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  • 1. Brüntrup, Michael
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Taylor, Ian
    Africa, regional cooperation and the world market: socio-economic strategies in times of global trade regimes2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the regime of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), local and regional policies are increasingly determined by global factors. One example is the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). It stresses an earlier notion of African Renaissance, which includes the emphasis on collective self-reliance, but at the same time seeks closer cooperation with the global trade system and its international agencies. Bi- and multilateral trade relations between external actors and individual African states or regional blocs are becoming ever more decisive. This is also true of the more recently negotiated Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the post-Lomé era of EU-African relations. In light of such trends the question of coherence between trade as aid and other areas of development strategy and cooperation remains to be answered. The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon related matters of socio-economically viable strategies seeking to reconcile the global and the regional in an African perspective. They were originally presented to the Panel 'Regional Cooperation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Between Collective Self-Reliance and Global Trade Regimes'” organised by the Nordic Africa Institute within the 11th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) in September 2005 in Bonn.

  • 2. Dansereau, Suzanne
    et al.
    Zamponi, Mario
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe - the political economy of decline2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The two articles are revised versions of papers presented at the end of May 2004 to a Zimbabwe Conference at the Nordic Africa Institute, which was co-organised by the project "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA). They highlight current socio-economic aspects of Zimbabwean society. By doing so, they raise relevant issues, yet ones that have tended to be neglected given the almost exclusive concentration on political events. While this is understandable, the articles fill the gap in our knowledge and add insights into important sectors of society. These include information on the Zimbabwean economy and the present constraints of the decline, which together help us to understand the structural legacy that any future government will have to deal with. What is more, the elections in Zimbabwe in 2005 provide an ideal moment to discuss such matters. This Discussion Paper will thereby make a substantive contribution to the analysis of the overall picture in Zimbabwe.

    CONTENT

    Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Zimbabwe's Development Impasse. Suzanne Dansereau

    From Social Justice, to Neo-liberalism, to Authoritarian Nationalism - Where is the Zimbabwean State going? Mario Zamponi

  • 3. Davids, Yul Derek
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Measuring democracy and human rights in Southern Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Are there ways and means of measuring democracy and “good governance”? The contributions to this Discussion Paper present attempts to do this by means of surveys on democratic attitudes in Mozambique and Namibia respectively as well as by exploring the degree of commitment to and violation of human rights in a comparative perspective in Namibia and South Africa. They illustrate attitudes by offering empirical evidence of the preferences and views of local people, as well as by examining the track record of a human rights culture. In doing so, by going beyond a level of theoretical analysis, they offer concrete evidence of attitudes prevalent among both individuals and state agencies in societies of Southern Africa.

  • 4.
    Diagne, Souleymane Bachir
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, HenningNordiska Afrikainstitutet.Mama, AminaNyamnjoh, Francis B.
    Identity and beyond: rethinking Africanity2001Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper presents the plenary presentations by the three main speakers during the Nordic Africa Days, with an introduction offering an overview and comment on the various approaches on Gender and Power in African Contexts, Africanity as an Open Question and Rethinking Power in Africa.

  • 5. Fombad, Charles Manga
    et al.
    Kebonang, Zein
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    AU, NEPAD and the APRM: democratisation efforts explored2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The African Union (AU) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) represent an unprecedented collective political effort by African governments at the beginning of the 21st century to address issues of democracy and good governance on a continental scale within an emerging framework of institutions and instruments designed to assist in this effort. The visible commitments to jointly tackle political and socioeconomic challenges in order to overcome the structural legacies that hamper national and social development are reflected in the adoption of a variety of programmatic blueprints and a series of newly created or recently strengthened institutions. The most visible of these since the integration of NEPAD into the AU is the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), a process- aimed at addressing some of the challenges on the basis of a voluntary assessment of African government policies. The contributions to this publication trace these recent developments from a policy perspective and explore the scope and limitations of current democratisation efforts. Going beyond the rhetoric surrounding the emergence of the new initiatives, the authors provide an interim and realistic prognosis of the prospects for these new dynamics to achieve the declared goals of sustainable and meaningful change.

  • 6. Hulterström, Karolina
    et al.
    Kamete, Amin Y.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, Henning
    Political opposition in African countries: the cases of Kenya, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is another result of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was coordinated at the Institute between 2001 and 2006. The papers are revised versions of presentations to a Session of the Research Committee “Comparative Sociology” at the XVI World Congress of Sociology held at the end of July 2006 in Durban. They explore the role of opposition parties under different aspects in several East and Southern African countries, which differ according to the socio-political determinants.

  • 7. Kössler, Reinhart
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Strand, Per
    Development from below: a Namibian case study2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper offers a revised lecture by Reinhart Kössler, which was originally presented to a Research Forum organised by The Nordic Africa Institute jointly with the Seminar for Development Studies of Uppsala University. It deals with aspects of rebuilding societies from below firstly in a general development studies discourse on a more theoretical level, considering aspects of the current debate on globalisation. This is followed by a concrete case study from southern Namibia. It illustrates local responses by the Witbooi-Nama in Gibeon to (re-)define identity within the context of a (nation-)state in a post-apartheid society. The paper is commented upon by two discussants (Per Strand and Henning Melber).

    The contributions reflect on the issue of social reconstruction in the context of (southern) Africa with reference to a particular marginalised group. They deal, among other things, with the question of social power and the "invention of tradition" in local efforts to gain from, or seek integration into, the nation building process.

  • 8. Lee, Margaret C.
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    China in Africa2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions to this compilation add in various ways to the ongoing discussion on China’s role in Africa. They offer a blend of general overviews on the new scramble for Africa’s resources, the Chinese expansion into Africa and case studies on Uganda and South Africa. They present reflections on and insights to a current theme, which is widely and controversially debated also within Africa.

  • 9.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Faith as politics: reflections in commemoration of Beyers Naudé (1915-2004)2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyers Naudé was in his later life one of the leading Afrikaner anti-apartheid activists. Convinced by the strength of his faith he took a courageous political stand in a time in South African history when it was much needed. In May 2015, Oom Bey's hundredth birthday was reason to remember and celebrate his service to the people. Faith As Politics is an anthology with contributions from researchers, diplomats, activists and clergies who all have one thing in common – they were all engaged in the struggle against apartheid at the same time as Naudé. And almost all of them worked with him in one way or another. This is a unique depiction of aman whose faith, struggle and courage deserve to be recognized.

  • 10.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Governance and state delivery in Southern Africa: examples from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper highlights in complementary ways problems and challenges for governance issues under centralised state agencies, which base their authority and legitimacy on a dominant party and its influence. The case study on Namibia argues for a need for parliamentary and administrative reform to improve the efficiency of lawmakers. The Botswana chapter explores the decision on the location of the country’s second university as an act without consultation of the local population. The Zimbabwe paper advocates an approach in favour of using the African Peer Review Mechanism as an instrument to assist in a change towards better governance. All the authors have intimate knowledge of the matters discussed through their own involvement with the respective cases and/or their individual positioning within these societies. This publication is among the final results of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was undertaken at the Institute between 2001 and 2006.

  • 11.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Media, public discourse and political contestation in Zimbabwe2004Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation in Zimbabwe under the ZANU-PF government shows increasing signs of abuse of power by those in political control. They also direct their desire to suppress criticism towards the media. Press organs in private ownership have been closed down and journalists have been physically harassed, arrested and expelled. Laws are abused to regulate and manipulate public opinion by a policy of banning. Worldwide condemnation of the growing restrictions upon the freedom of expression goes hand in hand with the protests inside the country against the growing tendencies of totalitarian rule.

    Current events are critically reflected upon and the background to these developments is summarised in this publication. It is based on some of the contributions to a recent conference on Zimbabwe organised by the Nordic Africa Institute and offers insights into the contested space of public opinion in Zimbabwe. The critical analyses of current developments are there-by complemented with particular reference to the media sector in the ongoing battle for hegemonic control over the public sphere.

  • 12.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Re-examining liberation in Namibia: political culture since independence2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1960, SWAPO of Namibia led the organised and later armed struggle for independence. In late 1989, the liberation movement was finally elected to power under United Nations supervision as the legitimate government. When the Republic of Namibia was proclaimed on 21 March 1990, the long and bitter struggle for sovereignty came to an end. This volume takes stock of emerging trends in the country's political culture since independence. The contributions, mainly by authors from Namibia and Southern Africa who supported the anti-colonial movements, critically explore the achievements and shortcomings that have been part of liberation in Namibia.

  • 13.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The new African initiative and the African Union: a preliminary assessment and documentation2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the year 2000 an initiative among the African states to transform the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) into the African Union (AU) gained momentum. It resulted in the ratification of the Constitutive Act and its adoption at the 36th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Lusaka. Parallel to this process of reorganisation towards closer inter-state collaboration on the African continent in the spirit of Pan Africanism emerged the systematic effort to redefine developmental priorities and to claim a new common position of African states in the globalised world. The "African Renaissance" initiative of South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki resulted in a "Millenium Africa Recovery Programme", which was finally revised and presented as the "New Africa Initiative" (NAI). Adopted at the same OAU Summit in Lusaka in July 2001, the NAI serves as a blueprint for Africa's development strategy at the beginning of the 21st century. It was presented to the G8 summit in Genoa, where the leaders of the world's powerful countries decided on a follow up by appointing individual special advisers to explore support to the NAI and future collaboration on the basis of this document.

    This paper offers a preliminary assessment of the New Africa Initiative within the context of the transformation of the OAU into the AU. It identifies and summarises essential new aspects advocated, critically examines the degree of realism and points at the possible limitations. The analysis also considers first reactions to the initiatives and reflects on the perspectives.

  • 14.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): African perspectives2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of February 2002 the GermannHanns Seidel Foundation held its annual consultative meeting with African counterparts from projects in nine different countries on the continent. The subject oriented workshop discussed "The New Partnership for African Development" (NEPAD) and its implications from the point of view of the participants.

    This Discussion Paper publishes some of the presentations to the workshop in an effort to document the current debate just initiated from different positions. It thereby aims to contribute to a process of taking the latest programmatic document from the African heads of state serious in its possible implications for the future development of the continent.

  • 15.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The rise of Africa's middle class: myths, realities and critical engagements2016Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    "Across Africa, a burgeoning middle class has become the poster child for the 'Africa rising' narrative. Ambitious, aspirational and increasingly affluent, this group is said to embody the values and hopes of the new Africa, with international bodies ranging from the United Nations Development Programme to the World Bank regarding them as important agents of both economic development and democratic change. This narrative, however, obscures the complex and often ambiguous role that this group actually plays in African societies. Bringing together economists, political scientists, anthropologists and development experts, and spanning a variety of case studies from across the continent, this collection provides a much-needed corrective to the received wisdom within development circles, and provides a fresh perspective on social transformations in contemporary Africa."

  • 16.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Trade, development, cooperation: what future for Africa?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bi- and multilateral trade relations between external actors and individual African states or regional blocs are becoming ever more decisive. The trade policies of both the USA and the EU are anything but helpful. This is true of the USAs African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), the EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with South Africa and more recently the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiated in the Post-Cotonou era of European relations with the South. All these initiatives have a potentially detrimental impact on regional integration. The latter remains however a priority in the developmental policy and strategy documents as formulated both by African agencies as well as the partners in development cooperation in the OECD countries. Hence the question of coherence between trade as aid and other areas of development strategy and cooperation remains to be answered.

    The three analyses presented in this publication are centred on related issues in the ongoing process of globalisation under the WTO regime, and their likely effect on African countries. Each chapter critically examines recent trends in the discourse on trade reform and development.

    The contributions to this volume offer discussion and food for thought for scholars, policy makers and NGO activists alike on closely related topical issues in European-African trade relations and development cooperation.

  • 17.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Transitions in Namibia: which changes for whom?2007Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume completes the research project on "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA). It mainly addresses socioeconomic and gender-related issues in contemporary Namibia. Most of the contributors are either Namibian, based in Namibia or have undertaken extensive research in the country. Their interest as scholars and/or civil society activists is guided by a loyalty characterised not by rhetoric but by empathy with the people. They advocate notions of human rights, social equality and related values and norms instead of being driven by an ideologically determined party-political affiliation. Their investigative and analytical endeavours depict a society in transition, a society that is far from being liberated. Not surprisingly, this compilation explores the limits to liberation more than its advances.

  • 18.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe's presidential elections 2002: evidence, lessons and implications2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Presidential Elections that took place from March 9 to 11, 2002 in Zimbabwe provoked enormous internal and international controversies. The impact of the politically contested continued presidency of Robert Mugabe, head of state and leader of the government under ZANU-PF since Zimbabwe's Independence in 1980, for the country, the region and the continent might be far reaching. The consequences are not yet fully apparent, but the current debates also centre around the case of Zimbabwe as a litmus test for the notion of "good governance" and democracy as perceived and acknowledged by other African leaders especially in the context of the "New Partnership for Africa's Development" (NEPAD). The contributions to this Discussion Paper offer critical and political comments from scholars mainly in or from the Southern African region, who have been closely involved with regional and Zimbabwean issues.

  • 19.
    Melber, Henning
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Saunders, Christopher
    Transition in Southern Africa: comparative aspects2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1990s completed a process of transition in Namibia and South Africa that brought formal decolonisation in Africa to an end. These two contributions review some aspects of the transformation and complement each other. They take stock of the transformation in a historical, comparative perspective and investigate the experiences and prospects of democratisation under sovereign, legitimate political rule. They were compiled subsequent to a public lecture arranged by the Nordic Africa Institute and given by Christopher Saunders on "The Transitions to Democracy in Namibia and South Africa" on 5 April 2001. Henning Melber was a discussant at the presentation.

  • 20. Neocosmos, Michael
    et al.
    Suttner, Raymond
    Taylor, Ian
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Political cultures in democratic South Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The democratic transition in South Africa that emerged during the 1990s and became manifest in a democratically elected government, has not yet brought to completion the post-Apartheid social and political transformation of that country. In fact, it has far from consolidated a new socio-political culture.

    The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon different but related aspects of South African democracy after Apartheid as represented in a variety of social forces, institutions and individuals. They illustrate that societies in transition have to make sustained efforts to overcome the legacies of the past, and that the present reproduces some of the past structural constraints and patterns of power and control in the new framework.

    This publication has been compiled under the aegis of the research network on “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSa), currently coordinated through the Nordic Africa Institute. The contributions were originally presented to a workshop organised in Cape Town in December 2001.

  • 21.
    Southall, Roger
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, HenningDag Hammarskjöld Foundation.
    A new scramble for Africa? Imperialism, investment and development2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dramatically escalating prices of raw materials, driven by rapid industrialisation in China and other countries of the global South as well as by looming world shortages, had for the few years preceding the financial meltdown and global recession of 2009 promoted a new scramble for Africa’s natural resources. It signalled a brisk turnaround in prospects for what The Economist had dubbed the ‘hopeless continent’ as recently as 1999. However, while average growth rates across the continent have increased, the implications for Africa’s development were and remain at best dubious.

    In this important volume, the new scramble for Africa is placed in the historical context of imperialism and the contributors show important continuities with the original nineteenth-century scramble. However, while the previous scramble was between major European powers, today the continent provides a battleground for competition between the US, the European Union, China and other emerging players such as India and South Africa.

    This book raises significant general questions relating to the nature of emerging global competition between the US and China; the centrality of the struggle for oil and minerals and resulting militarisation; the international battle to capture Africa’s markets; the marginalisation of African capitalism; and the ambiguous benefits that investment and production by multinational companies bring to African communities. Arguing that exploitation of the continent by comprador African elites remains central, the book concludes by raising important questions about the prospects for development in Africa.

  • 22. Southall, Roger
    et al.
    Melber, HenningNordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Legacies of power: leadership change and former presidents in African politics2006Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It was a widely dominant perception until the early 1990's that African rulers do not vacate their office alive. But even in the brutal reality of African politics, transition takes place and different former presidents have dealt with how to maintain power and privilege very differently. With new case studies examining the post-presidential years of the iconic Mandela in South Africa, Daniel arap Moi in Kenya, Nyerere in Tanzania, Rawlings in Ghana, Charles Taylor in Liberia, as well as the experience of Botswana, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Malawi, and Nigeria, this volume examines the dilemmas which demands for presidential transitions impose upon incumbent rulers and analyses the relationships which are evolving between new regimes and their predecessors. The contributors discuss the hybridal political systems that exist in post-independence Africa; the role allotted to or pursued by former African presidents; transitional politics and justice, and political stability. The book stimulates careful further observation and analyses concerning progress in this contested arena of institutionalised political power in Africa.

  • 23.
    Wohlgemuth, Lennart
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, Henning
    On Africa: scholars and African studies2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume is based on contributions to a seminar which was organised in honour of the Institute’s retiring Director Lennart Wohlgemuth in December 2005. African scholars presented their views on “The Role of Africa in ‘African Studies’”, while Nordic scholars and policy makers responded. The deliberations offer a spectre of relevant approaches on both academic as well as policy oriented research and advisory work in and on Africa.The contributions aim at bridging the gap between academics and practitioners. They share a common commitment to African affairs and seek to support and promote these in the international context.

    Contributors include:Olu Ajakaiye and William Lyakurwa, the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)Adebayo Olukoshi, the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA)Göran Hydén, University of FloridaArne Tostensen, Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen

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