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  • 1.
    Abdi, Cawo, M.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A gendered perspective on the impact of conflict in the Horn of Africa2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Note focuses on the gendered consequences of the militarisation of the Horn of Africa. Despite being in different ‘moments’ of conflict, the countries of this region share features of extreme social, economic and political violence, which impact negatively on their citizens. Protracted refugee and refugee-like conditions, extreme disinvestment in social programmes, increasing militarisation and political repression adversely affect women, thereby further entrenching gender disparities. Concerted national and international efforts and resources should support local democratic initiatives to find political solutions to these protracted conflicts and advance the struggle against sexual and gender-based violence and discrimination.

  • 2.
    Adolfo, Eldridge
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Angolans left out of their own future2013In: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 46-46 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Adolfo, Eldridge
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Better-off without a vote?2013In: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 44-45 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Angola's Sustainable Growth and Regional Role beyond the Elections2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Angola’s economic boom averaging about 17 per cent per annum, is centred on its extractive oil industry and has made Angola one of the fastest growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa and the world. With national peace providing stability and a strong military to negotiate regional threats, Angola is expected to consolidate its position as a regional power commensurate with its economic and military might. However, Angola faces challenges in the political, social, economic, governance, security and foreign policy arenas. It will also have to contend with election-related violence. While a bright medium-term future is in prospect for Angola, the country will have to negotiate and overcome these challenges to sustain its long-term peaceful development.

  • 5.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nyström, Daniel
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Utas, Mats
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Electoral Violence in Africa2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategies to prevent and manage electoral violence.

  • 6.
    Adong, Florence Odora
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Recovery and Development Politics: Options for Sustainable Peacebuilding in Northern Uganda2011Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Agbu, Osita A.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ethnicity and Democratisation in Africa: Challenges for Politics and Development2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the challenges that ethnicity poses for democratisation and development in Africa. It provides an overview of the literature on ethnicity and democratisation and an analysis of the trends on the continent since the end of the Cold War. In this regard, it critically examines perspectives on the impact of ethnicity on democracy and analyses the ethnicity-citizenship nexus in the context of the national democratic question in Africa. This provides the basis for the analysis of emerging challenges facing Africa and the way forward. The paper provides additional insights into the ongoing debates about democracy and the nation-state question in Africa and is of interest to scholars, practitioners and the general reader.

  • 8.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West Africa: Issues and responses2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion paper examines the linkages between gender and gender inequality in the context of conflict, sexual violence and HIV transmission, and their impact on postconflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone and Liberia. It makes two critical contributions to a gendered perspective on post-conflict transitions in West Africa. First, it notes that contrary to conventional wisdom, post-war transitions to relative peace have made little difference to women’s exposure to chronic sexual violence, with potential implications for increased HIV transmission. Second, the study interrogates those assumptions linking war-related sexual violence to high HIV prevalence in post-conflict contexts, by showing that despite over a decade of armed conflict, Liberia and Sierra Leone had adult HIV prevalence rates that were among the lowest in West Africa. This paper goes beyond generally held notions of the sexual and gender dimensions of civil wars in Africa and points to a gap in, and key challenge for studies and policies on post-conflict reconstruction in Africa.

  • 9.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Towards More Informed Responses to Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West African Settings2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence is incontrovertible that Liberia (with its two civil wars, 1989-97 and 2000-03) and Sierra Leone (with its 1991-2001 war) have emerged from two of the most inhuman, ferocious and cruel conflicts in the post-Cold war era. The scale of destruction, rape, mayhem, arson and torture perpetrated during these wars was among the greatest in Africa’s postcolonial history. Women, especially adolescents and young adults, were exposed to extreme sexual brutality at a time when a growing heterosexually-driven HIV pandemic was occurring in the West African sub-region. Both countries also experienced an economic and social collapse that resulted in human development indicators on employment, income, health, education, women’s status and child well-being that are among the lowest in the world. Protracted armed conflicts, as witnessed in Liberia and Sierra Leone and beyond, expose women and girls to unprecedented levels and forms of sexual violence. Moreover, the expectation that the transition from war to peace will lead to significantly reduced sexual violence against women (SVAW) is often disappointed. Instead, post-conflict transitions tend to produce a change in the predominant forms of sexual violence and the profile of its perpetrators. The extended and interlinked conflicts in these neighbouring countries relate at a fundamental level to the persistent denial of citizenship rights to particular population sub-groups over several decades. Within such landscapes of severe social, economic and political marginalization and deprivation, women and girls were bound to suffer more than men and boys during and after the wars as a result of long-established and deeply entrenched patriarchal structures and ideologies in both countries. The persistence of SVAW during post-conflict transitions tends to increase the risk of HIV infection among younger women relative to the phase of armed conflict. A key causal factor is men’s highly exploitative, transactional and cross-generational multiple sexual activities. Thus far, the dominant responses to this complex of issues in post-conflict West Africa have lacked a nuanced understanding of the underlying drivers of sexual violence and its intersections with women’s higher risk of HIV infection.The policy responses to the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building in West Africa have generally focused more on traditional security, physical infrastructurere building and economic revitalization issues than on such highly gendered human security concerns as sexual violence and violations of reproductive rights. Left unaddressed, these persisting or worsening human security challenges, affecting at least half their populations, make sustainable peace and development in post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone nearly impossible.

  • 10.
    Amankwaah, Clementina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Election-Related Violence: The Case of Ghana2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Current African Issue gives an overview of the causes and experiences of electionrelated violence in relation to patronage politics in Ghana. Ghana has been framed b ythe international community as a unique bastion of democracy and peace on the African continent. Nevertheless, the country has come from a military regime like many of its democratic African counterparts and is still prone to some of the problems faced by its more turbulent neighbours. The three main guiding issues that this publication will address in relation to election-related violence in Ghana are:

    • The causes of election-related violence in Ghana
    • Who the people most likely to cause election-related violence are
    • The role that “big men” play in election-related violence
  • 11.
    Angerbrandt, Henrik
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A fair electoral process can ease divisions in Nigeria: decentralised politics brought on a new set of challenges in the north2015Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Aning, Kwesi
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The African Union’s Peace and Security Architecture: Defining an emerging response mechanism2008Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Arowosegbe, Jeremiah O.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reflections on the Challenge of Reconstructing Post-Conflict States in West Africa: Insights From Claude Ake’s Political Writings2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is based on a theoretical exploration of state reconstruction and the prospects for peacebuilding in post-conflict West African countries based on critical reflections on the political thought of Claude Ake, one of Nigeria’s foremost political thinkers. Its point of departure is the refutation of the view that the state project in Africa is ‘hopeless’ or at a dead-end. It therefore revisits the debate on the viability of the state project in the continent, particularly as it relates to those West African states emerging from or affected by violent conflict. While acknowledging the shortcomings of the state-formation project in some post conflict West African countries, the author argues that the state remains a key institutional and social actor that needs to be understood more in terms of its historical moorings, political economy and marginal position in the international order. Drawing on Ake’s postulations about the limited autonomy of the state in Africa and its links to political violence and conflict, the author critiques both the hegemonic discourses on the nature of the state in Africa and those relating to post-conflict peacebuilding in the continent. The analysis of the latter focuses on the epistemological groundings of mainstream peacebuilding discourses, and posits that there is no guarantee that such imported models ensure sustainable peace in West Africa. Thus, the paper makes a compelling case for reinventing the state in West Africa based on autochthonous democratic transformation in favour of ordinary people. In this regard, it argues for an endogenous transformation of the state in Africa in ways that can strongly root it in the people as a fundamental step towards sustainable and locally owned participatory peacebuilding. It thereby opens up a new perspective on state reconstruction as a step towards ending violent conflict in the sub-region.

  • 14.
    Benton, Adia
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ebola exhausts health systems: more resources are needed2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemics and institutional responses to them reveal the strengths and weaknesses of health systems. They also often engender and reflect existing political, economic and social tensions whenever and wherever they occur. This policy note outlines some of acute and chronic political and social conditions that have facilitated transmission and continue to pose a challenge for community and government responses to Ebola. It also highlights the significance of building health systems to avert and address future health crises.

  • 15.
    Bereketeab (ed.), Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-determination and secession in Africa: the post-colonial State2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A Wind of Change in Sudan: Opening the Public Sphere or Political Rhtoric?2013Other (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Asfaha Welde Mikael2012In: Dictionary of African Biography / [ed] Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 276-277 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Challenges of State Building, State Reconstruction and National Identity Reconfiguration2017In: State Building and National Identity Reconstruction in the Horn of Africa / [ed] Redie Bereketeab, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, 3-21 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute. The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conceptualising Civil society in Africa: The case of Eritrea2009In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 5, no 1, 35-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Dangerous Deadlock in Djibouti2013Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Democracy or one-party system: political development in the Sudan after the 2015 election2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In June, Al-Bashir, Sudan's leader since 1989, was sworn in for another five years as president. Few if any experts had expected any other outcome of the 2015 election. But will the 71 year old ex-military leader, who is accused by the ICC of war crimes in Darfur, continue his initiatives for national dialogue and overcome the country's major economic and security hurdles?

  • 22.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Environmental Change, Conflicts and Problems of Sustainable Development in the Horn of Africa2014In: African and Asian Studies, ISSN 1569-2094, E-ISSN 1569-2108, Vol. 13, no 3, 291-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Eritrea, A Colonial Creation: A Case of Aborted Decolonisation2014In: Self-determination and secession in Africa: the post-colonial state / [ed] Redie Bereketeab, London ; New York: Routledge, 2014, 1, 235-252 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Eritrea: The Making of a Nation, 1890-19912007 (ed. First)Book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    From Deconstruction to Reconstruction2017In: State Building and National Idenity Reconstruction in the Horn of Africa / [ed] Redie Bereketeab, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, 1, 225-235 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gebre Meskel Woldu2012In: Dictionary of African Biography / [ed] Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, Jr, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 444-445 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Geo-Strategic Intervention and Its Consequences in the Horn of Africa2014In: African Dynamics in a Multipolar World: 5th European Conference on African Studies : Conference Proceedings, Lisbon: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) , 2014, 480-504 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Haregot Abbay2012In: Dictionary of African biography / [ed] Emmanuel K. Akyeampong and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, 30-31 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD): A Critical Analysis2012In: Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa / [ed] Redie Bereketeab and Kidane Mengisteab, Woodbridge: James Currey Publishers, 2012, 173-194 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Inter-state Conflicts in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti2011In: Horn of Africa Journal, Vol. 2, 1-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Introduction: Understanding National Liberation Movements2018In: National Liberation Movements as Governments in Africa, London and New Yourk: Routledge, 2018, 1, 3-16 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Les Defis de la Construction del l'Etat au Sud-Soudan2013In: Afrique Contemporaine, Vol. 246, 35-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    National Liberation Movements as Governments in Africa2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Perilous Dualism: language, religion and identity in polyethnic Eritrea2004In: Rights and the Politics of Recognition in Africa / [ed] Harri Englud and Francis B Nyamnjoh, London and New York: Zed Books , 2004, first, 219-236 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Post-Liberation State Building in South Sudan: Potentials and Challenges2014In: Journal of African Foreign Affairs, ISSN 2056-564x, Vol. 1, no 1, 25-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to examine the post-liberation state building endeavour in South Sudan. Two civil wars stretching over more than five decades in quest for self-determination resulted in the secession of South Sudan. A negotiated settlement formalised in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between the ruling National Congress Party and Sudan people's Liberation Movement in 2005 offered South Sudan the possibility to determine it destiny through popular plebiscite. When the plebiscite took place in January 2011, south Sudanese voted overwhelmingly for secession. On 9 July 2011 South Sudan was declared sovereign state that paved the way for the arduous process of state building. The nascent state was however born into serious problems. This article seeks to analyse the problems and enablement the nascent state encounters.

  • 36.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Post-Secession State-Building and Reconstruction: Somaliland, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    State-building refers to the processes undertaken by new states, while reconstitution refers to the rearrangement of an existing state following either secession or collapse. Somaliland and South Sudan are involved in process of state-building, while Sudan and Somalia are engaged in state reconstitution. Three distinctive models of state-building are taking place in the four countries. This Policy Note analyses the interlinked yet distinct process of state building.

  • 37.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Problems of Transition to Civic Governance in Eritrea2018In: National Liberation Movements as Government in Africa, London and New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, 158-171 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Re-conceptualising Identity, Citizenship and Regional Integration in the Greater Horn Region2012In: Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa / [ed] Redie Bereketeab and Kidane Mengisteab, Woodbridge: James Currey Publishers, 2012, 25-49 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) is engulfed by three interrelated crises: various inter-state wars, civil wars, and inter-communal conflicts; an economic crisis manifested in widespread debilitating poverty, chronic food insecurity and famines; and environmental degradation that is ravaging the region. While it is apparent that the countries of the region are unlikely to be able to deal with the crises individually, there is consensus that their chances of doing so improve markedly with collective regional action. The contributors to this volume address the need for regional integration in the GHA. They identify those factors that can foster integration, such as the proper management of equitable citizenship rights, as well as examining those that impede it, including the region's largely ineffective integration scheme, IGAD, and explore how the former can be strengthened and the latter transformed; explain how regional integration can mitigate the conflicts; and examine how integration can help to energise the region's economy.

  • 39.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Redefining National Identity and Nation-Building in Post-secession Sudans: Civic and Ethnic Models2014In: Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, ISSN 1473-8481, E-ISSN 1754-9469, Vol. 14, no 2, 302-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Re-examining Local Governance in Eritrea: The Redrawing of Administration Regions2012In: African and Asian Studies, ISSN 1569-2094, E-ISSN 1569-2108, Vol. 11, no 1-2, 1-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Revisiting The Eritrean National Liberation Movement, 1960-19612016Book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-determination and secession: A 21st Century Challenge to the Post-colonial State in Africa2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two approaches have characterised analysis of the postcolonial state in Africa. One emphasises the territorial integrity of the postcolonial state, with inherited colonial borders being viewed as sacrosanct and state-centred rights being given primacy. The other questions the sacrosanctity of colonial borders and seeks to promote the primacy of people-centred rights. The increasing frequency in recent years of quests for self-determination and secession in Africa poses an existential challenge to the postcolonial state on that continent. This Policy Note addresses this emerging trend.

  • 43.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-determination and Secession: African Challenges2014In: Self-determination and secession in Africa: the post-colonial state / [ed] Redie Bereketeab, London ; New York: Routledge, 2014, 1, 3-19 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-Determination and Secessionism in Somaliland and South Sudan: Challenges to Postcolonial State-building2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the notion of self-determination and secession by adopting acomparative perspective on two case studies, namely Somaliland and South Sudan. Somaliland declared its independence in 1991 following the collapse of the Somali state. Since then, Somaliland has been making relentless efforts to secure recognition from the international community. South Sudan successfully negotiated the right to exerciseself-determination, a right that was formalised in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed between the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). The people of South Sudan held a referendum and voted overwhelmingly for secession, with formal independence being achieved on 9 July 2011. International law may better qualify Somaliland for statehood than South Sudan for three reasons: (i) it was created by colonialism, (ii) it has already been recognised, albeit only for a few days, as an independent state in 1960, and (iii) it has proven to be stable, functional and relatively democratic. Yet Somaliland has failed to achieve international recognition. This paper interrogates this discrepancy. It concludes that the existence of a partner ready to accept the right of self-determination, and geostrategic concerns about security as well a seconomic and political interests, determine international recognition.

  • 45.
    bereketeab, redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State Building and National Identity Reconstruction in the Horn of Africa2017 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State Building-Peace Building Nexus: The Horn of Africa2015In: The Algerian Journal of Political Sciences and International Relations, ISSN 1111-2115, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State Crisis, Conflicts and International Intervention in the Horn of Africa2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State-building, Conflict and Global War in the Horn of Africa2013In: Bondage of Boundaries and Identity Politics in Postcolonial Africa: The 'Northern Problem' and Ethno-Futures / [ed] Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni & Brilliant Mhlanga, Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa (AISA), 2013, 61-78 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State-Building in Post-Liberation Eritrea: Challenges, Achievements and Potentials2009 (ed. first)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    State-Building Project of Peace Building in the Horn of Africa2008In: Post Conflict Peace-Building in the Horn of Africa / [ed] Ulf Johansson Dahre, Lund: Lund University , 2008, first, 37-53 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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