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  • 1.
    Alden, Chris
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sidiropoulos, Elizabeth
    Africa-China-EU Cooperation in Africa: Prospects and Pitfalls2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africa-China-EU cooperation is still in its formative stages. It has the express focus of contributing to peace, stability and sustainable development in Africa. The creation of a virtuous circle of growth and development, one which employs the tools of globalisation to Africa’s best advantage, has to be a fundamental aim of any trilateral cooperation. At the same time, the opening up of trilateral dialogue should allow all three partners to give consideration to areas in which conflicting views or interests arise. Indeed, the spectre of a two-way China-EU “donor cartel” emerging from the process continues to negatively influence perceptions of the initiative in some African circles. Thus, the challenge facing Africa, China and the EU is to envisage a mechanism or modality for managing trilateral cooperation in the era of globalisation that addresses the concerns of all participants while maintaining an overarching commitment to African development. This policy note examines the origins of the trilateral dialogue, makes proposals for building on this dialogue, and ends with possible models for this trilateral cooperation.

  • 2.
    Azzain Mohamed, Adam
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Evaluating the Darfur Peace Agreement: A Call for an Alternative Approach to Crisis Management2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conceptualising Civil society in Africa: The case of Eritrea2009Inngår i: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 5, nr 1, 35-59 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State-Building in Post-Liberation Eritrea: Challenges, Achievements and Potentials2009 (oppl. first)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Eritrea-Ethiopia Conflict and the Algiers Agreement: Eritrea's road to isolation2009Inngår i: Eritrea's External Relations: Understanding its regional role and foreign policy / [ed] Richard Reid, London: Chatham House , 2009, 1, 98-130 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Ethnic and Civic Basis of Citizenship in the Horn of Africa2009Inngår i: Faith, Citizenship, Democracy and Peace in the Horn of Africa / [ed] Sthlm Policy Group, Lund: Lund University , 2009, first, 131-148 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Campbell, Bonnie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mining in Africa: regulation and development2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The continent of Africa is rich in minerals needed by Western economies. Yet the mining industry contributes very little to African development.

    Investigating the impact of the 2003 Extractive Industries Review on a number of African countries, the contributors find that a key dimension of the problem lies in the regulatory frameworks imposed on African countries by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. They aim to convince academics, governments, and industry that regulation needs to be reformed to create a mining industry favourable to social and economic development and environmental protection.

    The book takes a multidisciplinary approach and provides an historical perspective of each country, making it ideal for students of development studies.

    CONTENT

    Acknowledgements

    Introduction - Bonnie Campbell

    Chapter 1. Mining in Ghana: Implications for National Economic Development and Poverty Reduction – Thomas Akabzaa

    Chapter 2. Guinea and Bauxite-Aluminum: The Challenges of Development and Poverty Reduction – Bonnie Campbell

    Chapter 3. Mining, Poverty Reduction, the Protection of the Environment and the Role of the World Bank Group in Mali – Gisèle Belem

    Chapter 4. Mining and Protection of the Environment in Madagascar – Bruno Sarrasin

    Chapter 5. Governance, Human Rights and Mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo – Marie Mazalto

    Chapter 6. Conclusion: What Development Model? What Government Agenda? – Bonnie Campbell

    Index

  • 8.
    Cheru, Fantu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The urban challenge in Africa2009Inngår i: SPACE, Vol. 200902, nr 495, 92-99 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Courson, Elias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND): political marginalization, repression and petro-insurgency in the Niger Delta2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion paper addresses the linkages between the political economy of oil and violent conflict in Nigeria’s main oil and gas producing region, the Niger Delta. It is based on a case study of the insurgent Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), which has targeted and attacked the interests of international oil companies and the federal government in the oil-rich, but impoverished, Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in its professed campaign for the control of the oil wealth of the region for the benefit of local people. Through this study of MEND, fresh perspectives are brought to bear on the causes and ramifications of the oil conflict in the region, and the role of various actors at the local, national and international levels. This is important in grasping the nature of the violence in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and the enormity of the task of resolving the complex conflict in which the region is immersed. It is a challenge, which as the author argues, transcends the resort to the militarized or securitized solutions that often fail to adequately address the roots of conflict.

  • 10.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Migrant remittances. An overview of global and Swedish flows2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant remittances – money and gifts sent to relatives back home – have attracted increasing international attention. The flow of remittances has become a major source of revenue for developing countries, exceeding the volume of aid. Three recent studies at Uppsala University bring this issue to light in the context of Sweden’s Policy for Global Development.

    Very little has so far been known about the flow of remittances from Sweden; official data indicate an amount exceeding 4 billion kronor in 2006. The real flows are most likely higher; Swedish and international studies estimate that real remittances are 30-50 per cent above the officially recorded amounts. Statistics Sweden (SCB) is recommended to enhance its records of remittances in terms of desirable scope and reliability, for instance regarding specification of the amounts remitted to different countries.

    Remittance flows from Sweden are linked to the remitters’ incomes and, hence, vary with the business cycle. Experience suggests that the ongoing world economic crisis will have a negative impact on remittance flows also from Sweden.

    It is suggested that enhanced knowledge in Sweden about available remittance services and their costs and measures to promote a better functioning remittance market could increase the net value of these money.

  • 11.
    Gao, Xuan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The proliferation of anti-dumping and poor governance in emerging economies: case studies of China and South Africa2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Through examination of the alleged rationale of the anti-dumping (AD) instrument, this paper argues that it has little to do with fairness or with level playing fields. AD trade protection enjoys broad political support merely because its convoluted technical complexities prevent all but a few insiders and experts from understanding the reality that underlies the rhetoric, thus enabling inefficient but well-organised domestic producers to safely utilise the instrument to protect themselves from foreign competition, at times in collusion with foreign exporters and with the national AD authorities as a broker. While the best option for AD reform, i.e., complete removal, is not practically available, this paper proposes improving AD’s procedural institutions by enhancing the quality of public governance in the formulation of AD decisions by national authorities. It further examines the AD practices and laws of China and South Africa, arguing that poor governance in emerging economies contributes to their prolific use of AD, usually disproportionate to their small share of world imports. These economies already maintain higher tariff barriers than industrial countries, so that without effective steps to ensure better governance to restrain the arbitrary and proliferating use of AD, they may lose out significantly on the gains from the trade liberalisation for which they have been striving for decades.

    CONTENTS

    Foreword

    1. Introduction

    2. Anti-dumping: Rhetoric vs. Reality

    2.1 The Rehtoric of AD: To Ensure Level Playing Fields by Offsetting Unfair Competition

    2.1.1 The Economic Rationale of Free Trade and Competition

    2.1.2 AD: A Competition-Distorting and Protectionist Instrument

    2.2 AD: Misundertanding, Ignorance and Indifference

    2.2.1 Collaboration between Special Interest Groups and Decision Makers

    3. Harnessing Anti-Dumping: A Good Governance Approach

    3.1 Good Governance in AD Decision Making

    3.2 The Prolific Use of AD by Emerging Economies and the Low Quality of Governance

    3.2.1 AD Desicion Making in China

    3.2.2 AD Decision Formulation in South Africa

    4. Conclusions

    References

     

     

  • 12.
    Goodison, Paul
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Impact de la réforme de la Politique agricole commune (PAC) sur le commerce des produits agricoles et alimentaires entre l’Afrique et l’UE2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Le présent document examine certains aspects fondamentauxdu processus d’ajustement du secteur agricole et alimentaire européen, dans le cadre de la réforme de la Politique agricole commune (PAC). Il met en évidence le changement d’outils politiques opéré par l’UE, illustré par l’abandon du soutien aux prix agricoles au profit du soutien aux revenus de ses agriculteurs, ainsi que par la réorientation de sa politique en faveur de la qualité des produits agricoles et alimentaires et au détriment de la quantité. De même, le document passe en revue les conséquences d’un tel changement, l’UE étant de moins en moins en faveur d’un recours aux mesures de politiquecommerciale dans les politiques de développement agricole en faveur de pays tiers. Il rappelle, au passage, les implications d’une telle évolution pour les secteurs agricole et alimentaire en Afrique, avant de tirer des conclusions et de formuler quelques recommandations d’ordre général.

  • 13.
    Goodison, Paul
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Situating the EPA negotiations: Issues and unresolved debates in Africa-EU trade relations2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time it has been necessary to move beyond sterile debates for or against Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The real issue is: what kind of EPAs will support African governments in their efforts to promote the structural transformation of their economies, so that they can move beyond the production of simple and unprocessed products to the production of a range of higher value products, for national, regional and international markets, and in the process help them tackle poverty and employment issues. This paper seeks to situate the ongoing EPA negotiations and debate around contentious issues in the context of the wider European Union (EU) trade policy and African aspirations for sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  • 14.
    Goodison, Paul
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The impact of common agricultural policy (CAP) reform on Africa-EU trade in food and agricultural products2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to look at certain fundamental features of the EU food and agricultural sector adjustment process as it manifests itself through the reform of the CAP. It highlights the shift in policy tools, from price support for agricultural products to income support for EU farmers and the shift in policy emphasis from the quantity of agricultural products to the quality of food and agriculturalproducts. It reviews the implications of this policy shift for the EU’s diminishing tolerance of the use of trade policy tools as part of agricultural development policies in third countries. It highlights in passing the implications of these developments for the African food and agriculturalsectors, before drawing out some broad conclusions and recommendations.

  • 15.
    Haram, Liv
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Yamba, C. Bawa
    Dealing with uncertainty in contemporary African lives2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The articles in ‘Dealing with Uncertainty in Contemporary African Lives’ are based largely on work in Tanzania which has been spared much of the turmoil that elsewhere has uprooted populations and destroyed communities. Nevertheless they illuminate phenomena common throughout sub-Saharan Africa as modernity in its many guises undercuts old certainties, outmodes established knowledge of how to order life and deal with crises, introduces new hazards, and frustrates ambition and expectations. But as the editors, Haram and Yamba, point out, uncertainty and insecurity have a positive side, providing the basis for ‘curiosity and exploration’. The case studies demonstrate both the increasing uncertainty and insecurity of life in contemporary Africa and the ways that people respond, including warding off and reaching out. Scapegoats are sought. Witch beliefs become elaborated as explanations of failures and malaise while witchfinding becomes a lucrative profession. Pentecostal or other fundamentalist churches burgeon as they assure people that life has meaning and better times are before them if only they believe. Suicide and insanity are other possible responses. All in all, a thought-provoking volume. Elizabeth Colson, Professor Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley

  • 16.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    HIV and Income Inequality: If there is a link, what does it tell us?2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a striking variation in the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among countries and regions of the world, with a distinct geographical pattern. This paper explores the link between income inequality and HIV. It presents empirical evidence—a meta-study and additional cross-country regression results—that clearly support the argument that such a link exists. The interpretation of this link is an open issue. Four different hypotheses are discussed, each one pointing out a transit route from income inequality to HIV. The paper presents preliminary evidence on these routes and identifies potential areas for future research.

  • 17.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Impact of the Financial crisis on Africa: The unpredictable flows: remittances and aid2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The forecast of economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa have repeatedly been revised downwards over the last 6 months. It has now reached 2% which is close to a third of what it was a year ago, implying negative growth in per capita terms. Considerable uncertainties remain in these forecasts. Oil- and mineral exporters are likely to take a severe first hit, as collapsing commodity prices translate to reduced export revenues and foreign direct investments are paralyzed. Two additional flows that connect Africa to the global economy, where impact is harder to predict, are aid and remittances. This note explores how these flows have reacted in OECD countries during previous episodes of severe financial crises. It is shown that if these past episodes serve as a guide to the present, then a considerable reduction is to be expected. Remittances would react immediately, while the impact on aid would be lagged but being more prolonged. Given that projection, the critical need for more of accountability in international aid commitments is discussed.

  • 18.
    Ismail, Olawale
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Dynamics of post-conflict reconstruction and peace building in West Africa: between change and stability2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This NAI Discussion Paper critically explores the concepts, norms and practices of reconstruction and peace building in post-conflict West Africa, drawing largely on the case of Liberia and Sierra Leone. It provides an up-to-date analysis and critique of the impact of the UN-led praxis and practice of peace building in the post-conflict states in the region. The material in this study covers the context of post-conflict reconstruction and peace building in West Africa; the evolution and analysis of the global peace building regime; the architecture of peace building in West Africa; the ‘un-making’ of peace building in Sierra Leone. It also interrogates the basic assumtions that underpin international peace building in Africa, noting that at best, it is designed to promote stability and security rather than a deeper and more sustainable popular and socially rooted peace.

  • 19.
    Khumalo, Nkululeko
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mulleta, Fantu
    EPAs and the post-Lisbon Implementation Status2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The negotiations for Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the European Union (EU) were launched in 2000. The talks are carried out in terms of the Cotonou Agreement, which seeks to replace the non-reciprocal export preferences ACP countries have had with the European Community (EC) with reciprocal free trade arrangements. These negotiations have been carried out on a regional basis since January 2008 in order to align the parties’ trade regime with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. Accordingly, a number of ACP countries initialled Interim Economic Partnership Agreement texts at the end of 2007. The IEPAs are a stopgap measure meant to prevent trade disruptions while negotiations on fully fledged EPAs continue. The second stage of negotiations, which will include services, investment, competition and government procurement, is expected to lead to the conclusion of fully fledged EPAs. This policy note seeks to provide a brief overview of the implementation status of the EPAs in selected African regions. The paper also looks at the impact of the Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (IEPAs) on the countries that initialled them and provides recommendations on how to ensure that the eventual full EPA agreements promote the interests of African countries.

  • 20.
    Kibreab, Gaim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Eritrea: a dream deferred2009Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eritrean independence under the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (now the People's Front for Democracy and Justice) became an international cause celebre during the 1980s. Eritrea was the first African nation to gain independence in the post-colonial period and appeared to be opening a new and progressive path in African politics. But the promise of the revolution was soon betrayed by the outbreak of war with Ethiopia, the PFDJ's increasingly repressive domestic policies, its mismanagement of the country's economy, and its hostile relations with its neighbours.The PFDJ government dismantled existing formal and informal institutions, crippled the private sector, banned private newspapers, civil and political society organisations, expelled international NGOs and aid agencies when over two-thirds of the population were dependent on food aid, detained without trial journalists, thousands of dissidents, and former leaders of the liberation struggle, and turned national service from an instrument of nation building and national integration into an instrument of open-ended forced labour.In this well-researched first account of post-independence Eritrea, Gaim Kibreab gives a detailed and critical analysis of how things went woefully wrong and how the former 'liberators' turned into oppressors with no respect for the rule of law, human rights and religious freedom.

    CONTENT

    1  Introduction

    2  The Broken Promises, Demand for Change & Violation of Human Rights

    3  Associational Life in Independent Eritrea

    4  Towards an Explanation

    5  The Demise of the Private Sector

    6  PFDJ's Dominance of the Economy & the Consequences

    7  Freedom of Association, Political Stability & Institutions

    8  Shattered Promises: In Lieu of a Conclusion

  • 21.
    Kuwali, Dan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Persuasive prevention: Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the legality of intervention without Security Council authorisation is still debatablein international law, over-reliance on military intervention increases the risk of too much focus on reactive rather than proactive strategies. If the thresholds for Article 4(h) intervention – like those of the responsibility to protect – are serious international crimes subject to universal jurisdiction, it follows that measures to ensure the observance of the law in prospect, rather than intervention and penalisation of violations in retrospect,are important in preventing violations. Therefore, in order to in a timely manner and effectively implement Article 4(h) and R2P, the missing link is borderless ‘persuasive prevention’ which aims at enforcing fundamental human rights obligations to prevent mass atrocity crimes stipulated in Article 4(h). To this end, as a minimum, the AU should discharge its responsibility to prevent human rights violations through the ‘force of law’. Where atrocities are likely to take place, the African Standby Force (ASF) should be deployedin a timely way, not to defeat a State, but to pursue perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes. To achieve this, the ASF should have the ‘capability to protect’ to ensure the ‘obligationto prosecute or extradite’. Although the AU has taken an interventionist stance, what is needed most is early action to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The AU may need to establish a body to monitor the implementation of obligations whose breach may lead to the heinous crimes in Article 4(h). In addition, the AU needs a legally binding instrument to ensure accountability and end impunity for crimes in Article 4(h). The idea is to influencethe calculus of potential authors of atrocities and ensure compliance with human rights and humanitarian law obligations.

  • 22.
    Kuwali, Daniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The African Union and the challenges of implementing the “responsibility to protect”2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of the “responsibility to protect” (“R2P”) was endorsed by the world’s leaders sitting at the 2005 World Summit level in the UN General Assembly. The World Summit Outcome Document affirmed that every sovereign government has a responsibility to protect its citizens and those within its jurisdiction from genocide, war crimes, “ethnic cleansing” and crimes against humanity (UN 2005 paras. 138–139). The concept of R2P is cast in the three core pillars: first, an affirmation of the primary and continuing obligation of individual states to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity, as well as incitement thereof; second, a commitment by the international community to assist states in meeting these obligations; and third, acceptance by UN member states of their responsibility to respond in a timely and decisive manner through the UN Security Council, if national authorities are manifestly failing to protect their populations from these mass atrocity crimes. R2P is a restatement of positive binding obligations of states to protect their citizens from mass atrocity crimes; and the collective responsibility to the international community to prevent mass atrocity crimes. R2P is about taking effective action at the earliest possible stage (Evans 2008). These obligations are particularly relevant to Africa in the face of crises such as those in Sudan (Darfur), parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Somalia. It is, however, rather early to pass definitive judgement on the relatively young notion of R2P without addressing some of the challenges confronting its implementation in Africa.

  • 23.
    Lagerström, Birgitta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    As Angolanas2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The first time that I met Angolan women was in 1976 when Ruth Neto and Maria Mambo Café visited Stockholm, gathered by Svenska Kvinnors Vänsterförbund (Women’s Association of the Swedish Left, SKV). In 1978 I received a journalism scholarship by SIDA (Swedish International Development Agency) and spent six weeks in Angola to get acquainted to know the Organization of Angolan Women (OMA, Organizacão de Mulher Angolana). I travelled to Huambo with two OMA officials: Irene Neto, (sister of the first president of the Angolan republic, Augustinho Neto) and Luisa Chongolola. The visit to Angola resulted in a book, jointly written with Hillevi Nilsson of AGIS (The Africa Groups of Sweden) published in Swedish, about the OMA in the form of written testimonies about the role of the Angolan woman. I returned to Angola invited to a congress of the OMA in 1983, and later, in 1990, to work in Luanda for the OMA until 1993. I made joint articles with Idalinda Rodrigues who at that time was an employee of the OMA. Helena Cunha acted as consultant regarding portuguese language. All the articles have been published/appeared in the Jornal de Angola. The photographer Cinquenta of the Jornal de Angola also helped me get to know Luanda well. We tried publishing a book in 1992, but this was not possible due to the reemergence of war in Luanda in the end of October of that year. The texts were written between 1979 and 1992, and AGIS added a chapter in 2006.

  • 24.
    Larsen, Kjersti
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Knowledge, renewal and religion: repositioning and changing ideological and material circumstances among the Swahili on the East African coast2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades religion has entered the political debate and is evoked in relation to a variety of events taking place around the world. Religion and religious differences, not political, economic or social, are claimed to be the cause rather than an expression of – or even a reaction to – ongoing problems. Islam and Christianity (or also Islam and Hinduism) are, in most cases, represented not only as opposed, but also as incommensurable worldviews, value systems and identities, where the one is threatening the existence of the other. Among the Swahili on the East-African Coast, this trend provokes questions related to whether we should approach what appear to be expressions of religious positioning in terms of renewal of previous understandings and relationships, or as a rephrasing of complex and conflictual matters that were always part of Swahili society. The papers in this book reveal that the Swahili are experiencing worsening economic, political and social conditions. Within these circumstances, Islam is invoked as a source of knowledge that not only explains the current state of life and living, but also gives directions on how to cope with and to change the situation for the better. Islam is both what reinforces Swahili identity and a particular way of life, and at the same time, given the current international climate, further marginalizes Swahili society and culture.

  • 25.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Bearing the pain: Changing views of the meaning and morality of suffering2009Inngår i: Body Politics and women citizens - African Experiences / [ed] Ann Schlyter, Stockholm: Sida , 2009, 24, 104-112 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the significance of ordeals as connected to constructions of female gender identity and morality among the popular classes of Muslim women of Cairo. The text is structured around pain and suffering as social experience, but also concerns pain as individual and embodied. The thrust of this paper is how the lived experiences of pain and suffering, as narrated by women in Cairo, are shaped and challenged by the social and political changes that impinge on these women’s lives. Thus, how the subject is constructed through the intricate interplay of the global hegemonic structures of power, where the most intimate sphere has been exposed in the international arena, and the lived experience of female circumcision, defloration and childbirth.

  • 26.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Just like couscous: Gender, agency and the politics of female circumcision in Cairo2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores how female gender identity is continually created and re-created in Egypt through a number of daily practices, of which female circumcision is central. In order to do so, the study inquires into the lived experiences and social meanings of female circumcision and femininity as narrated by women from lower class neighbourhoods in Cairo. The study seeks to understand how the experiences of femininity and female circumcision are shaped and challenged by the social and political changes that impinge on these women’s lives.

    Female circumcision has become a global political minefield with ‘Western’ interventions affecting Egyptian politics and social development, not least in the area of democracy and human rights. The global human rights discourse brings about change by portraying female circumcision as mutilation. These discourses and other political and social changes both in Egypt and elsewhere, such as modernization, the aftermath of 9/11 and regional instability have together begun to dis-embed female circumcision from its socio-cultural context. This thesis focuses upon the way in which these women understand and respond to these complex changes and it looks particularly at how different actors, in their construction of female identity, contest, resist, subvert or embrace female circumcision.

    The study explores how the subject is made through the interplay of global hegemonic structures of power and the most intimate sphere, which has been exposed in the international arena. The need to understand agency as the capacity to act according to the exigencies of the specific sociocultural forms the main premise of this dissertation; the Egyptian context comprises the complex interaction between the local and a variety of wider global forces.

  • 27.
    Marafa, Lawal Mohammed
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Africa’s Business and Development Relationship with China: Seeking Moral and Capital Values of the Last Economic Frontier2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion paper investigates the extent to which China’s own experience in regional infrastructural development as the center piece of its development strategy can be replicated in the African continent. The author argues that China’s extensive investment in Africa’s infrastructure—from dams to major trunk roads—is a positive development in light of the neglect of this important sector by Africa’s western development partners for many decades. The increasing penetration of China in the African market is spearheaded by the major Chinese state-owned construction, telecommunication, and energy exploration companies who have access to long-term financial support from the Chinese state. This is an opportune moment for African countries to address the backlog of infrastructure investmentthat has kept African development at the minimum.

  • 28.
    Mohamoud, Awil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Participation of the Diaspora in the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership and Action Plan was adopted in Lisbon in 2007. This new strategy, which is often referred to as a ‘people-centred partnership’, was launched with the purpose of scaling-up political dialogue between the African Union (AU) and the EU in the interests of building a solid and sustainable continent-to-continent partnership. It aims to reinvigorate and elevate cooperation between Africa and Europe in the fight against poverty, injustice, human rights violations, lawlessness, insecurity and political and social instability. The priorities of the partnership programme are organised around eight themes: peace and security; democratic governance and human rights; trade, regional integration and infrastructure; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); energy; climate change; migration, mobility and employment; and science, information society and space. The programme stipulates that Africa and the EU will pursue and implement policies and programmes that facilitate the active involvement of diaspora communities in the implementation of the strategy.

  • 29.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    African marriage practices and the global financial crisis2009Inngår i: Annual Report / Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2008, 10-11 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Disease and disruption: Chagga witchcraft and relational fragility2009Inngår i: Dealing with uncertainty in contemporary African lives / [ed] Haram, Liv & Bawa Yamba, C., Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 1, 118-140 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Ndibe, Okey
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hove, Chenjerai
    Introduction [to Writers, writing on conflict and wars in Africa]2009Inngår i: Writers, writing on conflicts and wars in Africa, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. and Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 9-12 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 32.
    Ndibe, Okey
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hove, ChenjeraiNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Writers, writing on conflict and wars in Africa2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many African countries are caught up in perennial or recurrent political conflicts that often culminate in devastating wars. These flaring conflicts and wars create harrowing economic hardships, dire refugee problems, and sustain a sense of despair in such countries. By their nature, these conflicts and wars affect writers in profound and sometimes paradoxical ways. On the one hand, literature—whether fiction, poetry, drama, or even memoirs—is animated by conflict. On the other hand, the sense of dislocation as well as the humanitarian crises unleashed by wars and other kinds of conflicts also constitute grave impediments to artistic exploration and literary expression.  Writers and artists are frequently in the frontline of resistance to the kinds of injustices and abuses that precipitate wars and conflicts. Consequently, they are often detained, exiled, and even killed either by agents of state terror or by one faction or another in the tussle for state control.  Writers, Writing Conflicts and Wars in Africa is a collection of testimonies by various writers and scholars who have experienced, or explored, the continent’s conflicts and woes, including how the disruptions shape artistic and literary production.  The book is divided into two broad categories: in one, several writers speak directly, and with rich anecdotal details about the impact wars and conflicts have had in the formation of their experience and work; in the second, a number of scholars articulate how particular writers have assimilated the horrors of wars and conflicts in their literary creations.  The result is an invaluable harvest of reflections and perspectives that open the window into an essential, but until now sadly unexplored, facet of the cultural and political experience of African writers.  The broad scope of this collection—covering Darfur, the Congolese crisis, Biafra, Zimbabwe, South Africa, among others—is complemented by a certain buoyancy of spirit that runs through most of the essays and anecdotes.

  • 33.
    Norberg, Carin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Västsahara – Afrikas sista koloni: Inledningsanförande vid seminariet ” När pengar går före mänskliga rättigheter – EU och Västsahara”, anordnat av svenska avdelningen av internationella juristkommissionen2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Africa in search of alternatives2009Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A Journey of a Thousand Miles: Researching Conflict in the Niger Delta2009Inngår i: Annual Report / Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    China in Nigeria: Is Oil a Catalyst for Armed Violence?2009Inngår i: Africa Review, Vol. 1, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Economic Community of West African States on the Ground: Comparing Peacekeeping in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, and Cote D’Ivoire2009Inngår i: African Security, Vol. 2, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Globalisation and Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs in Africa2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nigeria’s Niger Delta: Understanding the Complex Drivers of Violent Conflict2009Inngår i: Africa Development, ISSN 0850-3907, Vol. XXXIV, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nigeria’s Oil in Global Oil Security: Critical Issues and Challenges2009Inngår i: Africa and Energy Security: Global Issues, Local Responses / [ed] Ruchita Beri and Uttam Sinha, New Delhi: Academic Foundation , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Når demokrati er det eneste vaiget2009Inngår i: Arena Afrika: Kapplop om makt og ressurser / [ed] Sigrid Johnstad; Thorodd Ommundsen, Oslo: Fellesrådet for Afrika, Solidariet Forlog , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Oil: A Curse or Catalyst for African Resurgence?2009Inngår i: Engaging with a Resurgent Africa / [ed] Dilip Lahiri, Jorg Scheltz and Manish Chand, New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation; Macmillan , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Scrambling for Oil in West Africa?2009Inngår i: A New Scramble for Africa? / [ed] Roger Southall and Henning Melber, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Separatism and Political Movements in Africa2009Inngår i: Africa Quarterly, Vol. 49, nr 2-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Structuring Transnational Spaces of Identity, Rights and Power in the Niger Delta of Nigeria2009Inngår i: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 6, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    What happens to us after they suck out all the wealth from our lands?: Globalisation, environment and protest politics in Nigeria2009Inngår i: Politeia, ISSN 0256-8845, Vol. 28, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Boås, Martin
    Child Relocations in Africa: an Introduction, in Special Section on Child Relocations, in Africa2009Inngår i: Forum for Development Studies: The Nordic Journal of Development Research, Vol. 36, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Oinas, Elina
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Arnfred, Signe
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Introduction: Sex & Politics—Case Africa2009Inngår i: NORA, ISSN 0803-8740, Vol. 17, nr 3, 149-157 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Owuor, Yvonne A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Contemporary projections: Africa in the literature of Atrocity (Aftrocity)2009Inngår i: Writers, writing on conflicts and wars in Africa, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. and Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 17-26 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50. Rudén, Fanny
    et al.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping operations in contemporary Africa2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In international peacekeeping operations (PKOs) some individuals are involved in sexual exploitation and abuse of the host country’s population, buying of sexual services and trafficking of prostitutes. Far from being a new phenomenon it goes back a long time, and reports on the issue have increased over the years. All too frequently we read about peacekeepers visiting prostitutes, committing rape, or in other ways sexually exploiting host populations. Some peacekeepers are taking advantage of the power their work gives them, and becoming abusers rather than protectors in situations where the host population is powerless and in dire need of protection. Peacekeepers’ abuse of their mandate is inflicting severe damage on host societies and often results in a number of unintended consequences such as human rights violations, rapid spread of HIV, decreased trust in the UN as well as other international aid agencies, and harmful changes to gender patterns. Women and children, both girls and boys, are especially exposed. Having already suffered from war and instability they risk becoming even more physically and mentally wounded. Peacekeeping operations risk doing more harm than good in African war zones, and if they cannot learn from previous mistakes maybe they ought to stay at home. We do not argue for the latter; rather, we point towards the urgent need to change explicit and implicit patterns and habits in international peacekeeping operations in relation to sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) in Africa. In this Policy Note we focus predominantly on military staff, but acknowledge that the civilian staff of PKOs, and international aid workers, are also implicated. On the other hand it should initially be pointed out that most PKO staff are not sexual exploiters and abusers.

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