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  • 1.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conceptualising Civil society in Africa: The case of Eritrea2009Inngår i: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 5, nr 1, 35-59 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State-Building in Post-Liberation Eritrea: Challenges, Achievements and Potentials2009 (oppl. first)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Eritrea-Ethiopia Conflict and the Algiers Agreement: Eritrea's road to isolation2009Inngår i: Eritrea's External Relations: Understanding its regional role and foreign policy / [ed] Richard Reid, London: Chatham House , 2009, 1, 98-130 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 4.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Ethnic and Civic Basis of Citizenship in the Horn of Africa2009Inngår i: Faith, Citizenship, Democracy and Peace in the Horn of Africa / [ed] Sthlm Policy Group, Lund: Lund University , 2009, first, 131-148 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5.
    Courson, Elias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND): political marginalization, repression and petro-insurgency in the Niger Delta2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion paper addresses the linkages between the political economy of oil and violent conflict in Nigeria’s main oil and gas producing region, the Niger Delta. It is based on a case study of the insurgent Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), which has targeted and attacked the interests of international oil companies and the federal government in the oil-rich, but impoverished, Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in its professed campaign for the control of the oil wealth of the region for the benefit of local people. Through this study of MEND, fresh perspectives are brought to bear on the causes and ramifications of the oil conflict in the region, and the role of various actors at the local, national and international levels. This is important in grasping the nature of the violence in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and the enormity of the task of resolving the complex conflict in which the region is immersed. It is a challenge, which as the author argues, transcends the resort to the militarized or securitized solutions that often fail to adequately address the roots of conflict.

  • 6.
    Kuwali, Dan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Persuasive prevention: Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the legality of intervention without Security Council authorisation is still debatablein international law, over-reliance on military intervention increases the risk of too much focus on reactive rather than proactive strategies. If the thresholds for Article 4(h) intervention – like those of the responsibility to protect – are serious international crimes subject to universal jurisdiction, it follows that measures to ensure the observance of the law in prospect, rather than intervention and penalisation of violations in retrospect,are important in preventing violations. Therefore, in order to in a timely manner and effectively implement Article 4(h) and R2P, the missing link is borderless ‘persuasive prevention’ which aims at enforcing fundamental human rights obligations to prevent mass atrocity crimes stipulated in Article 4(h). To this end, as a minimum, the AU should discharge its responsibility to prevent human rights violations through the ‘force of law’. Where atrocities are likely to take place, the African Standby Force (ASF) should be deployedin a timely way, not to defeat a State, but to pursue perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes. To achieve this, the ASF should have the ‘capability to protect’ to ensure the ‘obligationto prosecute or extradite’. Although the AU has taken an interventionist stance, what is needed most is early action to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The AU may need to establish a body to monitor the implementation of obligations whose breach may lead to the heinous crimes in Article 4(h). In addition, the AU needs a legally binding instrument to ensure accountability and end impunity for crimes in Article 4(h). The idea is to influencethe calculus of potential authors of atrocities and ensure compliance with human rights and humanitarian law obligations.

  • 7.
    Ndibe, Okey
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hove, Chenjerai
    Introduction [to Writers, writing on conflict and wars in Africa]2009Inngår i: Writers, writing on conflicts and wars in Africa, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. and Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 9-12 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8.
    Ndibe, Okey
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hove, ChenjeraiNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Writers, writing on conflict and wars in Africa2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many African countries are caught up in perennial or recurrent political conflicts that often culminate in devastating wars. These flaring conflicts and wars create harrowing economic hardships, dire refugee problems, and sustain a sense of despair in such countries. By their nature, these conflicts and wars affect writers in profound and sometimes paradoxical ways. On the one hand, literature—whether fiction, poetry, drama, or even memoirs—is animated by conflict. On the other hand, the sense of dislocation as well as the humanitarian crises unleashed by wars and other kinds of conflicts also constitute grave impediments to artistic exploration and literary expression.  Writers and artists are frequently in the frontline of resistance to the kinds of injustices and abuses that precipitate wars and conflicts. Consequently, they are often detained, exiled, and even killed either by agents of state terror or by one faction or another in the tussle for state control.  Writers, Writing Conflicts and Wars in Africa is a collection of testimonies by various writers and scholars who have experienced, or explored, the continent’s conflicts and woes, including how the disruptions shape artistic and literary production.  The book is divided into two broad categories: in one, several writers speak directly, and with rich anecdotal details about the impact wars and conflicts have had in the formation of their experience and work; in the second, a number of scholars articulate how particular writers have assimilated the horrors of wars and conflicts in their literary creations.  The result is an invaluable harvest of reflections and perspectives that open the window into an essential, but until now sadly unexplored, facet of the cultural and political experience of African writers.  The broad scope of this collection—covering Darfur, the Congolese crisis, Biafra, Zimbabwe, South Africa, among others—is complemented by a certain buoyancy of spirit that runs through most of the essays and anecdotes.

  • 9.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A Journey of a Thousand Miles: Researching Conflict in the Niger Delta2009Inngår i: Annual Report / Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    China in Nigeria: Is Oil a Catalyst for Armed Violence?2009Inngår i: Africa Review, Vol. 1, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Economic Community of West African States on the Ground: Comparing Peacekeeping in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, and Cote D’Ivoire2009Inngår i: African Security, Vol. 2, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Globalisation and Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs in Africa2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nigeria’s Niger Delta: Understanding the Complex Drivers of Violent Conflict2009Inngår i: Africa Development, ISSN 0850-3907, Vol. XXXIV, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nigeria’s Oil in Global Oil Security: Critical Issues and Challenges2009Inngår i: Africa and Energy Security: Global Issues, Local Responses / [ed] Ruchita Beri and Uttam Sinha, New Delhi: Academic Foundation , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Når demokrati er det eneste vaiget2009Inngår i: Arena Afrika: Kapplop om makt og ressurser / [ed] Sigrid Johnstad; Thorodd Ommundsen, Oslo: Fellesrådet for Afrika, Solidariet Forlog , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Oil: A Curse or Catalyst for African Resurgence?2009Inngår i: Engaging with a Resurgent Africa / [ed] Dilip Lahiri, Jorg Scheltz and Manish Chand, New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation; Macmillan , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Scrambling for Oil in West Africa?2009Inngår i: A New Scramble for Africa? / [ed] Roger Southall and Henning Melber, Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Separatism and Political Movements in Africa2009Inngår i: Africa Quarterly, Vol. 49, nr 2-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Structuring Transnational Spaces of Identity, Rights and Power in the Niger Delta of Nigeria2009Inngår i: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 6, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    What happens to us after they suck out all the wealth from our lands?: Globalisation, environment and protest politics in Nigeria2009Inngår i: Politeia, ISSN 0256-8845, Vol. 28, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Boås, Martin
    Child Relocations in Africa: an Introduction, in Special Section on Child Relocations, in Africa2009Inngår i: Forum for Development Studies: The Nordic Journal of Development Research, Vol. 36, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Owuor, Yvonne A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Contemporary projections: Africa in the literature of Atrocity (Aftrocity)2009Inngår i: Writers, writing on conflicts and wars in Africa, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. and Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 17-26 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Ukiwo, Ukoha
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Causes and cures of oil-related Niger Delta conflicts2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nigeria’s political and economic fortunes and the country’s ability to play a stabilizing role in the African region partly depend on the resolution of the lingering Niger Delta conflict. The Niger Delta covers nine out of 36 states and 185 out of 774 local government areas of the Nigerian federation. It occupies a total land area of 75,000 square kilometers and is the world’s third largest wetlands. The 2006 Nigerian population census shows that 30 million out of the country’s 140 million people reside in the Niger Delta region. Nearly all of Nigeria’s oil and gas reserves are located in the region. Oil and gas have accounted for about 40 per cent of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) since 1990. Between 2000 and 2004, oil and gas accounted for 75 per cent of total government revenues and 97 per cent of foreign exchange. Apart from being vital to Nigeria’s fiscal viability, the Niger Delta is important to global energy security.

  • 24.
    Ukiwo, Ukoha
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Les causes et les remèdes des conflits pétroliers du Delta du Niger2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Les fortunes économique et politique du Nigéria, et la capacité du pays à jouer un rôle stabilisant dans la région africaine, dépendent de la résolution du conflit qui persiste dans la zone du delta du Niger. Le delta couvre neuf états, sur un total de 36, et 185 des 774 gouvernements locaux de la fédération nigériane. Il occupe une étendue totale de 75,000 mètres carrés et constitue la troisième plus grande zone humide de la terre. Le recensement Nigérien de 2006 montreque 30 million d’habitants, sur une population total de 185 million, résident dans la région du delta du Niger. La quasi-totalité des réseaux de gaz et de pétrole du Nigéria sont situés dans la région. Depuis 1990, le pétrole et le gaz représentent environ 40% du produit intérieur brut (PIB). Entre 2000 et 2004, ces deux industries ont engendré 75% des revenus totales du gouvernement, et ont généré 97% des échanges commerciaux. En plus d´être essentiel à la viabilité financière du Nigéria, le delta du Niger est important pour la sécurité énergétique mondiale.

  • 25.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Debating mercenary anthropology: maintaining scholarly ignorance or new engagement with the global warscape2009Inngår i: Africa : politics and societies south of the SaharaArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Malignant organisms: continuities of state-run violence in rural Liberia2009Inngår i: Crisis of the state: war and social upheaval / [ed] Bruce Kapferer and Björn Enge Bertelsen, Oxford: Berghahn Books , 2009, 265-291 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Sexual abuse survivors and the complex of traditional healing: (G)local prospects in the aftermath of an African war2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In its efforts to assist post-conflict societies in africa the international aid community has acitvely promoted projects of psycho-social healing among people traumatized during wars and violent conflict. To a large degree these projects have been established in the tradtion of Western psychology. More recently, however, it has been realized in order to help survivors of war effectivley it is necessary to adapt projects and enhance “local” psycho-social healing. This policy report locates the structures – with local legitimacy – that are available to young people who experienced sexual abuse during the Sierra Leone civil war (1991–2002). To this end, this booklet discusses a healing complex that comprises a number of overlapping actors, including herbalists, Zoe Mammies (heads of the female secret societies), Mori-men (Muslim healers); Karamokos (Muslim teachers) and Christian pastors.

    CONTENTS

    1. Introduction

    2. Scope of the study

    2.1 Methods

    2.2 Research ethichs

    3. Limitations of the study

    4. War-related sexual abuse

    4.1 Quantitative findings

    4.2 Qualitative findings

    4.3 Turning a page? Sexual abuse in post-war reality

    5. Variations of traditional healing

    5.1 Notes on mental illness in Sierra Leone

    5.2 The healing complex6. Traditional healing of sexual abuse

    6.1 From the girls’ and young women’s perspective

    6.2 The herbalist

    6.3 The Karamoko and the Mori-man

    6.4 The Soweh mammy and female herbalist (Kuntumoi musu)

    6.5 Cleansing the bush

    6.6 The pastor

    6.7 Talking trauma – notes on counselling

    7. Findings and recommendations

    7.1 Social approaches towards the sexually abused

    7.2 Girls’ and young women’s practices related totraditional healing

    7.3 Findings on traditional healers

    7.4 Recommendations

    Appendices

  • 28.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    The Index finger of Justice: democratization in Sierra Leone2009Inngår i: Annual Report / Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2008, 28-30 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Van Wyk, Jo-Ansie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Cadres, capitalists, elites and coalitions: The ANC, business and development in South Africa2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa is widely regarded as an exemplary case of an elite political settlement. Moreover, South Africa’s political history in the last two decades can certainly be understood in terms of the way old, new, political and economic elites interacted in different domains and sectors to resolve major collective problems and produce institutional solutions that would work – even if some of these solutions appeared contentious – and cater to broad interests.

    The political settlement achieved by opposing elites produced a unique democratic pact. However, less attention has been paid to the economic pact achieved by these elites. As a liberation movement, the African National Congress (ANC) advocated nationalisation to undo the socioeconomic legacies of apartheid, but once the political transition had commenced, it discarded nationalisation. Instead, ANC elites opted for pro-business/market policies, which stabilised the economy and attracted much needed foreign direct investment. Their decision was partly attributable to the negotiated political and economic pacts that they concluded with National Party elites and ‘white’ capital. With the political or democratic pact in place, the negotiation and consolidation of the economic pact was achieved with the formation of numerous formal and informal coalitions with first ‘white’ and later ‘black’ capital to undo the economic legacies of apartheid. Not only did the pact result led to a stable political transition, it also in political and economic transformation.

    More importantly, early signs are now evident of a developmental pact that may result in a successful developmental state capable of achieving equality and equity for all in post-apartheid South Africa.

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