.The Nordic countries were unique in the Western world in their support to individuals, organisations and refugees, struggling to end institutionalised colonialism and racism and alleviate their humanitarian consequences. Nordic support was humanitarian and civilian, and to a large extent was given to refugees and to education. Increasingly, it came to involve national liberation movements and financial support to their civilian activities, at a time when these movements were politically and militarily struggling against the regimes in their countries-including the government of Portugal, a NATO military partner of Norway and Denmark.Danish support developed differently from that of the other Nordic countries. Official support was never given directly to liberation movements. Rather, Danish NGOs were employed to advise on Danish allocations and to distribute these allocations and carry out activities, using their own capacity or through their international networks. In the field of sanctions, Denmark shifted from a policy of awaiting a UN Security Council decision to imposing unilateral trade sanctions as the first Western country to do so, and the book analyses the political developments behind this.The study seeks to determine the events, rationales, arguments and decisions that led to the various forms of Danish support. Key questions are how Danish support was established as a purely humanitarian facility that later developed into supporting also the liberation movements, and how boycott was first considered to be an issue for the individual but eventually became national, official policy. The study seeks to describe why support and sanctions developed in the way and at the pace they did. Major factors involved were Danish public awareness of developments in Southern Africa, domestic political debates and mobilisation through NGOs.This focus on processes of change has been necessary in a field of Danish foreign relations that during the course of the research was recognised as being a very wide as well as a very interesting one. As a new field of research, and with the majority of the sources never having been studied before, this study has an aim to provide a platform for other researchers, journalists and students. Hopefully it will inspire others to investigate the whole issue further-or to consider it in a different perspective.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Liberia - the eye of the storm: a review of the literature on internally displaced, refugees and returnees2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most prominent, and from a humanitarian and human rights perspective most troubling aspects of internal conflicts during recent years is the plight of the internally displaced persons, and refugees. Forced to leave their homes in search of refuge, internally displaced persons often find themselves with little protection, with unclear rights, and without safe livelihoods. While their most important support generally comes from the communities receiving them, which often have very few resources, international humanitarian organisations have not been able to agree on clear mandates with regard to who should have the overall responsibility for assisting them. Although the international community is better organised to care for those who have crossed borders and become refugees, it is still struggling to finetune and coordinate available aid instruments and to mobilize sufficient resources in order to facilitate their post-conflict return, resettlement and reintegration.

    As this literature review of internally displaced persons, refugees and returnees shows in relation to Liberia, there are ongoing conflicts where we lack sufficient understanding of migration patterns and the socio-economic conditions of the displaced, an understanding which is a prerequisite for designing appropriate preventive and mitigating action. This review also highlights the severe lack of protection of civilians in Liberia, children in particular, which leads to forced recruitments to local armed groups as well as exposure to sexual violence.

  • 12.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Number 1 January 20032003Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Number 2 May 20032003Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Number 3 October 20032003Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    An Environmental Perspective to Nigeria's Security: Conceptual and Analytical Issues2003Inngår i: Nigeria and the wider world i the 20th century: essays in honour of professor Akinjide Osuntokun / [ed] Yomi Akinyeye, Ibadan: Davidson Press , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Civil Society, Good Governance and the Challenge of Regional Security in West Africa2003Inngår i: Civil Society, Good Governance and the Challenges of Regional Security in West Africa / [ed] R. A. Akindele, Lagos: AFSTRAG; Vantage Publishers , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Emergent Actors in the African Political Economy: A Study of Youth Movements in the Oil Producing Communities of the Niger Delta2003Inngår i: Emergent Actors in African Political Economy / [ed] Katsuya Mochizuki, Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE) , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Emergent Female Power in the Popular Struggles in Nigeria: Women Movements in the Niger Delta2003Inngår i: Emergent Actors in African Society and Economy / [ed] -, Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies (IDE) , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Niger Delta2003Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Africa History / [ed] Paul Tiyambe Zeleza and Dickson Eyoh, London; New York: Routledge , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Pay or Perish? Globalisation, Pharmaceutical Multinationals and Access to HIV/Aids Drugs in Africa2003Inngår i: Codesria Bulletin, nr 2/3/4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Political and Social Dimensions of Environmental Crisis in Nigeria2003Inngår i: Human Impact on Environmental and Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Michael B. K. Darkoh and Apollo Rwomire, London: Ashgate , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Women's Organisations and the Challenges of Democratic Consolidation and Regional Security in West Africa2003Inngår i: Civil Society, Good Governance and the Challenges of Regional Security in West Africa / [ed] R. A. Akindele, Lagos: AFSTRAG; Vantage Publishers , 2003Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Rakner, Lise
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Political and economic liberalisation in Zambia 1991-20012003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the first countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in 1991 Zambia experienced  a peaceful transition to multi-party rule. The new government, Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), also committed itself to implementing an economic reform programme. The international donor community in turn generously rewarded the new government’s commitment to both political and economic change.

    Despite the optimistic forecasts in 1991, both the political and economic liberalisation processes in Zambia are today characterised by their partial implementation. Zambia has joined the vast majority of African reforming governments and entered into a 'transitional grey zone' in terms of democratic reforms, and remains stuck in a 'partial reform syndrome' characterised by a permanent economic crisis.

    What can explain the Zambian development trajectory? Why were some elements of the economic reforms implemented soon after the 1991 elections while other vital reform processes were postponed? To what extent did the processes of political and economic reform reinforce or hinder one another? This book analyses the implementation of political and economic liberalisation in Zambia during the first two election periods (1991-2001). Focussing on the negotiations between government and the key domestic interest groups, as well as the dialogues between the MMD government and the international donor community, the book argues that despite a disastrous socio-economic record, the processes of political and economic liberalisation proceeded concomitantly without seriously affecting or undermining each other. Contrary to expectations linked both to the political and economic reform processes, executive dominance increased in Zambia in the 1990s. Stressing continuity rather than change, the analysis of Zambia's reform processes suggests that the practices of patronage politics associated with authoritarian regimes are compatible with processes of political and economic liberalisation.

  • 24.
    Schlyter, Ann
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Multi-habitation: urban housing and everyday life in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of everyday life and the quality of living in a poor neighbourhood of Chitungwiza, an independent Zimbabwean town about thirty kilometres south of Harare city centre. In the official view, this is a home-ownership neighbourhood. However, there are usually many families living in multi-habitation on each property, and lodgers outnumber owners.

    Within a restricted area people have to negotiate over, and adapt their use of space. Their ability to do so differs, depending on whether they are owners, tenants or lodgers, women or men, children, adults or elderly, and whether they are gainfully employed or not. The outcome of these negotiations and adaptations decisively affects their feeling of being at home in the house and the neighbourhood. The histories told by the people who are given voice in this report point to housing as highly significant in their coping with poverty, and to multi-habitation as affecting their agency as urban citizens.

  • 25.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    "Åt helvete med tålamodet" (Under strecket)2003Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, 7- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
1 - 25 of 25
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