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  • 1.
    Abdi, Cawo, M.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A gendered perspective on the impact of conflict in the Horn of Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Note focuses on the gendered consequences of the militarisation of the Horn of Africa. Despite being in different ‘moments’ of conflict, the countries of this region share features of extreme social, economic and political violence, which impact negatively on their citizens. Protracted refugee and refugee-like conditions, extreme disinvestment in social programmes, increasing militarisation and political repression adversely affect women, thereby further entrenching gender disparities. Concerted national and international efforts and resources should support local democratic initiatives to find political solutions to these protracted conflicts and advance the struggle against sexual and gender-based violence and discrimination.

  • 2.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Angola's Sustainable Growth and Regional Role beyond the Elections2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Angola’s economic boom averaging about 17 per cent per annum, is centred on its extractive oil industry and has made Angola one of the fastest growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa and the world. With national peace providing stability and a strong military to negotiate regional threats, Angola is expected to consolidate its position as a regional power commensurate with its economic and military might. However, Angola faces challenges in the political, social, economic, governance, security and foreign policy arenas. It will also have to contend with election-related violence. While a bright medium-term future is in prospect for Angola, the country will have to negotiate and overcome these challenges to sustain its long-term peaceful development.

  • 3.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Electoral Violence in Africa2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategies to prevent and manage electoral violence.

  • 4.
    Adong, Florence Odora
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Recovery and Development Politics: Options for Sustainable Peacebuilding in Northern Uganda2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Agbu, Osita A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ethnicity and Democratisation in Africa: Challenges for Politics and Development2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the challenges that ethnicity poses for democratisation and development in Africa. It provides an overview of the literature on ethnicity and democratisation and an analysis of the trends on the continent since the end of the Cold War. In this regard, it critically examines perspectives on the impact of ethnicity on democracy and analyses the ethnicity-citizenship nexus in the context of the national democratic question in Africa. This provides the basis for the analysis of emerging challenges facing Africa and the way forward. The paper provides additional insights into the ongoing debates about democracy and the nation-state question in Africa and is of interest to scholars, practitioners and the general reader.

  • 6.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West Africa: Issues and responses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion paper examines the linkages between gender and gender inequality in the context of conflict, sexual violence and HIV transmission, and their impact on postconflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone and Liberia. It makes two critical contributions to a gendered perspective on post-conflict transitions in West Africa. First, it notes that contrary to conventional wisdom, post-war transitions to relative peace have made little difference to women’s exposure to chronic sexual violence, with potential implications for increased HIV transmission. Second, the study interrogates those assumptions linking war-related sexual violence to high HIV prevalence in post-conflict contexts, by showing that despite over a decade of armed conflict, Liberia and Sierra Leone had adult HIV prevalence rates that were among the lowest in West Africa. This paper goes beyond generally held notions of the sexual and gender dimensions of civil wars in Africa and points to a gap in, and key challenge for studies and policies on post-conflict reconstruction in Africa.

  • 7.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Towards More Informed Responses to Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West African Settings2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence is incontrovertible that Liberia (with its two civil wars, 1989-97 and 2000-03) and Sierra Leone (with its 1991-2001 war) have emerged from two of the most inhuman, ferocious and cruel conflicts in the post-Cold war era. The scale of destruction, rape, mayhem, arson and torture perpetrated during these wars was among the greatest in Africa’s postcolonial history. Women, especially adolescents and young adults, were exposed to extreme sexual brutality at a time when a growing heterosexually-driven HIV pandemic was occurring in the West African sub-region. Both countries also experienced an economic and social collapse that resulted in human development indicators on employment, income, health, education, women’s status and child well-being that are among the lowest in the world. Protracted armed conflicts, as witnessed in Liberia and Sierra Leone and beyond, expose women and girls to unprecedented levels and forms of sexual violence. Moreover, the expectation that the transition from war to peace will lead to significantly reduced sexual violence against women (SVAW) is often disappointed. Instead, post-conflict transitions tend to produce a change in the predominant forms of sexual violence and the profile of its perpetrators. The extended and interlinked conflicts in these neighbouring countries relate at a fundamental level to the persistent denial of citizenship rights to particular population sub-groups over several decades. Within such landscapes of severe social, economic and political marginalization and deprivation, women and girls were bound to suffer more than men and boys during and after the wars as a result of long-established and deeply entrenched patriarchal structures and ideologies in both countries. The persistence of SVAW during post-conflict transitions tends to increase the risk of HIV infection among younger women relative to the phase of armed conflict. A key causal factor is men’s highly exploitative, transactional and cross-generational multiple sexual activities. Thus far, the dominant responses to this complex of issues in post-conflict West Africa have lacked a nuanced understanding of the underlying drivers of sexual violence and its intersections with women’s higher risk of HIV infection.The policy responses to the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building in West Africa have generally focused more on traditional security, physical infrastructurere building and economic revitalization issues than on such highly gendered human security concerns as sexual violence and violations of reproductive rights. Left unaddressed, these persisting or worsening human security challenges, affecting at least half their populations, make sustainable peace and development in post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone nearly impossible.

  • 8.
    Amankwaah, Clementina
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Election-Related Violence: The Case of Ghana2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Current African Issue gives an overview of the causes and experiences of electionrelated violence in relation to patronage politics in Ghana. Ghana has been framed b ythe international community as a unique bastion of democracy and peace on the African continent. Nevertheless, the country has come from a military regime like many of its democratic African counterparts and is still prone to some of the problems faced by its more turbulent neighbours. The three main guiding issues that this publication will address in relation to election-related violence in Ghana are:

    • The causes of election-related violence in Ghana
    • Who the people most likely to cause election-related violence are
    • The role that “big men” play in election-related violence
  • 9.
    Angerbrandt, Henrik
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A fair electoral process can ease divisions in Nigeria: decentralised politics brought on a new set of challenges in the north2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Aning, Kwesi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The African Union’s Peace and Security Architecture: Defining an emerging response mechanism2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Arowosegbe, Jeremiah O.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reflections on the Challenge of Reconstructing Post-Conflict States in West Africa: Insights From Claude Ake’s Political Writings2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is based on a theoretical exploration of state reconstruction and the prospects for peacebuilding in post-conflict West African countries based on critical reflections on the political thought of Claude Ake, one of Nigeria’s foremost political thinkers. Its point of departure is the refutation of the view that the state project in Africa is ‘hopeless’ or at a dead-end. It therefore revisits the debate on the viability of the state project in the continent, particularly as it relates to those West African states emerging from or affected by violent conflict. While acknowledging the shortcomings of the state-formation project in some post conflict West African countries, the author argues that the state remains a key institutional and social actor that needs to be understood more in terms of its historical moorings, political economy and marginal position in the international order. Drawing on Ake’s postulations about the limited autonomy of the state in Africa and its links to political violence and conflict, the author critiques both the hegemonic discourses on the nature of the state in Africa and those relating to post-conflict peacebuilding in the continent. The analysis of the latter focuses on the epistemological groundings of mainstream peacebuilding discourses, and posits that there is no guarantee that such imported models ensure sustainable peace in West Africa. Thus, the paper makes a compelling case for reinventing the state in West Africa based on autochthonous democratic transformation in favour of ordinary people. In this regard, it argues for an endogenous transformation of the state in Africa in ways that can strongly root it in the people as a fundamental step towards sustainable and locally owned participatory peacebuilding. It thereby opens up a new perspective on state reconstruction as a step towards ending violent conflict in the sub-region.

  • 12.
    Benton, Adia
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ebola exhausts health systems: more resources are needed2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemics and institutional responses to them reveal the strengths and weaknesses of health systems. They also often engender and reflect existing political, economic and social tensions whenever and wherever they occur. This policy note outlines some of acute and chronic political and social conditions that have facilitated transmission and continue to pose a challenge for community and government responses to Ebola. It also highlights the significance of building health systems to avert and address future health crises.

  • 13.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Dangerous Deadlock in Djibouti2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Democracy or one-party system: political development in the Sudan after the 2015 election2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In June, Al-Bashir, Sudan's leader since 1989, was sworn in for another five years as president. Few if any experts had expected any other outcome of the 2015 election. But will the 71 year old ex-military leader, who is accused by the ICC of war crimes in Darfur, continue his initiatives for national dialogue and overcome the country's major economic and security hurdles?

  • 15.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Post-Secession State-Building and Reconstruction: Somaliland, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    State-building refers to the processes undertaken by new states, while reconstitution refers to the rearrangement of an existing state following either secession or collapse. Somaliland and South Sudan are involved in process of state-building, while Sudan and Somalia are engaged in state reconstitution. Three distinctive models of state-building are taking place in the four countries. This Policy Note analyses the interlinked yet distinct process of state building.

  • 16.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-determination and secession: A 21st Century Challenge to the Post-colonial State in Africa2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two approaches have characterised analysis of the postcolonial state in Africa. One emphasises the territorial integrity of the postcolonial state, with inherited colonial borders being viewed as sacrosanct and state-centred rights being given primacy. The other questions the sacrosanctity of colonial borders and seeks to promote the primacy of people-centred rights. The increasing frequency in recent years of quests for self-determination and secession in Africa poses an existential challenge to the postcolonial state on that continent. This Policy Note addresses this emerging trend.

  • 17.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-Determination and Secessionism in Somaliland and South Sudan: Challenges to Postcolonial State-building2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the notion of self-determination and secession by adopting acomparative perspective on two case studies, namely Somaliland and South Sudan. Somaliland declared its independence in 1991 following the collapse of the Somali state. Since then, Somaliland has been making relentless efforts to secure recognition from the international community. South Sudan successfully negotiated the right to exerciseself-determination, a right that was formalised in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed between the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). The people of South Sudan held a referendum and voted overwhelmingly for secession, with formal independence being achieved on 9 July 2011. International law may better qualify Somaliland for statehood than South Sudan for three reasons: (i) it was created by colonialism, (ii) it has already been recognised, albeit only for a few days, as an independent state in 1960, and (iii) it has proven to be stable, functional and relatively democratic. Yet Somaliland has failed to achieve international recognition. This paper interrogates this discrepancy. It concludes that the existence of a partner ready to accept the right of self-determination, and geostrategic concerns about security as well a seconomic and political interests, determine international recognition.

  • 18.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Why South Sudan conflict is proving intractable: Ugandan forces and lack of international commitment two reasons2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2013 war broke out in South Sudan as a result of the power struggle between President Salva Kiir and the ex-vice president Riek Machar. Violence from both sides led to massacres and millions of displaced persons. Agreements to end hostilities have so far been violated. A sustainable peace calls for Ugandan forces to leave South Sudan. The political parties have to reform and be a part of national reconciliation instead of fighting one another.

  • 19.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Burkina Faso's one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the upcoming elections in Burkina Faso, there’s a need for a clear democratic break with the three decades of de facto one-party rule. At the same time, a moderate approach is needed in dealing with the controversial legacy of the former regime, to avoid further polarisation in an already fraught political situation. These are the recommendations of Jesper Bjarnesen and Cristiano Lanzano, senior researchers at the Nordic Africa Institute, in a policy note on Burkina Faso’s one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections.

  • 20.
    Bøås, Morten
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    African Conflicts and Conflicts Drivers: Uganda, Congo and the Mano River2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Courson, Elias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND): political marginalization, repression and petro-insurgency in the Niger Delta2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion paper addresses the linkages between the political economy of oil and violent conflict in Nigeria’s main oil and gas producing region, the Niger Delta. It is based on a case study of the insurgent Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), which has targeted and attacked the interests of international oil companies and the federal government in the oil-rich, but impoverished, Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in its professed campaign for the control of the oil wealth of the region for the benefit of local people. Through this study of MEND, fresh perspectives are brought to bear on the causes and ramifications of the oil conflict in the region, and the role of various actors at the local, national and international levels. This is important in grasping the nature of the violence in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and the enormity of the task of resolving the complex conflict in which the region is immersed. It is a challenge, which as the author argues, transcends the resort to the militarized or securitized solutions that often fail to adequately address the roots of conflict.

  • 22.
    Darkwa, Linda
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Challenge of Sub-Regional Security in West Africa : The case of the 2006 ECOWAS convention on small arms and light weapons2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides insights into the challenges posed by the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in West Africa, paying particular attention to the ECOWAS convention on small arms and light weapons as a collective sub-regional response to a potent threat to peace, security and development. It connects global and regional discourses on illicit arms control and provides a balanced, empirical xamination of the performance of the convention. It is a useful contribution to debates on arms-proliferation control in Africa and provides well-informed recommendations of interest to scholars, peace activists, policy practitioners and strategists working on peace and security in Africa.

  • 23.
    Ebobrah, Solomon T.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reconceptualising Democratic Local Governance in the Niger Delta2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines local governance in the Niger Delta and its relevance to the search for inclusive and sustainable conflict-resolution in the oil-rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It critiques the existing local government system and explores the possibility of reconceptualising local governance along more inclusive, accountable and participatory lines that would institutionalise democracy, development and peace at the grassroots or community level in the troubled oil-rich region. Its originality lies in its departure from top-down perspectives, and its refocusing of attention on the oft-neglected local sites of conflict and under development. The paper will appeal to scholars, policy actors and development planners with a particular interest in developments at the African grassroots level.

  • 24.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Price for Peace? Military Integration and Continued Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    Comprendre et aborder les violences sexuelles liées aux conflits: Enseignements tirés de la République Démocratique du Congo2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le paysage de guerre de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) a acquis une exécrable réputation dans le monde entier à cause des rapports sur l’échelle massive des violences sexuelles. Bien qu’un nombre énorme d’autres formes de violences et d’abus aient également été commises à grande échelle, ce sont les violences sexuelles qui ont reçu la plupart de l’attention mondiale, en particulier parmi les observateurs «de l’extérieur». D’innombrables rapports, articles de journaux, coupures de presse, appels et documentaires ont été consacrés à cette question. Un grand nombre de journalistes, d’activistes et de représentants de diverses organisations et de gouvernements internationaux ont effectué des pèlerinages en RDC pour rencontrer et écouter les survivants de vive voix.

  • 26.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    La complexité de la violence: Analyse critique des violences sexuelles en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC)2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Ce rapport est basé sur une étude de cas originale, incluant des entretiens extensifs avec les forces armées en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). En explorant de manière critique et remettant en question de manière convaincante les stéréotypes existants et récits sur les violences sexuelles dans des lieux de conflit, les auteurs mettent en lumière le besoin d’une compréhension nuancée des violences basées sur le genre, ainsi que ses victimes invisibles. Leur analyse va au-delà des explications réductrices qui distinguent les violences sexuelles d’autres formes de violences qui affectent les sociétés déchirées par la guerre et hantent les contextes d’après-guerre. Ainsi nous apportent-elles des enseignements très importants sur les circonstances dans lequelles les violences sexuelles se produisent.

  • 27.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    The Complexity of Violence: A critical analysis of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, the first in Sida’s gender-based violence series, draws on an original case study, including extensive interviews with members of thearmed forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). By critically exploring and convincingly challenging existing stereotypes and narratives about sexual violence in conflict settings, the authors reveal the need for a nuanced understanding of SGBV, including its invisible victims. Their analysis transcends reductionist explanations that separate SGBV from other forms of violence that afflict war-torn societies, and haunt post-war contexts. They thus provide invaluable insights into the complex circumstances in which SGBV occurs.

  • 28.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    Understanding and addressing conflict-related sexual violence: Lessons learned from the Democratic Republic of Congo2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) warscape has become infamous globally from the reports on the massive scale of sexual violence. While vast amounts of other forms of violence and abuse have also been committed, it is sexual violence that has attracted the lion’s share of attention, especially among “outside” observers. Countless reports, newspaper articles, news-clips, appeals and documentaries have been devoted to the issue. Numerous journalists, activists and representatives of diverse international organisations and governments have made pilgrimages to the DRC to meet and listen to survivors first-hand.

  • 29.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reformed cocoa market benefits Liberian farmers: but watch out for new forms of market power and elite capture2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment for smallholder cocoa farmers in Liberia has improved. Game-changing efforts by the government have increased competition among cocoa buyers and led to higher producer prices. Farmers are also encouraged by new investors to improve the quality of cocoa, for which they earn more. In addition, famers organisations have strengthened their bargaining power. However, policy-makers must be alert to a possible backlash if competion is not ensured, and from elite capture of farmers’ organisations.

  • 30. Follér, Maj-Lis
    et al.
    Haug, Christoph
    Knutsson, Beniamin
    Thörn, Håkan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?: Donor-civil society partnerships and the case of hiv/aids work2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil society organisations are today considered crucial indevelopment partnerships. This Policy Dialogue argues that current aid programs tend to turn such CSOs into businesses that are required to meet donor demands for reportable results, rather than to serve the needs of intended beneficiaries. Based on case studies drawn from HIV and AIDS work in Mozambique, Rwanda and South Africa, the report explores the methods donors use to govern development partnerships and their effect on the distribution of responsibility among partners. It further examines the responses by recipient organisations to these requirements, ranging from acquiescence to resistance. These case studies, drawn from the field of HIV/AIDS, are also invaluable in shedding light on wider issue of the governance of international development cooperation with civil society.

  • 31.
    Gaasholt, Ole Martin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Who needs to reconcile with whom?: the conflict’s complexity in northern Mali calls for tailored solutions2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While negotiations are taking place in Algiers, some observers insist on the need for reconciliation between Northern Mali and the rest of the country and particularly between Tuareg and other Malians. But the Tuareg are a minority in Northern Mali and most of them did not support the rebels. So who needs to be reconciled with whom? And what economic solutions will counteract conflict? This Policy Note argues that not only exclusion underlies the conflict, but also a lack of economic opportunities.

  • 32.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Karlsrud, John
    de Coning, Cedric
    Strategic Options for the Future of African Peace Operations 2015-2025: Seminar Report2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    An African model of peace operationsIncreasingly complex security environments are placing high demandson African peace operations, and complicating efforts at long-termpeace- and statebuilding. From the experiences of the African Union(AU) and the sub-regions over the last decade, an African model ofpeace operations has emerged that is at odds with the missionscenarios and multi-dimensional assumptions that underpinned theoriginal framework of the African Standby Force (ASF).

  • 33.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Radicalisation and terrorist recruitment among Kenya’s youth2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With little chance of getting any education or jobs, young slum dwellers in Kenya are easy prey for terrorist recruiters from al-Shabaab and ISIS. Politicians must therefore address the social development of poor neighbourhoods and specifically target the youth. Equally important in order to prevent further radicalisation, this policy note argues, is the fight against corruption.

  • 34.
    Hendricks, Cheryl
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender and Security in Africa: An Overview2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the debates, theoretical perspectives and current trends in gender, conflict and post-conflict reconstruction, and security sector reform (SSR) in Africa. It provides a broad overview of and critical insights into the gender-conflict-security nexus, capturing the trends in the discourses, identifying the gaps in the literature and prioritising issues and areas for future research. This Discussion Paper is essential reading for all those with a deep interest in gender, peace, development and security in Africa, particularly gender scholars, students, activists and practitioners.

  • 35.
    Hunsu, Folashade
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Zangbeto: Navigating Between the Spaces of Oral Art, Communal Security and Conflict Mediation in Badagry, Nigeria2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines Zangbeto, a highly revered society, among the Egun people in the town of Badagry, near the city of Lagos, in south west Nigeria, that have creatively re-invented tradition to serve multiple purposes. It shows how Zangbeto has in the context of economic crisis and challenges linked to urban growth, adapted its roles to include communal policing, conflict mediation, oral art and entertainment, and the maintenance of communal order. In more ways than one, it captures the essence and multiple identities of Zangbeto within Badagry society. The involvement of Zangbeto in local policing or ‘night watching’ provides an alternative or an exception to the dominant representation of vigilantism in Nigeria as disorderly violence, sometimes for political or criminal ends. This paper also demonstrates how Zangbeto, drawing upon local Egun culture and traditional practices is able to maintain security and local order at the community level. It is argued that rather than act in an arbitrary and violent manner, Zangbeto operates through the combination of traditional symbolic actions and oral art in mediating local conflicts and preserving social harmony and local order. An interesting point relates to how Zangbeto co-exists peacefully with formal political and security institutions, and operates without causing tensions within Badagry town, where some inhabitants share different ethnic identities and religious faiths. The study also opens up a humanist perspective to how the aesthetics of Zangbeto’s cultural tropes of oral presentation, rhetoric and representation act as a powerful force for preserving cherished communal norms and values, and facilitating communication in ways that strengthen social cohesion. In this regard this paper demonstrates the wealth of possibilities that exist within Africa’s traditional cultures and oral arts for alternative grassroots based conflict mediation and security.

  • 36.
    Kelsall, Tim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    An introduction to some issues in transitional justice2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Kuwali, Dan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Persuasive prevention: Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the legality of intervention without Security Council authorisation is still debatablein international law, over-reliance on military intervention increases the risk of too much focus on reactive rather than proactive strategies. If the thresholds for Article 4(h) intervention – like those of the responsibility to protect – are serious international crimes subject to universal jurisdiction, it follows that measures to ensure the observance of the law in prospect, rather than intervention and penalisation of violations in retrospect,are important in preventing violations. Therefore, in order to in a timely manner and effectively implement Article 4(h) and R2P, the missing link is borderless ‘persuasive prevention’ which aims at enforcing fundamental human rights obligations to prevent mass atrocity crimes stipulated in Article 4(h). To this end, as a minimum, the AU should discharge its responsibility to prevent human rights violations through the ‘force of law’. Where atrocities are likely to take place, the African Standby Force (ASF) should be deployedin a timely way, not to defeat a State, but to pursue perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes. To achieve this, the ASF should have the ‘capability to protect’ to ensure the ‘obligationto prosecute or extradite’. Although the AU has taken an interventionist stance, what is needed most is early action to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The AU may need to establish a body to monitor the implementation of obligations whose breach may lead to the heinous crimes in Article 4(h). In addition, the AU needs a legally binding instrument to ensure accountability and end impunity for crimes in Article 4(h). The idea is to influencethe calculus of potential authors of atrocities and ensure compliance with human rights and humanitarian law obligations.

  • 38.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    War in Mali: Background study and annotated bibliography. July 2012 - March 20132013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Not long ago, Mali was considered a beacon of stability and a model of democratic evolution in West Africa. The country then experienced a military coup in the capital in March 2012, followed by the usual post-coup volatility and uncertainty. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, armed insurgents swiftly took over half the country. It did not take long to dismantle a country that on the paper appeared to be functioning, stable and democratic. French troops intervened in the conflict in the north. Yet even if this intervention put a stop to the outright threat of the insurgents taking over the south and significantly shifted the balance of forces in the north, it did not end the conflict. The insurgents have dispersed into remote areas in the sub-region, changing their tactics to terrorist-like activities. Different forms of political negotiation and reconciliation are certainly needed in the region. With the current global clash between radical Islam and the Western “War on Terror”, northern Mali will probably continue to be contested terrain for a long time. In the meantime, a transition to democratic rule is planned for the country, with elections scheduled for July this year. In all likelihood, this will prove to be only an illusory end to an intense power tussle over state control in Bamako.

  • 39.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Youth and the labour market in Liberia: on history, state structures and spheres of informalities2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the historical development of the Liberian labor market with a particular focus on young men and women. It asks, what constitutes and shapes the Liberian labour market? By looking at labour mobilization and the structure of the (in)formal labour market – both in peace and war – our understanding of the contemporary Liberian labour marketis substantially enhanced. The study finds that there are many recurring patterns of labor migration, labor mobilization and distribution that have existed in the Liberian pre-war, war and post-war settings. Historical structures of informality and patrimonialism continue to dominate Liberia today. In addition to this, the study's focus on youths provides an insight into how this section of society moves through the labour market. It also examines the idea of unemployed youths as particularly prone to violence.

  • 40.
    Lund, Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Land rights and citizenship in Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the interface between rights and identity in the struggles for land rights and citizenship in Africa. It provides a robust overview of developments in the literature on land rights and citizenship in Africa, poses relevant research questions and sketches the parameters of policy engagement by researchers. By laying emphasis on the priority of mapping the dynamics and impacts of the unfolding struggles, the author provides a critical intervention in ongoing debates on the subject. The paper is a rich source of material on the state of scholarship on land rights and citizenship in Africa and the future directions for research on the subject. Scholars, researchers and policy analysts are bound to benefit from its rich and critical insights.

  • 41.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation-Cutting: Accelerating Change : Annual Report 2010 : Nurturing Change from Within.2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting (FGM/C): Accelerating Change is to contribute to the abandonment of FGM/C in 17 African countries within a generation. FGM/C is a deeply embedded in social norm – woven into all aspects of social, cultural and political life. Although the practice is a violation of human rights and causes untold harm to the health and wellbeing of women and girls, it has long been viewed as a cultural necessity. In this context, simply exhorting people to change their beliefs and behaviour is not eff ective and can, in fact, be counterproductive. People must arrive at these decisions on their own; public support and consensus are key to promoting sustainable change. In its work to change such a deeply ingrained cultural practice as FGM/C, from its inception the Joint Programme has supported a holistic, culturally sensitive and participative approach grounded on a firm foundation of human rights. This approach ensures that the principles of human rights guide all programmatic activities and analysis in the target countries. The aim is to create local environments characterized by participation, empowerment, non-discrimination, equity, accountability and the rule of law. This holistic, participative approach has proven to be a most eff ective means for ending FGM/C in a sustainable manner. It also tends to promote wider community empowerment. Similarly, a supportive national environment based on an accurate, country-specific, culturally sensitive understanding of the causes and eff ects of FGM/C is also crucial to accelerating the abandonment of the practice.

  • 42.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Abu Ras, Aida
    Al Fassi, Hatoon
    El Sanousi, Magda
    Hamza, Nabila
    Kablan, Shahrazad
    Khafagy, Fatemah
    Largueche, Dalenda
    Osman, Hibaaq
    Tallawy, Mervat
    Have the Arab Uprisings Helped or Harmed Women’s Rights?: Women and the Arab Revolutions : From Equality in Protest to Backlash in the Transition from Old Regimes to New Governments2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Kapchan, Deborah
    The Materiality of Affect in North Africa: Politics in Flux2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Mengisteab, Kidane
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Critical Factors in the Horn of Africa's Raging Conflicts2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when much attention is focused on the Horn of Africa as one of Africa’s most war-ravaged regions and a continued source of security concern regionally and globally, this Discussion Paper provides deep insights into the complex dimensions of and linkages between the violent conflicts in the region. Delving into history and the core and contextual factors underpinning these wars in the postcolonial era, the author provides a conceptual framework for grappling with the complex inter- and intra-state conflicts by focusing on the institutional and structural causes of war. He goes on to make a compelling argument that conflict for institutional and democratic state transformation in the Horn of Africa is a fundamental step towards long-term peace and sustainable development.

  • 45.
    Menkhaus, Ken
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    If Mayors Ruled Somalia: Beyond the State-building Impasse2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Meyer, Angela
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Peace and Security Cooperation in Central Africa: Developments, Challenges and Prospects2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides the most up-to-date insights into Central Africa’s peace and security architecture. Its breath and depth attest to a deep knowledge of the history and politics of regional cooperation in a region that has attracted less attention in the literature than West, East and Southern Africa. It provides readers with first-hand knowledge of regional cooperation and integration, and the expansion of this agenda in Central Africa to include peace and security issues. Dispassionate and clear insights are offered into the intra-regional dynamics of the regional peace and security institutions FOMAC and MICOPAX, the challenges and constraints confronting regional peace in Central Africa and the potential for change. It is essential reading for all those seeking a good grasp of the complex dimensions of peace and security in Central Africa and the prospects for the future.

  • 47.
    Murunga, Godwin R.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Spontaneous or premeditated?: Post-Election Violence in Kenya2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper examines the high levels of post-electoral violence that followed the 2007 Kenyan elections. While noting that the conflict was triggered by the incumbent party’s abuse of the electoral process with the complicity of certain state agencies, the author traces the background causes to the long pent-up grievances among the majority of Kenyan peoples, alienated from and oppressed by a fractious but predatory ruling elite. The paper provides insights into the roots and nature of Kenya’s post-election violence; its manifestations in various regions of the country; and the roles of the ruling Party of National Unity and the opposition Orange Democratic Movement, the police and the international community. Overall, it provides a highly informative and critical account of the unprecedented levels of post-electoral violence in Kenya, exploring its complex ramifications, and the prospects for justice, reconciliation and democratic governance.

  • 48.
    Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Zimbabwean Nation-State Project: A Historical Diagnosis of Identity and Power-based Conflicts in a Postcolonial State2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper draws attention to the often overlooked aspects of the limits, poverty and contradictions embedded in the “unfinished business” of the Zimbabwe nation state project. It is located within the broader context of the crisis of the nation-state in an African continent increasingly buffeted by waves of globalisation. It also revisits the debate on whether postcolonial nationalism can completely avoid reproducing the racial and ethnic discrimination that characterised its colonial past. Zeroing in on Zimbabwe, the paper argues that the nation-state crisis has roots in the legacy of settler colonialism, the ethnic fragmentation that marked the history of the liberation movement and the character of the nationalist elite. Its critique of the politics of the nationalist and political elite, the Lancaster House Agreement, the National Democratic Revolution and the Global Political Agreement makes this paper an important contribution to the debates on the real legacy of the liberation struggle in Zimbabwe and the prospects for a common national identity based on nationalism, social justice, inclusive democracy and development in the country.

  • 49.
    Nlandu Mayamba Mbuya, Thierry
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Building a Police Force "for the good" in DR Congo: Questions that still haunt reformers and reform beneficiaries2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The police in DRC are indeed a permanent domestic risk. The lack of policy, service or management regime for the acquisition of equipment explains the deficient, dilapidated, obsolete and very often inappropriate equipment. Moreover, police units have very weak operational capacity and police officers lack self-confidence and pride in their profession. These shabbily dressed men and women in faded uniforms daily develop an indifferent attitude towards their profession and work in general. Inefficient and ineffective, the Congolese policeforce is wholly demoralised and unprofessional. This has negatively affected the relationship between police and population. It has led to the withdrawal of people’s cooperation, a must for successful police work and for meeting people’s expectations.

  • 50.
    Norberg, Carin
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Obi, Cyril
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reconciling winners and losers in post-conflict elections in West Africa: political and policy imperatives2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In post-conflict societies, elections play several roles. They provide citizens with the opportunity to freely chose their leaders and representatives, and provide countries emerging from civil wars with new opportunities to come to terms with a traumatic past and rebuild their lives and societies in a secure and stable environment. For the international community, post-conflict elections lend credibility to peace agreements and provide an exit strategy. However, when elections are poorly timed or administered, and outstanding issues of justice, participation, national ownership and sustainability of the peace process are not well addressed, there is always a chance that the entire process may unravel. This report based on the debates and discussions of a panel debate on Winners and Losers in Post-Conflict Elections in West Africa, draws on insights from post-conflict elections in the sub-region and provides some crucial policy recommendations as well as areas for further research.

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