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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Tommy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Food security now or wait for research to assess risks?: genetically modified crops and smallholder farmers in Africa2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are by proponents considered as a possible solution to the food and nutrition problems in developing countries. However, there are also concerns of how side effects may affect environment and human health. These will probably still remain unknown for decades. But can Africa wait 30 years for research to give a definite answer about the risks connected with biotechnology?

  • 2.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Costly not to consider local resistance: Advice on agricultural investments in Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Failures in considering and properly addressing local resistance have become costly for both the local people and the investors. Land acquisition policies need to be accompanied by mechanisms that address local grievances and conflicts. These aspects are crucial not only to alleviate unjust practices, but also to enhance confidence of investors and performance of the investments.

  • 3.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Small farms under stress play a huge role for Africa: smallholder agriculture and emerging global challenges2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread poverty as well as food and income insecurity plague Africa’s dominant smallholder agriculture. Paradoxically, the very people who mainly depend on agriculture are not able to secure their own food and nutrition needs. Today, three-quarters of Africa’s malnourished children and the majority of people living in absolute poverty are found among the smallholder farmers who are key to the development of the continent.

  • 4.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Burkina Faso's one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the upcoming elections in Burkina Faso, there’s a need for a clear democratic break with the three decades of de facto one-party rule. At the same time, a moderate approach is needed in dealing with the controversial legacy of the former regime, to avoid further polarisation in an already fraught political situation. These are the recommendations of Jesper Bjarnesen and Cristiano Lanzano, senior researchers at the Nordic Africa Institute, in a policy note on Burkina Faso’s one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections.

  • 5.
    Crentsil, Perpetual
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Ebola: accurate information prevents rumours and panic: educating leaders is one measure - along with distributing soap2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its scope. This Policy Note stresses the importance of knowledge of social factors in preventing the spread of the fatal disease. There are similarities with the previous HIV/AIDS epidemic. Traditional healers and heads of households are key players for health experts to target in protecting people against infection. Normal funeral services are one source of infection. A very basic preventive measure is providing families with soap.

  • 6.
    Gessesse, Dessie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Favouring a Demonised Plant: Khat and Ethiopian smallholder enterprises2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Khat is a plant native to Ethiopia that has been consumed over several centuries as a mental and physical stimulant. This report outlines khat’s role as a source of livelihood. Khat, dubbed a social ill by many, is at the same time part and parcel of the livelihoods of many others. With consumption of the stimulant spreading to many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, khat production has become a controversial global issue. In most European and North American countries khat is illegal. The debates so far focus on the consumption of khat and its allegedly harmful health ,economic and social effects. The argument here is that expanded khat production, driven by growing demand for the stimulant, is made possible through multidimensional links between producers, sellers and others. Today, khat production is part of the wider agro-silvi-pasture complex that characterises Ethiopian rural landscapes. At the farm level, khat shares space with food and tree crops and contributes cash to the household economy. The fact that its production is a smallholder venture andis expanding through a variety of farming systems indicates its importance to cultivators and their use of land. This paper is not exhaustive, but makes an exploratory attempt to highlight khat-related livelihood issues and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates on the stimulant and to prompt further research.

  • 7.
    Mahgoub, Farida
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Current Status of Agriculture and Future Challenges in Sudan2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation and long-lasting civil wars and conflict mean that the demographic pattern in Sudan is changing drastically. Nevertheless, 60%–80 % of Sudanese engage in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial sector in the economy as a major source of rawmaterials, food and foreign exchange. It employs the majority of the labour force, and serves as a potential vehicle for diversifyingthe economy. However, no rigorous studies have explained productivity in this sector inrelation to food security. The situation has worsened because agriculture in particular has been neglected sincethe advent of oil production in the early 2000s. Moreover, Sudan’s agricultural growth has been unbalanced, with the majority of irrigated agriculture concentrated in the Centre and ahuge disparity in development indicators between the best- and worst-performing regions. Thus, studies show that the vast majority of Sudanese are reported to be food insecure,especially internally displaced persons and in conflict regions such as Darfur, Kordofan and other regions.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, David
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sweden-Norway at the Berlin Conference 1884–85: History, national identity-making and Sweden's relations with Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of Sweden is one of a small, democratic and peace-loving country without the moral burden of a colonial past. However, in this Current African Issues publication, the notion that Sweden lacks a colonial past in Africa is brought into question. At the Berlin Conference 1884–85, the rules for colonisation of Africa were agreed upon among a handful of white men. With the blessing of King Oscar II, the united kingdoms of Sweden-Norway participated in the Berlin conference, ratified the resulting convention and signed a trade agreement with King Leopold’s International Congo Association. Thereafter, hundreds of Swedish militaries, seamen and missionaries took an active part in the brutal colonial project in the Congo. What was Sweden-Norway really doing at the Berlin Conference and in the ensuing Scramble for Africa? Is it now time to re-assess Swedish identity in relation to Africa, an identity so far centered on colonial innocence? Dr DAVID NILSSON is a researcher at the Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. His research focuses on global longtermperspectives on sustainable development in Africa.

  • 9.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dammed divinities: the water powers at Bujagali Falls, Uganda2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The damming of Bujagali Falls, located only 8 kilometers north of the historic source of the White Nile or the outlet of Lake Victoria, has been seen as one of the most controversial dams in modern times. In 2012, the dam was eventually inaugurated after years of anti-dam opposition and delays. A unique aspect of the controversies was the river spirit Budhagaali living in the falls blocking the dam and opposing the destruction of the waterfalls. This spirits embodies a particular healer – Jaja Bujagali, but he was bypassed by another healer who conducted no less than three grandiose appeasement and relocation ceremonies for the Budhagaali spirit clearing the way for the dam. Why has this particular dam been so controversial? How can a water spirit block a nearly billion dollar dam? What was the ritual drama behind the construction of the dam and is it possible to move a spirit? And what happened to Budhagaali and the indigenous religion after the falls were flooded and can a river spirit be drowned in its own element – water?

  • 10.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Thirsty, hungry and no power?: African resources in a global world2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?

  • 11.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water and climate change in Africa – from causes to consequences2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the climate change discourse. This should not be by paying less attention to the causes, which are now well known, but by stressing more the consequences, which have been largely neglected in political discourses, especially changes in water systems. This is also an issue of how global society should react to the uncertainties climate change represent for Africa and its development. Globally, the current political agenda focuses mainly on mitigation of carbon emissions, a consideration that also structures international aid policies, and less on adaptation and how to develop countries and societies when hydrology and environment changes. Thus, a water perspective may add important insights and future policy guidelines of particular relevance to Africa’s development.

  • 12.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water Scarcity and Food Security along the Nile: Politics, population increase and climate change2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2050, the population in all the Nile Basin countries is expected to be ten times higher than it was in 1950. This will put ever increasing pressure on water as a resource for development. The Nile Basin catchment area is shared by 11 countries covering about one-tenth of the African continent. Globally, around 70 per cent of fresh water consumption is used in agriculture. This puts the spotlight on future scenarios regarding food production: will there be enough water for food security in the Nile Basin countries? In this Current African Issues publication, water scarcity and food security are analysed from a range of perspectives. What are the future predictions regarding population increase and climate change, and how will these affect development in Nile Basin countries? What are the current water theories addressing the above issues, and what are the main challenges the Nile Basin countries will face in a context that is also strongly shaped by its history?

  • 13.
    Olanya, David Ross
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    From Global Land Grabbing for Biofuels to Acquisitions of African Water for Commercial Agriculture2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion of biofuel investment in Africa has been supported by indebted poor governments because of perceived potential benefits such as sustainable energy development, support to poor farmers, development of rural economies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the intensity of the biofuels political economy in poor countries worsens inequality for the vulnerable poor. This is evidenced by large-scale land acquisitions in Africa for biofuel and crop production primarily for foreign consumption – food, animal feeds and energy crops. The search for land in African countrieshas been triggered by growing concerns over food and energy security in developed countries following the global food crisis of 2008. Moreover, these recent developments in large-scale land acquisitions in Africa are not a new phenomenon, but represent the renewal of old practices incommercial agriculture, which is either conducted through purchases or long-term leases. In addition to biofuel expansion, this study notes that current large-scale land acquisitions in sub-Saharan Africa have been further driven by demands to access water resources for other commercial agricultural crops. The land purchases or leases automatically guarantee access to African water. This demand for water is a response to climate change: most industrialists believe that acquiring land near a main water reservoir will guarantee future agricultural potential. Few analyses have been done on the land-water access nexus. This article considers recent developments in large-scaleland acquisitions in Africa in terms of water security for commercial agriculture to safeguard the production of agricultural crops with a large water footprint. Using political economy analysis, this article examines national policy on these acquisitions, the rights accorded to foreign investors and how land acquisitions undermine indigenous rights to the common resources that have been the mainsource of livelihood in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 14.
    Woldegiorgis, Birhanu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Land Laws and Proclamations in Tanzania and Ethiopia2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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