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  • 1.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kebede, BereketShimeles, Abebe
    Poverty, income distribution and labour markets in Ethiopia2005Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world with a per capita income of just over US$100. Understanding the causes of the country's widespread poverty is of the utmost importance. Until recently, however, very little household data was available. This study deals with the many aspects of poverty and income distribution in Ethiopia. It analyses the determinants of poverty and how its conditions have changed in both rural and urban areas over time. Rural and urban poverty profiles and the dynamics of poverty are examined, measurements taken of consumption poverty are compared with individual perceptions of poverty, and an analysis is made of the distribution of intra-household expenditure and the dynamics of income distribution. In addition, the functioning of the urban labour market returns to education, and the effects of education on household welfare are investigated. Finally, there is extensive discussion of the wide range of policies that need to be coordinated for poverty reduction in Ethiopia.

  • 2.
    Buur, Lars
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kyed, Helene Maria
    State recognition of traditional authority in Mozambique: the nexus of community representation and state assistance2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How should the Mozambican traditional leaders' double role as community representatives and state assistants be captured? This discussion paper addresses some fundamental questions pertaining to the 2002 official recognition of traditional leaders as community authorities. After a brief history of the changing role of, and faith in, traditional authorities as a basis for understanding the importance of their recent official recognition, the paper outlines the key objectives of the Decree 15/2000 that officially recognises community authorities. Some of the key concepts underpinning the Decree are then critically assessed. It is argued that the double role that community authorities are expected to fulfil as both community-representatives and state-assistants is not equally balanced in the Decree: the scale tips heavily towards the state-assistance aspect. The reasons for this are explored in the context of a set of reified notions underpinning the Decree, such as its understanding of 'traditional rules' and the concept of 'community'. The paper concludes by pointing out some unintended con-sequences of these reified notions for kin-based forms of community authority and especially for the ideal of community participation.

  • 3. Dansereau, Suzanne
    et al.
    Zamponi, Mario
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe - the political economy of decline2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The two articles are revised versions of papers presented at the end of May 2004 to a Zimbabwe Conference at the Nordic Africa Institute, which was co-organised by the project "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA). They highlight current socio-economic aspects of Zimbabwean society. By doing so, they raise relevant issues, yet ones that have tended to be neglected given the almost exclusive concentration on political events. While this is understandable, the articles fill the gap in our knowledge and add insights into important sectors of society. These include information on the Zimbabwean economy and the present constraints of the decline, which together help us to understand the structural legacy that any future government will have to deal with. What is more, the elections in Zimbabwe in 2005 provide an ideal moment to discuss such matters. This Discussion Paper will thereby make a substantive contribution to the analysis of the overall picture in Zimbabwe.

    CONTENT

    Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Zimbabwe's Development Impasse. Suzanne Dansereau

    From Social Justice, to Neo-liberalism, to Authoritarian Nationalism - Where is the Zimbabwean State going? Mario Zamponi

  • 4.
    Ebeku, Kaniye S. A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The succession of Faure Gnassingbe to the Togolese presidency: an international law perspective2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The African renaissance - the renewal of the continent - effectively started in the last decade of the second millennium. A critical element is the increasing and widespread democratic awakening in all parts of Africa since the early 1990s as evidenced by the number of multi-party elections. Demonstrating their commitment to democracy, African leaders, under the auspices of regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU), have increasingly made a number of treaties, declarations and other political commitments in the field of democracy and good governance (including the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the Declaration on Africa’s Response to Unconstitutional Changes of Government). Significantly, the recent politico-constitutional crisis in Togo, occasioned by the sudden death of President Gnassingbe Eyadema in early February 2005, after he had ruled the country with an iron-fist for 38 years, and the interim succession of his son, Faure Gnassingbe, to the presidency, raised issues of democracy and good governance and provided an opportunity for African countries to test the effectiveness of the various democracy-related instruments. Adopting a legal-jurisprudential perspective, the author skillfully examines the contradictions between the regional-international legal instruments that permit interference in the internal affairs of a Member State of ECOWAS and AU and the principles of international law that provide for sovereign equality of States and non-interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign State. Undoubtedly, this work will interest scholars, students and researchers in international law, international politics and international relations as well as general readers, especially those interested in African affairs.

    CONTENT

    Introduction

    Politico-Constitutional Antecedents of the Recent Developments

    Regional Instruments on Democratic Principles in Africa

    Some Basic Principles of International Law: In a Nutshell Faure’s Succession: Validity of the Removal of Fambare Ouattara Natchaba from Office

    Faure’s Succession and Legality of Constitutional Amendment

    Faure’s Succession and the Doctrine of State Necessity

    Faure’s Succession and Regional Instruments on Democracy and Good Governance

    Concluding Remarks

    References

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Hans
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Hagströmer, Björn
    Chad - towards democratisation or petro-dictatorship?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a background of the socio-political situation in Chad and the oil project, and analyses how the two will develop and interact in the future. A key feature is an analysis of the incentives in the oil project and their possible future changes.

    Chad is currently undergoing two processes of significant importance for its future development - political democratisation and transformation into an oil economy. For a country plagued with civil war for decades until 1990, and known as one of the poorest and most corrupt states in the world, this is a real challenge.

    The oil export started in late 2003, and boosted the economy in 2004. To avoid the disastrous experiences of most poor African oil states, unique oil management, control mechanisms and other conditionalities have been imposed by the World Bank - much thanks to pressure from the civil society and the international community. If implemented well, Chad may become a model for how a poor resource-rich country is able to promote socio-economic development and poverty reduction. However, this demands a close and coordinated cooperation between the Chadian government and the civil society, based on accountability and good governance, and with continuous support of the World Bank and the international community. The situation is fragile and progress is uncertain. If a broader economic development is achieved, conditions for an improved democratisation can be created in the long term.The Chadian oil project deserves continued close attention and monitoring.

  • 6.
    Gausset, Quentin
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Whyte, MichaelBirch-Thomsen, Torben
    Beyond territory and scarcity: exploring conflicts over natural resource management2005Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The attainment of sound and sustainable environmental management is one of humanity's greatest challenges this century, particularly in Africa, which is still heavily dependent on the exploitation of natural and agricultural resources and is faced with rapid population growth. Yet, this challenge should not be reduced to Malthusian parameters and the simple question of population growth and failing resources.In this volume, ten anthropologists and geographers critically address traditionalMalthusian discourses in essays that attempt to move "beyond territory andscarcity" by:- Exploring alternatives to the strong natural determinism that reduces natural resource management to questions of territory and scarcity.- Presenting material and methodologies that explore the different contexts in which social and cultural values intervene, and discovering more than 'rational choice' in the agency of individuals.- Examining the relevance of the different conceptions of territory for the ways in which people manage, or attempt to manage, natural resources.- Placing their research within the framework of the developing discussion on policy and politics in natural resource management.

    The studies are drawn from a range of sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Lesotho, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Sudan.

    CONTENT

    Introduction. Quentin Gausset and Michael Whyte

    Land and Labour: Agrarian Change in Post-retrenchment Lesotho. Christian Boehm

    Social Resilience in African Dryland Livelihoods: Deriving Lessons for Policy. Michael Mortimore

    The Making of an Environment: Ecological History of the Kapsiki/Higi of North Cameroon and North Eastern Nigeria. Walter van Beek and Sonja Avontuur

    Agro-pastoral Conflicts in the Tikar Plain (Adamawa, Cameroon). Quentin Gausset

    Transhumance, Tubes and Telephones: Drought Related Migration as a Process of Innovation. Kristine Juul

    Understanding Resource Management in Western Sudan: A Critical Look at New Institutional Economics. Leif Manger

    Within, and Beyond, Territories: A Comparison of Village Land Use Management and Livelihood Diversificationin Burkina Faso and Southwest Niger. Simon Batterbury

    Moving the Boundaries of Forest and Land Use History: The Case of Upper East Region in Northern Ghana. Andrew Wardell

    Transnational Dimensions to Environmental Resource Dynamics: Modes of Governance and Local Resource Management in Eastern DRC. James Fairhead

  • 7.
    Kristina Rylander,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Studying Africa: A guide to the sources2005Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Studying Africa is an introduction to the basic handbooks and standard works on contemporary Africa. The first part of the book is a guide to searching for literature and facts within the field of the social sciences. It deals with bibliographies, databases, reference works, yearbooks, journals, Internet resources, statistics, maps and official publications. Active links to the websites mentioned in the text can be found at the end of each chapter. In the sections entitled “African information on the Internet” and “Statistics”, additional links are given within the text itself. The second part of the book consists of introductions to the literature within the subject areas of history, politics, economics, geography, anthropology and education.

  • 8.
    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Models for life: advancing antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Models for Life: Advancing antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is based on two conferences that were held in Copenhagen and Uppsala, in September 2004. The events brought together more than 70 key actors from Denmark, Sweden and Uganda in the field of HIV/AIDS and its treatment: antiretroviral therapy. The conferences were unique in that each panel and the subsequent discussion brought together researchers, donors and representatives from non-governmental organisations, in order to link theory, operations research and practice.

    The working paper covers a wide range of the issues that were brought up at the conferences, but focuses on the following three main topics:

    - Access to antiretroviral therapy

    - Holistic approaches to providing antiretroviral therapy, prevention and support

    - Antiretroviral therapy and public health services.

    Each section begins by introducing the core issues to be addressed. The different presentations are then put into perspective by summarising the main questions from the participants and the other panellists. In addition, the editors have further developed some of the key points made by drawing on current literature in the field. The final section concludes with a list of take-home messages for non-governmental organisations.

  • 9.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kvinnlig könsstympning. Ett utbildningsmaterial för skola, socialtjänst och hälso- och sjukvård2005Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kunskapsöversikt riktar sig till personal inom socialtjänst, hälso- och sjukvård, skola med mera, som på ett eller annat sätt kommer i kontakt med människor som har könsstympning som en del av sin kultur. Avsikten är att ge berörd personal möjlighet att förvärva och fördjupa sina kunskaper om kvinnlig könsstympning. Detta kan i sin tur leda till förbättrade metoder vad gäller omhändertagande och bemötande av kvinnor som könsstympats eller flickor som riskerar att könsstympas. Relevant lagstiftning beskrivs och det förebyggande arbetet poängteras.

    Könsstympning av flickor är förbjuden i Sverige. Man räknar med att mellan 100-140 miljoner flickor och kvinnor i Afrika är könsstympade och att ytterligare 2 miljoner flickor varje år utsätts för ingreppet (WHO 2001). I Sverige utgör somalierna den största grupp som har könsstympning som tradition. Könsstympning av flickor har därför blivit synliggjort sedan slutet av 1980-talet, när somaliska flyktingar började komma hit. Seden finns dock även i andra länder; i exempelvis Eritrea, Etiopien och Gambia utövas traditionen i skild omfattning bland vissa grupper.

  • 10.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Trade, development, cooperation: what future for Africa?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bi- and multilateral trade relations between external actors and individual African states or regional blocs are becoming ever more decisive. The trade policies of both the USA and the EU are anything but helpful. This is true of the USAs African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), the EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with South Africa and more recently the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiated in the Post-Cotonou era of European relations with the South. All these initiatives have a potentially detrimental impact on regional integration. The latter remains however a priority in the developmental policy and strategy documents as formulated both by African agencies as well as the partners in development cooperation in the OECD countries. Hence the question of coherence between trade as aid and other areas of development strategy and cooperation remains to be answered.

    The three analyses presented in this publication are centred on related issues in the ongoing process of globalisation under the WTO regime, and their likely effect on African countries. Each chapter critically examines recent trends in the discourse on trade reform and development.

    The contributions to this volume offer discussion and food for thought for scholars, policy makers and NGO activists alike on closely related topical issues in European-African trade relations and development cooperation.

  • 11.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    History in the making2005Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    From the contents: Togo: Family matters/Richard Cornwell -- The lost status of women of Madagascar/Mireille Rabenoro -- A portrait of Tore Linné Eriksen

  • 12.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    No. 1 January 20052005Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    No. 3 October 20052005Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conflict and Peace in West Africa2005Inngår i: News from the Nordic Africa Institute, Vol. 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Environmental movements in Sub-Saharan Africa : a political ecology of power and conflict2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Introduction: Special Issue on Conflict and Politics in Post-Cold War Africa2005Inngår i: Journal of Asian and African Studies, ISSN 0021-9096, E-ISSN 1745-2538, Vol. 4, nr 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Liberia’s Forthcoming General Elections2005Inngår i: NAI Newsletter, Vol. Oct.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Niger Delta: Transatlantic Reflections on the Colonial Mirror2005Inngår i: The Dark Webs: Perspectives on Colonialism in Africa / [ed] Toyin Falola, Durham: Carolina Academic Press , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nigeria: The Oil State and the Crisis of Nation-Building in Africa2005Inngår i: Nation-Building: A Key Concept For Peaceful Conflict Resolution? / [ed] Jochen Hippler, London: Pluto Press , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Oil and Federalism in Nigeria2005Inngår i: Nigerian Federalism in Crisis: Critical Perspectives and Political Options / [ed] Ebere Onwudiwe and Rotimi Suberu, Ibadan: Programme on Ethnic and Federal Studies (PEFS), University of Ibadan , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Oil, US Global Security and the Challenge of Development in West Africa2005Inngår i: Codesria Bulletin, nr 3-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Post-conflict transition, the state and civil society in Africa2005Inngår i: News from the Nordic Africa Institute, Vol. 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23. Olukoshi, Adebayo
    et al.
    Agbaje, AdigunAbdullah, HussainahObi, Cyril I.Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Beyond the State: Nigeria’s Search for Positive Leadership2005Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Palmberg, Mai
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Cultural Images and Expressions.
    Primorac, Ranka
    Skinning the skunk - facing Zimbabwean futures2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    SKINNING THE SKUNK refers to a saying in Shona, kuvhiya kadembo. The Zimbabwean writer Stanley Nyamfukudza uses it here to illustrate how important problems, like the legacy of violence, are avoided in Zimbabwean public discussion. Terence Ranger writes on the new policy of rewriting the history of Zimbabwe, in the name of patriotic history, through which the Zanu-PF government tries to assert hegemony and achieve a total change of the mindset. To talk about Zimbabwe today also means to talk of the large diaspora. Beacon Mbiba presents a study on what is colloquially called Harare North, that is London (and the rest of the UK).

  • 25.
    Rolandsen, Øystein H.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Guerrilla government: political changes in the southern Sudan during the 1990s2005Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it suffered a serious setback when, in 1991, three senior commanders tried to wrestle control from its leader, John Garang, the SPLM/A has remained the main rebel organisation in the southern Sudan since the start of the second civil war in 1983. At a national level the SPLM/As influence over political development in the south has been matched only by the government in Khartoum and its armed forces, and at a local level only by chiefs, who derive their power from the old system of indirect rule, established by the British during the colonial period. An understanding of the changes and processes within the SPLM/A is, therefore, essential to an analysis of the Sudans contemporary history and current events, which includes continuing peace negotiations, and the planning of post-war southern Sudan. This volume analyses the main events leading up to the SPLM/As current position of supremacy and follows the process of internal reform that has brought about a nascent state structure amidst a devastating civil war and continuous humanitarian crisis.The book consists of three chronologically ordered, integrated parts, where the first part discusses the effect of the split in 1991 and the movements political and administrative structures prior to its National Convention in 1994. The activities of southern rebels, traditional structures and humanitarian agencies are described, and the study shows how the interaction between these institutions constituted a unique political system.The 1994 Convention is discussed in the second part. The Convention was, and to some extent still is, regarded by most members of the SPLM/A as one of the Movement’s greatest achievements. Here the processes leading up to the National Convention is recaptured; preparations and the event itself are discussed thoroughly.Finally, the book analyses the significance of the Convention and its reforms in the light of later attempts at implementation when, in the last part of the 1990s, political paralysis set in as the Movement experienced unprecedented military success. The discussion is brought to a conclusion with a brief summary of events during the period 2000–2004 and presents some thoughts on the future government of the south Sudan.

    Guerrilla Government is of interest to academics, humanitarian workers and diplomats concerned with the Sudan’s contemporary history, civil wars and humanitarian operations in a war-zone. The book contributes towards documenting the experience of the southern Sudanese and the pretext for the current peace process, and provides ample case material for students of insurgencies and internal conflicts. Explaining the political and military background to today’s complex situation in the South, Guerrilla Government should be studied by everyone who wishes to contribute to the rebuilding of a war-torn Sudan.

  • 26.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Agency of Victims: young women's survival strategies in the Liberian Civil War2005Inngår i: Makers and Breakers: Children and Youth as Emerging Categories in Postcolonial Africa / [ed] Alcinda Honwana and Filip de Boeck, Oxford: James Currey , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Building a future? The reintegration and re-marginalisation of youth in Liberia2005Inngår i: No Peace, no war: an anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts / [ed] Paul Richards, Oxford and Athens: James Currey and Ohio University Press , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Gute Jungs, böse Jungs2005Inngår i: Jungle World, Vol. 31, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Gute Jungs, Böse Jungs2005Inngår i: Die Wochenzeitung, nr October 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 30.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Victimcy, Girlfriending, Soldiering: Tactic Agency in a Young Woman's Social Navigation of the Liberian War Zone2005Inngår i: Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 403-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Victimcy, girlfriending, soldiering, tactic agency in a young woman's social navigation of the Liberian war zone2005Inngår i: Anthropological Quarterly, ISSN 0003-5491, E-ISSN 1534-1518, Vol. 78, nr 2, s. 403-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to collapse the often gendered opposition of agency and victim-hood that typically characterizes the analysis of women's coping strategies in war zones. The term victimcy is proposed to describe the agency of self-staging as victim of war and explore how it is deployed as one tactic-amongst others-in one young Liberian woman's "social navigation" of war zones. Victimcy is thus revealed as a form of self-representation by which a certain form of tactic agency is effectively exercised under the trying, uncertain, and disempowering circumstances that confront actors in warscapes. However the story of Bintu also reveals the complexity of women's strategies, roles, and options as they confront conflicting challenges and opportunities in war zones. While in some circumstances women may take humanitarian aid, in others they may also take up arms. An ethnography of social tactics thus counters reductionist portrayals of women in war zones as merely the passive victims of conflict.

1 - 31 of 31
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