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  • 1.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West Africa: Issues and responses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion paper examines the linkages between gender and gender inequality in the context of conflict, sexual violence and HIV transmission, and their impact on postconflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone and Liberia. It makes two critical contributions to a gendered perspective on post-conflict transitions in West Africa. First, it notes that contrary to conventional wisdom, post-war transitions to relative peace have made little difference to women’s exposure to chronic sexual violence, with potential implications for increased HIV transmission. Second, the study interrogates those assumptions linking war-related sexual violence to high HIV prevalence in post-conflict contexts, by showing that despite over a decade of armed conflict, Liberia and Sierra Leone had adult HIV prevalence rates that were among the lowest in West Africa. This paper goes beyond generally held notions of the sexual and gender dimensions of civil wars in Africa and points to a gap in, and key challenge for studies and policies on post-conflict reconstruction in Africa.

  • 2.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Towards More Informed Responses to Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West African Settings2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence is incontrovertible that Liberia (with its two civil wars, 1989-97 and 2000-03) and Sierra Leone (with its 1991-2001 war) have emerged from two of the most inhuman, ferocious and cruel conflicts in the post-Cold war era. The scale of destruction, rape, mayhem, arson and torture perpetrated during these wars was among the greatest in Africa’s postcolonial history. Women, especially adolescents and young adults, were exposed to extreme sexual brutality at a time when a growing heterosexually-driven HIV pandemic was occurring in the West African sub-region. Both countries also experienced an economic and social collapse that resulted in human development indicators on employment, income, health, education, women’s status and child well-being that are among the lowest in the world. Protracted armed conflicts, as witnessed in Liberia and Sierra Leone and beyond, expose women and girls to unprecedented levels and forms of sexual violence. Moreover, the expectation that the transition from war to peace will lead to significantly reduced sexual violence against women (SVAW) is often disappointed. Instead, post-conflict transitions tend to produce a change in the predominant forms of sexual violence and the profile of its perpetrators. The extended and interlinked conflicts in these neighbouring countries relate at a fundamental level to the persistent denial of citizenship rights to particular population sub-groups over several decades. Within such landscapes of severe social, economic and political marginalization and deprivation, women and girls were bound to suffer more than men and boys during and after the wars as a result of long-established and deeply entrenched patriarchal structures and ideologies in both countries. The persistence of SVAW during post-conflict transitions tends to increase the risk of HIV infection among younger women relative to the phase of armed conflict. A key causal factor is men’s highly exploitative, transactional and cross-generational multiple sexual activities. Thus far, the dominant responses to this complex of issues in post-conflict West Africa have lacked a nuanced understanding of the underlying drivers of sexual violence and its intersections with women’s higher risk of HIV infection.The policy responses to the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building in West Africa have generally focused more on traditional security, physical infrastructurere building and economic revitalization issues than on such highly gendered human security concerns as sexual violence and violations of reproductive rights. Left unaddressed, these persisting or worsening human security challenges, affecting at least half their populations, make sustainable peace and development in post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone nearly impossible.

  • 3.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Complex Roots of the Second Eritrea-Ethiopia War: Re-examining the Causes2010Inngår i: African Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 13, nr 1&2, 15-59 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Politics of Language in Eritrea: Equality of languages vs. bilingual official language policy2010Inngår i: Journal of Asian and African Studies, ISSN 0021-9096, E-ISSN 1745-2538, African and Asian Studies, Vol. 9, nr 1-2, 149-190 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article analyzes the discourse of politics of language in Eritrea. It argues that the language debate in Eritrea over equality of languages and bilingual official langauge policy is more about power relations than about language per se. It relates to politics of identity that derives from the construction of two identity formations as understood by political elites. Equality of languages is based on ethnic identity, whereas official language is based on the construction of supra-ethnic civic identity. According to the constructivist bilingual official language Arabic and Tigrinya are supposed to represent two different socio-cultural identity formation, notably, Islam-Arabic  and Christian-Tigrinya. Consequently, the official language policy debate could be construed to derive from politics of power relation where two groups of elites supposedly representing the two identity formations are engaged in power competition reflecting real or imaginary socio-cultural cleavage of respective identity. In this sense the bilingual official language is designed to create social equilibrium wherein it is supposed that power would equitably distributed between two rival elite groups.

  • 5.
    Cheru, Fantu
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Obi, CyrilNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Rise of China and India in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and Critical Interventions2010Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, China and India have become the most important economic partners of Africa and their footprints are growing by leaps and bounds, transforming Africa's international relations in a dramatic way. Although the overall impact of China and India's engagement in Africa has been positive in the short-term, partly as a result of higher returns from commodity exports fuelled by excessive demands from both countries, little research exists on the actual impact of China and India's growing involvement on Africa's economic transformation. This book examines in detail the opportunities and challenges posed by the increasing presence of China and India in Africa, and proposes critical interventions that African governments must undertake in order to negotiate with China and India from a stronger and more informed platform.

  • 6.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    Comprendre et aborder les violences sexuelles liées aux conflits: Enseignements tirés de la République Démocratique du Congo2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le paysage de guerre de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) a acquis une exécrable réputation dans le monde entier à cause des rapports sur l’échelle massive des violences sexuelles. Bien qu’un nombre énorme d’autres formes de violences et d’abus aient également été commises à grande échelle, ce sont les violences sexuelles qui ont reçu la plupart de l’attention mondiale, en particulier parmi les observateurs «de l’extérieur». D’innombrables rapports, articles de journaux, coupures de presse, appels et documentaires ont été consacrés à cette question. Un grand nombre de journalistes, d’activistes et de représentants de diverses organisations et de gouvernements internationaux ont effectué des pèlerinages en RDC pour rencontrer et écouter les survivants de vive voix.

  • 7.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    The Complexity of Violence: A critical analysis of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, the first in Sida’s gender-based violence series, draws on an original case study, including extensive interviews with members of thearmed forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). By critically exploring and convincingly challenging existing stereotypes and narratives about sexual violence in conflict settings, the authors reveal the need for a nuanced understanding of SGBV, including its invisible victims. Their analysis transcends reductionist explanations that separate SGBV from other forms of violence that afflict war-torn societies, and haunt post-war contexts. They thus provide invaluable insights into the complex circumstances in which SGBV occurs.

  • 8.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    Understanding and addressing conflict-related sexual violence: Lessons learned from the Democratic Republic of Congo2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) warscape has become infamous globally from the reports on the massive scale of sexual violence. While vast amounts of other forms of violence and abuse have also been committed, it is sexual violence that has attracted the lion’s share of attention, especially among “outside” observers. Countless reports, newspaper articles, news-clips, appeals and documentaries have been devoted to the issue. Numerous journalists, activists and representatives of diverse international organisations and governments have made pilgrimages to the DRC to meet and listen to survivors first-hand.

  • 9.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    African Migration as the Search for a Wonderful World: An Emerging Transglobal Security Threat?2010Inngår i: Journal of Asian and African Studies, ISSN 0021-9096, E-ISSN 1745-2538, Vol. 9, nr 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Cheru, Fantu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Introduction, Africa in the 21st Century: Strategic and Development Challenges2010Inngår i: The Rise of China and India in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and Critical Interventions / [ed] Fantu Cheru and Cyril Obi, London: Zed Books , 2010Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Darren, Kew
    Nigeria: Dilemmas of Cooptation in the Niger Delta2010Inngår i: Civil Society and Peacebuilding: A Critical Assessment / [ed] Thania Paffenholz, Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner , 2010Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Schoeman, Maxi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    South African female peacekeepers on mission in Africa: Progress, challenges and policy options for increased participation2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa’s contribution of troops to peace missions is the 13th largest in the world, and the country has the largest women’s contingent deployed in Peace Support Operations (PSOs). Although, South Africa is one of only a handful of countries incorporating women in combat positions and PSOs, on average the picture of female participation remains less rosy.On the policy level, South Africa has committed itself to gender mainstreaming in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). The UN Resolution on Women, Peace and Security calls for, among other things, full inclusion of women in all aspects of peace-related activities, including peacekeeping. On 31 October2010, the world will mark the 10th anniversary of Resolution 1325, just as in 2009 South Africa celebrated ten years of participation in international peacekeeping operations. This is a pertinent time to take stock of South Africa’s progress in improving the gender balance in its military, specifically in its contribution to PSOs, and the opportunities and obstacles that exist in this process.This Policy Note is based on information collected from questionnaires, interviews and reports, along with insights gleaned from discussion groups at the 2007 SANDF Women’s Day Conference to identify the progress of, and challenges to the SANDF in improving the gender balance in its peacekeeping activities. These initial research findings form part of a larger project on South African involvement in peacekeeping, focusing in particular on the status, position and role of women decision-makers and peacekeepers. Problems encountered by women peacekeepers and the challenges faced by the SANDF are not unique and the recommendations may therefore be of relevance beyond South Africa, particularly to those African countries across the continent attempting to attract more women into, and mainstream gender in the military and PSOs.

  • 13.
    Tar, Usman A.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Shettima, Abba Gana
    Endangered democracy?: The struggle over secularism and its implications for politics and democracy in Nigeria2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines the pivotal role religion plays in Nigerian politics, particularly as it relates to the ways Islamic and Christian identities have been manipulated by competing political elites in their struggle for power. It provides a concise but well-informed history of the evolution of the religious factor in politics and its adverse implications for Nigeria’s democracy. Its point of departure is a critique of the notion of a secular Nigerian state (as prescribed by the constitution), which shows how governments and politicians have taken advantage of constitutional loop holes and used state resources to foster the politicisation of religion, with serious consequences for society at large. Some of the adverse consequences identified include religious conflict, political instability, insecurity and the undermining of the country’s democracy and development. The study carefully peels away the outward display of religious piety by political elites and leaders to reveal some of the underlying personal and narrow calculations. Over time, these calculations have eroded the social elements binding relations in a multi ethnic, multi-religious setting such as Nigeria, and there have been periodic explosions of sectarian and communal violence in various parts of the country. The authors show how the politicisation and ethnicisation of religious differences have further fuelled conflict between competing groups and geopolitical interests in Nigeria and raised serious questions for Nigeria’s democracy, development and the nation-state project. While noting that religion cannot be completely de-linked from politics, the study proffers some suggestions to begin to address and reverse the adverse effects of the intrusion of religion into democratic politics in Nigeria, Africa’s largest country and leading oil producer.

  • 14.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ramon Sarró, The politics of religious change on the Upper Guinea Coast: iconoclasm done and undone2010Inngår i: Journal of Religion in Africa, ISSN 0022-4200, E-ISSN 1570-0666, Vol. 40, 360-361 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The rewards of political violence: remobilizing ex-combatants in post-war Sierra Leone2010Inngår i: Small Arms Survey 2010, 266-266 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Varning för Aftonbladets Jackass journalistik i ”det mörkaste Afrika”2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Vilks rondellhund: inte en fråga om yttrandefrihet, utan en fråga om sunt förnuft2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
1 - 17 of 17
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