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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Tommy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Food security now or wait for research to assess risks?: genetically modified crops and smallholder farmers in Africa2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are by proponents considered as a possible solution to the food and nutrition problems in developing countries. However, there are also concerns of how side effects may affect environment and human health. These will probably still remain unknown for decades. But can Africa wait 30 years for research to give a definite answer about the risks connected with biotechnology?

  • 2.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Agricultural water institutions in East Africa2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing growing variability and uncertainty in rainfall in Africa. Since the continent's food production systems are dominantly rain-fed, these changes are putting food security at even higher risk. In order to reduce this dependency, institutional reforms in the agricultural water sectors have become a priority in research and policy.

    In this report, Atakilte Beyene, senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, together with twelve researchers based in Africa, studies current agricultural water reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and other East African countries. The report consists of four case studies and an introductory section. The first case study evaluates the performance of community participation in water resources governance in the Mount Kenya Region. It uncovers the implication of a ban on traditional institutions on water security at a catchment level. The second case analyses the prospects of introducing pro-poor water schemes in conditions where climate change and water inequality are already challenges. It identifies incentive mechanisms that enhance more efficient distribution and utilization of water resources. The third case examines impacts of competitive and intensive farming strategies, especially irrigation schemes, on water demands. The final case study explores how advances in information and communication technologies improve water-use management systems across organizational and geographic scales.

  • 3.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Costly not to consider local resistance: Advice on agricultural investments in Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Failures in considering and properly addressing local resistance have become costly for both the local people and the investors. Land acquisition policies need to be accompanied by mechanisms that address local grievances and conflicts. These aspects are crucial not only to alleviate unjust practices, but also to enhance confidence of investors and performance of the investments.

  • 4.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Small farms under stress play a huge role for Africa: smallholder agriculture and emerging global challenges2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread poverty as well as food and income insecurity plague Africa’s dominant smallholder agriculture. Paradoxically, the very people who mainly depend on agriculture are not able to secure their own food and nutrition needs. Today, three-quarters of Africa’s malnourished children and the majority of people living in absolute poverty are found among the smallholder farmers who are key to the development of the continent.

  • 5.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Burkina Faso's one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the upcoming elections in Burkina Faso, there’s a need for a clear democratic break with the three decades of de facto one-party rule. At the same time, a moderate approach is needed in dealing with the controversial legacy of the former regime, to avoid further polarisation in an already fraught political situation. These are the recommendations of Jesper Bjarnesen and Cristiano Lanzano, senior researchers at the Nordic Africa Institute, in a policy note on Burkina Faso’s one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections.

  • 6. Châtel, Francesca
    et al.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Nile: Shifting Balance of Powers2012Inngår i: Revolve, ISSN 2033-2912, 32-39 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Crentsil, Perpetual
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Ebola: accurate information prevents rumours and panic: educating leaders is one measure - along with distributing soap2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its scope. This Policy Note stresses the importance of knowledge of social factors in preventing the spread of the fatal disease. There are similarities with the previous HIV/AIDS epidemic. Traditional healers and heads of households are key players for health experts to target in protecting people against infection. Normal funeral services are one source of infection. A very basic preventive measure is providing families with soap.

  • 8.
    Engström, Linda
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    When investors leave2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 24-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Gessesse, Dessie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Favouring a Demonised Plant: Khat and Ethiopian smallholder enterprises2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Khat is a plant native to Ethiopia that has been consumed over several centuries as a mental and physical stimulant. This report outlines khat’s role as a source of livelihood. Khat, dubbed a social ill by many, is at the same time part and parcel of the livelihoods of many others. With consumption of the stimulant spreading to many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, khat production has become a controversial global issue. In most European and North American countries khat is illegal. The debates so far focus on the consumption of khat and its allegedly harmful health ,economic and social effects. The argument here is that expanded khat production, driven by growing demand for the stimulant, is made possible through multidimensional links between producers, sellers and others. Today, khat production is part of the wider agro-silvi-pasture complex that characterises Ethiopian rural landscapes. At the farm level, khat shares space with food and tree crops and contributes cash to the household economy. The fact that its production is a smallholder venture andis expanding through a variety of farming systems indicates its importance to cultivators and their use of land. This paper is not exhaustive, but makes an exploratory attempt to highlight khat-related livelihood issues and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates on the stimulant and to prompt further research.

  • 10.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaag, Mayke
    Introduction: A changing world and its consequences2011Inngår i: African Engagements : Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World / [ed] Dietz, Antonius Johannes, Havnevik, Kjell, Kaag, Mayke, Oestigaard, Terje, Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, 1-32 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 11.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Matondi, Prosper B.Beyene, Atakilte
    Biofuels, Land Grabbing and Food Security in Africa2011Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy crisis and climate change have generated global demands for alternative non-fossil fuel sources. This has led to a rapid increase of investments in production of liquid biofuels based on agricultural feed stocks such as sugar cane. Most African governments see biofuels as a potential for increasing agricultural productivity and export incomes and thus strengthening their national economies, improving energy balances and rural employment. At the same time climate change may be addressed through reduction of green house gas emissions.

    There are, however, a number of uncertainties mounting that challenge this scenario. Using in-depth African case studies this book addresses this knowledge gap by examining the impacts of large-scale biofuel production on African agriculture in regard to vital land outsourcing and food security issues. The surge for African biofuels has also opened space for private investors both domestic and external to multiply and network 'independently' of the state. The biofuel expansion thus generates new economic alliances and production relations, resulting in new forms of inclusions and exclusions within the rural population.

    An essential book for anyone wishing to understand the startling impact of biofuels and land outsourcing on Africa.

  • 12.
    Mahgoub, Farida
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Current Status of Agriculture and Future Challenges in Sudan2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation and long-lasting civil wars and conflict mean that the demographic pattern in Sudan is changing drastically. Nevertheless, 60%–80 % of Sudanese engage in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial sector in the economy as a major source of rawmaterials, food and foreign exchange. It employs the majority of the labour force, and serves as a potential vehicle for diversifyingthe economy. However, no rigorous studies have explained productivity in this sector inrelation to food security. The situation has worsened because agriculture in particular has been neglected sincethe advent of oil production in the early 2000s. Moreover, Sudan’s agricultural growth has been unbalanced, with the majority of irrigated agriculture concentrated in the Centre and ahuge disparity in development indicators between the best- and worst-performing regions. Thus, studies show that the vast majority of Sudanese are reported to be food insecure,especially internally displaced persons and in conflict regions such as Darfur, Kordofan and other regions.

  • 13.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Understanding Fast Track Land Reforms in Zimbabwe2012Inngår i: Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet; Zed Books , 2012, 1-17 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 14.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform2012Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, David
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sweden-Norway at the Berlin Conference 1884–85: History, national identity-making and Sweden's relations with Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of Sweden is one of a small, democratic and peace-loving country without the moral burden of a colonial past. However, in this Current African Issues publication, the notion that Sweden lacks a colonial past in Africa is brought into question. At the Berlin Conference 1884–85, the rules for colonisation of Africa were agreed upon among a handful of white men. With the blessing of King Oscar II, the united kingdoms of Sweden-Norway participated in the Berlin conference, ratified the resulting convention and signed a trade agreement with King Leopold’s International Congo Association. Thereafter, hundreds of Swedish militaries, seamen and missionaries took an active part in the brutal colonial project in the Congo. What was Sweden-Norway really doing at the Berlin Conference and in the ensuing Scramble for Africa? Is it now time to re-assess Swedish identity in relation to Africa, an identity so far centered on colonial innocence? Dr DAVID NILSSON is a researcher at the Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. His research focuses on global longtermperspectives on sustainable development in Africa.

  • 16.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Afrikas befolkning betalar ett högt pris2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Book review of Hynynen et al., 2012. Water fountains in the worldscape. KehräMedia Ltd.2012Inngår i: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 5, nr 3, 721-722 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cosmogony2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion: Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 76-88 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogony as a term is derived from the two Greek words kosmos and genesis. Kosmos refers to the order of the universe and/or the universe as the order, whereas genesis refers to the process of coming into being (Long 1993: 94). Thus, cosmogony has to do with founding myths and the origin and the creation of the gods and cosmos and how the world came into existence. There are schematically several different types of cosmogenic myths classified according to their symbolic structure: (1) creation from nothing, (2) creation from chaos, (3) creation from a cosmic egg, (4) creation from world parents, (5) creation through a process of emergence, and (6) creation through the agency of an earth diver. Several of these motifs and typological forms may be present in a given cosmogenic myth-system, and these types are not mutually exclusive but may rather be used in parallel in creation ororigin myths (Long 1993: 94). There are cosmogenic myths in all religions. In the Hebrew myth, there is creation from nothing: ‘And God said. “Let there be light”; and there was light’ (Gen. 1: 3). Importantly, in transcendental religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam the omnipotent god exists totally independent of its own creation (Trigger 2003: 473), but still there are cosmogenic myths. Usually, however, cosmogony refers to a divine structuring principle where cosmos and the world are not independent of its original creation, but dependent upon the outcome of the ritual relation between humans and deities for its future existence, and such religions are traditionally called cosmogenic, putting the emphasis on human rituals. Thus, there are differences between cosmogenic and transcendental religions with regards to structures of beliefs and practices. A cosmogenic religion links humans’ rituals in the present with the divine glory in the past and cosmic stability and prosperity in the future. Hence, a cosmogenic religion enables and prescribes particular types of ritualpractices which are archaeologically manifest in the material culture, and all the early civilizations have been cosmogenic (Trigger 2003: 444–5) together with the majority of prehistoric religions. Although cosmogony had been an analytical term before Mircea Eliade developed these perspectives, his writings in the 1950s (e.g. Eliade 1954, 1959a [1987]) have strongly influenced researchers’ views of peoples’ beliefs of the world and universe in early civilizations (Trigger 2003: 445). Cosmogony as a religious framework for understanding the world and the universe necessitates specific types of interactions and rituals with the divinities. Hence, due to the strong influence of Eliade’s work on cosmogony as a principleand process, this article will focus on (1) his premises and analyses, (2) criticism and development of cosmogony as a concept, and (3) how it is possible to analyse cosmogenic rituals and religious practices as manifest in the archaeological record. This will include:(a) rituals, with particular emphasis on death and sacrifices in the Aztec civilization; and(b) monuments, with particular emphasis on the pyramids in the ancient Egyptian civilization, since these are processes and places where the dual interaction between humans and divinities took place, which recreated cosmos against the threat of chaos. Together, these case studies will illuminate the possibilities of a cosmogenic perspective in the archaeology of ritual and religion despite the difficulties with Eliade’s structural universalism.

  • 19.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dammed divinities: the water powers at Bujagali Falls, Uganda2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The damming of Bujagali Falls, located only 8 kilometers north of the historic source of the White Nile or the outlet of Lake Victoria, has been seen as one of the most controversial dams in modern times. In 2012, the dam was eventually inaugurated after years of anti-dam opposition and delays. A unique aspect of the controversies was the river spirit Budhagaali living in the falls blocking the dam and opposing the destruction of the waterfalls. This spirits embodies a particular healer – Jaja Bujagali, but he was bypassed by another healer who conducted no less than three grandiose appeasement and relocation ceremonies for the Budhagaali spirit clearing the way for the dam. Why has this particular dam been so controversial? How can a water spirit block a nearly billion dollar dam? What was the ritual drama behind the construction of the dam and is it possible to move a spirit? And what happened to Budhagaali and the indigenous religion after the falls were flooded and can a river spirit be drowned in its own element – water?

  • 20.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Development dilemmas and manufactured hazards2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 4-6 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Development processes have conflicting aims and players, and these are a challenge for making good policy. Choosing the wrong development path could have devastating consequences. Research into development issues is key to understanding the realities about which political decisions have to be made.

  • 21.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Fred på Somalisk jord2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux:: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation c. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Inngår i: Ostrakon. Norsk egyptologisk selskaps bulletin., Vol. 3, 23-24 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 23.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation ca. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Death and the life-giving waters of the Nile were intimately interwoven in ancient Egyptian religion. The principal objective of this study is to develop a synthetic perspective for enhancing the understanding of the religious roles water had in the rise and constitution of the Egyptian civilisation during the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom. The author employs an archaeological, inter-disciplinary and comparative ‘water perspective’ in which water not only forms the analytical framework, but also provides empirical data that allow for new questions to be addressed. Thus, the Nile itself is used as the primary point of departure to analyse how, why and when religious changes took place, with a particular emphasis on the development of the Osiris cult. Use is made of contemporary written sources, in particular the Pyramid Texts, but also other mortuary texts as well as flood records. The evolution of the Osiris cult is then analysed in relation to the development of the mortuary monuments; the mastabas in the First and the Second Dynasties and the emergence of the pyramids from the Third Dynasty. Hence, by comparing the different funerary monuments and practices with the emergence of the Osiris cult in relation to climatic changes and fluctuations in the Nile’s yearly inundation, Ancient Egyptian religion and the rise of the civilisation is analyzed according to a water perspective. It is noted that the Blue Nile was not blue, but red-brownish during the flood. When the flood started, the White Nile was not white, but green. The author argues that these fundamental characteristics of the Nile water formed the basis for the Osiris mythology. The red floodwaters in particular represented the blood of the slain Osiris.

  • 24.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Lack of water, industrial cropping and food security2013Inngår i: The Nordic Africa Institute Annual Report 2012, ISSN ISSN 1104-5256, 21-23 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Løsning eller katastrofe?2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Positiv kunnskapsflukt2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Richness and poverty through rituals2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 26-27 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sol- og vannkult i Egypt2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Nature of Archaeology: Beyond the Linguistic Turn: (Comments on discussion article by Brit Solli)2011Inngår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 44, nr 1, 30-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Thirsty, hungry and no power?: African resources in a global world2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?

  • 31.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion / [ed] Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 38-50 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in the archaeology of ritual and religion includes water as a perspective and water as empirical data. The life-giving waters in society and religion are the fresh waters in their many facets in the hydrological cycle. Water is always in a flux. The fluid matter changes qualities and capacities wherever it is, and it always takes new forms. This transformative character of water is forcefully used in ritual practices and religious constructions. Water represents the one and the many at the same time, and the plurality of ritual institutionalizations and religious perceptions puts emphasis on water’s structuring principles and processes in culture and the cosmos. Water is fundamental in many ritual practices and to conceptions of the divinities and cosmos in prehistoric religions, and consequently the study of water in ritual and religion may reveal insights into both what religion is and how devotees perceive themselves, the divine spheres, and their own religious practices and rituals. The pervasive role of water-worlds in society and cosmos unites micro and macro cosmos, creates life, and legitimizes social hierarchies and religious practices and beliefs. Water is a medium which links or changes totally different aspects of humanity and divinities into a coherent unit; it bridges paradoxes, transcends the differenthuman and divine realms, allows interactions with gods, and enables the divinities to interfere with humanity. Water is a medium for everything—it has human character because we are humans; it is a social matter but also a spiritual substance and divine manifestation with immanent powers; and, still, it belongs to the realm of nature as a fluid liquid. The hydrological cycle links all places and spheres together, and water transcends the common categories by which we conceptualize the world and cosmos (Tvedt and Oestigaard 2006). The religious water-worlds, cosmologies, beliefs, and ritual practices are evident in the archaeological record, mythology, and written sources. Hence, it is necessaryto identify different types of water, the particular qualities associated with each of them,and how water materializes as religious and ritual structures, practices, and beliefs.

  • 32.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water and climate change in Africa – from causes to consequences2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the climate change discourse. This should not be by paying less attention to the causes, which are now well known, but by stressing more the consequences, which have been largely neglected in political discourses, especially changes in water systems. This is also an issue of how global society should react to the uncertainties climate change represent for Africa and its development. Globally, the current political agenda focuses mainly on mitigation of carbon emissions, a consideration that also structures international aid policies, and less on adaptation and how to develop countries and societies when hydrology and environment changes. Thus, a water perspective may add important insights and future policy guidelines of particular relevance to Africa’s development.

  • 33.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water Scarcity and Food Security along the Nile: Politics, population increase and climate change2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2050, the population in all the Nile Basin countries is expected to be ten times higher than it was in 1950. This will put ever increasing pressure on water as a resource for development. The Nile Basin catchment area is shared by 11 countries covering about one-tenth of the African continent. Globally, around 70 per cent of fresh water consumption is used in agriculture. This puts the spotlight on future scenarios regarding food production: will there be enough water for food security in the Nile Basin countries? In this Current African Issues publication, water scarcity and food security are analysed from a range of perspectives. What are the future predictions regarding population increase and climate change, and how will these affect development in Nile Basin countries? What are the current water theories addressing the above issues, and what are the main challenges the Nile Basin countries will face in a context that is also strongly shaped by its history?

  • 34.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    When everything depends on the rain: Drought, rain-fed agriculture and food security2012Inngår i: Annual Report : 2011: Africa's changing societies: reform from below, ISSN 1104-5256, 24-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Witchcraft, witch killings and Christianity: The works of religion and parallel cosmologies in Tanzania2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa: a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 182-199 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Abawa Firew, Gedef
    University of Bergen.
    Gish Abay – the source of the Blue Nile2011Inngår i: Water and Society / [ed] In Pepper, D. W. & Brebbia, C. A., Southampton. Boston: WIT Press, 2011, 27-38 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Nile is by many seen as the most important river in the world. The source of the Blue Nile is a spring called Gish Abay in Ethiopia. This is the source of Gilgal Abay (meaning the little Abay), which is the most voluminous of the some sixty rivers flowing into Lake Tana. Although the Nile Quest has attracted emperors and explorers alike since Antiquity, after the sources of the Nile were discovered the majority of studies have focused on hydrology and not on cultural and religious aspects of the river. Gish Abay has been seen as the outlet of the river Gihon flowing directly from Paradise linking this world with Heaven. The holiness of Abay and the source in particular have had and still have an important role in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Moreover, before the source was Christianised it had a central role in the indigenous religion where lavish ox sacrifices were conducted. Thus, in this article we highlight the ritual and religious role of Gish Abay in a historic perspective.

  • 37.
    Olanya, David Ross
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    From Global Land Grabbing for Biofuels to Acquisitions of African Water for Commercial Agriculture2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion of biofuel investment in Africa has been supported by indebted poor governments because of perceived potential benefits such as sustainable energy development, support to poor farmers, development of rural economies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the intensity of the biofuels political economy in poor countries worsens inequality for the vulnerable poor. This is evidenced by large-scale land acquisitions in Africa for biofuel and crop production primarily for foreign consumption – food, animal feeds and energy crops. The search for land in African countrieshas been triggered by growing concerns over food and energy security in developed countries following the global food crisis of 2008. Moreover, these recent developments in large-scale land acquisitions in Africa are not a new phenomenon, but represent the renewal of old practices incommercial agriculture, which is either conducted through purchases or long-term leases. In addition to biofuel expansion, this study notes that current large-scale land acquisitions in sub-Saharan Africa have been further driven by demands to access water resources for other commercial agricultural crops. The land purchases or leases automatically guarantee access to African water. This demand for water is a response to climate change: most industrialists believe that acquiring land near a main water reservoir will guarantee future agricultural potential. Few analyses have been done on the land-water access nexus. This article considers recent developments in large-scaleland acquisitions in Africa in terms of water security for commercial agriculture to safeguard the production of agricultural crops with a large water footprint. Using political economy analysis, this article examines national policy on these acquisitions, the rights accorded to foreign investors and how land acquisitions undermine indigenous rights to the common resources that have been the mainsource of livelihood in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 38.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    A delicate balance: Short-term gains or long-term food security?2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 28-29 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Notions of Poverty and Wealth in Coastal Zanzibar: The Policy Relevance of Local Perspectives2009Inngår i: Ethnographic Practice and Public Aid: Methods and Meanings in Development Cooperation / [ed] Sten Hagberg & Charlotta Widmark, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2009, 125-159 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Virtanen, Tea
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Educating pastoralists2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 20-20 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Virtanen, Tea
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The one who has not eaten cannot pray: Tightroping between wordly and spiritual well-being in rural Cameroon2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 24-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Wamala, Caroline
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Hoes, tractors and information technologies2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 30-30 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Woldegiorgis, Birhanu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Land Laws and Proclamations in Tanzania and Ethiopia2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 43 of 43
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