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  • 1.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Large-scale land acquisitions in Tanzania and Ethiopia: a comparative perspective2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa : a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 170-181 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaag, Mayke
    Introduction: A changing world and its consequences2011Inngår i: African Engagements : Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World / [ed] Dietz, Antonius Johannes, Havnevik, Kjell, Kaag, Mayke, Oestigaard, Terje, Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, 1-32 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 3.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Bois sacrés ou aires protégées?: Sacralisation des espaces forestiers et savoirs locaux dans un village komono (Burkina Faso)2015Inngår i: Savoirs et reconnaissance dans les sociétés africaines / [ed] Pascale Moity-Maïzi, Paris: Karthala, 2015, 181-206 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Understanding Fast Track Land Reforms in Zimbabwe2012Inngår i: Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet; Zed Books , 2012, 1-17 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 5.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Disease and disruption: Chagga witchcraft and relational fragility2009Inngår i: Dealing with uncertainty in contemporary African lives / [ed] Haram, Liv & Bawa Yamba, C., Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 1, 118-140 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    United by Oil, Divided by Politics2007Inngår i: Equal Representation: A Challenge to Democracy and Democracy Promotion / [ed] Mia Melin and Lars Rudebeck, Uppsala, Sweden: Collegium for Development Studies, Uppsala University , 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Changing rituals and reinventing tradition: The burnt Viking ship at Myklebostad, Western Norway2015Inngår i: Changing rituals and ritual changes: Function and Meaning in Ancient Funerary Practices / [ed] Brandt, J. R., Ingvaldsen, H. & Prusac, M., Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015, 359-377 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cosmogony2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion: Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 76-88 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogony as a term is derived from the two Greek words kosmos and genesis. Kosmos refers to the order of the universe and/or the universe as the order, whereas genesis refers to the process of coming into being (Long 1993: 94). Thus, cosmogony has to do with founding myths and the origin and the creation of the gods and cosmos and how the world came into existence. There are schematically several different types of cosmogenic myths classified according to their symbolic structure: (1) creation from nothing, (2) creation from chaos, (3) creation from a cosmic egg, (4) creation from world parents, (5) creation through a process of emergence, and (6) creation through the agency of an earth diver. Several of these motifs and typological forms may be present in a given cosmogenic myth-system, and these types are not mutually exclusive but may rather be used in parallel in creation ororigin myths (Long 1993: 94). There are cosmogenic myths in all religions. In the Hebrew myth, there is creation from nothing: ‘And God said. “Let there be light”; and there was light’ (Gen. 1: 3). Importantly, in transcendental religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam the omnipotent god exists totally independent of its own creation (Trigger 2003: 473), but still there are cosmogenic myths. Usually, however, cosmogony refers to a divine structuring principle where cosmos and the world are not independent of its original creation, but dependent upon the outcome of the ritual relation between humans and deities for its future existence, and such religions are traditionally called cosmogenic, putting the emphasis on human rituals. Thus, there are differences between cosmogenic and transcendental religions with regards to structures of beliefs and practices. A cosmogenic religion links humans’ rituals in the present with the divine glory in the past and cosmic stability and prosperity in the future. Hence, a cosmogenic religion enables and prescribes particular types of ritualpractices which are archaeologically manifest in the material culture, and all the early civilizations have been cosmogenic (Trigger 2003: 444–5) together with the majority of prehistoric religions. Although cosmogony had been an analytical term before Mircea Eliade developed these perspectives, his writings in the 1950s (e.g. Eliade 1954, 1959a [1987]) have strongly influenced researchers’ views of peoples’ beliefs of the world and universe in early civilizations (Trigger 2003: 445). Cosmogony as a religious framework for understanding the world and the universe necessitates specific types of interactions and rituals with the divinities. Hence, due to the strong influence of Eliade’s work on cosmogony as a principleand process, this article will focus on (1) his premises and analyses, (2) criticism and development of cosmogony as a concept, and (3) how it is possible to analyse cosmogenic rituals and religious practices as manifest in the archaeological record. This will include:(a) rituals, with particular emphasis on death and sacrifices in the Aztec civilization; and(b) monuments, with particular emphasis on the pyramids in the ancient Egyptian civilization, since these are processes and places where the dual interaction between humans and divinities took place, which recreated cosmos against the threat of chaos. Together, these case studies will illuminate the possibilities of a cosmogenic perspective in the archaeology of ritual and religion despite the difficulties with Eliade’s structural universalism.

  • 9.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremating Corpses: Destroying, defying or Deifying Death?2015Inngår i: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16-17 May 2013 / [ed] Hackwitz, K. v. & Peyroteo-Stjerna, R., Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, 65-83 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cremation as a funeral practice is unique in the sense that throughfire as a medium the dead are actively incorporated into otherspheres and realms. The problem of decaying corpses has beensolved through history in one way or another, irrespective of culture.Although Christianity has seen cremation as destructive andnegative, obliterating death and destroying the corpse, consequentlyhindering resurrection, in other cultures and time periodsthe cremation fire has been a positive and transformative medium.It is through transformation that the deceased is revitalised andgains new life in another existence, and it may even enable divineexistences. Thus, with different comparative cremation practicesin the past and the present, this paper discusses concepts of death.

  • 10.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremations in culture and cosmology2013Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial / [ed] Tarlow, S & Nilsson, L. S, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 497-509 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Developing the ‘Other’: Challenging Concepts2016Inngår i: Framing African Development: Challenging Concepts / [ed] Havnevik, K., Oestigaard, T., Tobisson, E. & Virtanen, T., Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2016, 16-34 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Nile River2012Inngår i: Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability Volume 9: Afro-Eurasia: Assessing Sustainability, Berkshire Publishing Group LLC , 2012, 228-230 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion / [ed] Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 38-50 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in the archaeology of ritual and religion includes water as a perspective and water as empirical data. The life-giving waters in society and religion are the fresh waters in their many facets in the hydrological cycle. Water is always in a flux. The fluid matter changes qualities and capacities wherever it is, and it always takes new forms. This transformative character of water is forcefully used in ritual practices and religious constructions. Water represents the one and the many at the same time, and the plurality of ritual institutionalizations and religious perceptions puts emphasis on water’s structuring principles and processes in culture and the cosmos. Water is fundamental in many ritual practices and to conceptions of the divinities and cosmos in prehistoric religions, and consequently the study of water in ritual and religion may reveal insights into both what religion is and how devotees perceive themselves, the divine spheres, and their own religious practices and rituals. The pervasive role of water-worlds in society and cosmos unites micro and macro cosmos, creates life, and legitimizes social hierarchies and religious practices and beliefs. Water is a medium which links or changes totally different aspects of humanity and divinities into a coherent unit; it bridges paradoxes, transcends the differenthuman and divine realms, allows interactions with gods, and enables the divinities to interfere with humanity. Water is a medium for everything—it has human character because we are humans; it is a social matter but also a spiritual substance and divine manifestation with immanent powers; and, still, it belongs to the realm of nature as a fluid liquid. The hydrological cycle links all places and spheres together, and water transcends the common categories by which we conceptualize the world and cosmos (Tvedt and Oestigaard 2006). The religious water-worlds, cosmologies, beliefs, and ritual practices are evident in the archaeological record, mythology, and written sources. Hence, it is necessaryto identify different types of water, the particular qualities associated with each of them,and how water materializes as religious and ritual structures, practices, and beliefs.

  • 14.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Witchcraft, witch killings and Christianity: The works of religion and parallel cosmologies in Tanzania2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa: a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 182-199 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Abawa Firew, Gedef
    University of Bergen.
    Gish Abay – the source of the Blue Nile2011Inngår i: Water and Society / [ed] In Pepper, D. W. & Brebbia, C. A., Southampton. Boston: WIT Press, 2011, 27-38 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Nile is by many seen as the most important river in the world. The source of the Blue Nile is a spring called Gish Abay in Ethiopia. This is the source of Gilgal Abay (meaning the little Abay), which is the most voluminous of the some sixty rivers flowing into Lake Tana. Although the Nile Quest has attracted emperors and explorers alike since Antiquity, after the sources of the Nile were discovered the majority of studies have focused on hydrology and not on cultural and religious aspects of the river. Gish Abay has been seen as the outlet of the river Gihon flowing directly from Paradise linking this world with Heaven. The holiness of Abay and the source in particular have had and still have an important role in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Moreover, before the source was Christianised it had a central role in the indigenous religion where lavish ox sacrifices were conducted. Thus, in this article we highlight the ritual and religious role of Gish Abay in a historic perspective.

  • 16.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    Urban Water Systems: A Conceptual Framework2014Inngår i: A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization / [ed] Terje Tvedt and Terje Oestigaard, London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2014, 1-21 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Notions of Poverty and Wealth in Coastal Zanzibar: The Policy Relevance of Local Perspectives2009Inngår i: Ethnographic Practice and Public Aid: Methods and Meanings in Development Cooperation / [ed] Sten Hagberg & Charlotta Widmark, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2009, 125-159 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Virtanen, Tea
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Between cattle and Islam: Shifting social and gendered significance of cattle among the Mbororo pastoralists in Cameroon2010Inngår i: Good to eat, good to live with: Nomads and animals in northern Eurasia and Africa / [ed] Florian Stammler; Hiroki Takakura, Sendai: Tohoku University , 2010, 123-139 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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