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  • 101.
    Gaasholt, Ole Martin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Who needs to reconcile with whom?: the conflict’s complexity in northern Mali calls for tailored solutions2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While negotiations are taking place in Algiers, some observers insist on the need for reconciliation between Northern Mali and the rest of the country and particularly between Tuareg and other Malians. But the Tuareg are a minority in Northern Mali and most of them did not support the rebels. So who needs to be reconciled with whom? And what economic solutions will counteract conflict? This Policy Note argues that not only exclusion underlies the conflict, but also a lack of economic opportunities.

  • 102.
    Gelot, Linnea
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    The African Union in Light of the Arab Revolts: An appraisal of the foreign policy and security objectives of South Africa, Ethiopia and Algeria2013Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of authoritarian regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya has changed political dynamics on the African continent. One immediate concern has been the implications of these developments for the African Union (AU) and its member states. Would overall political dynamics in the AU be changed? Would the most powerful member states use the altered circumstances to enhance their influence on AU policies andframeworks? What would the impact be for the AU's overall authority? In this Discussion Paper series, three edited papers are presented that tackle AU political and institutional dynamics in light of the Arab revolts. A particular puzzle addressed is the current postures of South Africa,Ethiopia and Algeria within the AU. A separate analysis of Nigeria's role was published earlier in the NAI-FOI Lecture Series on African Security.

    The work in this discussion series reflects the longstanding collaboration between the Swedish Defence Research Agency's Project Studies in African Security and the Nordic Africa Institute to build Africa-related research capacity on peace and security.

  • 103.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Göteborgs universitet.
    African Regional Organizations, Peace Operations and the UN: Legitimacy and Disengagement2015Inngår i: Regional Organizations and Peacemaking: Challengers to the United Nations / [ed] Peter Wallensteen & Anders Bjurner, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyses the new and difficult roles of regional organizations in peacemaking after the end of the Cold War and how they relate to the United Nations (UN).

    Regional organizations have taken an increasingly prominent role in international efforts to deal with international security. The book highlights the complex interaction between the regional and sub-regional organizations, on the one hand, and their relations with the United Nations, on the other. Thus, the general issues of UN and its authority are scrutinized from legal, practical and geopolitical perspectives. Taking on a broad geographical focus on Africa, the Arab world and Europe, the book also provides an extensive range of case studies, with detailed analysis of particular situations, organizations and armed conflicts.

    The authors scrutinise the heterogeneous relationship between the different organizations as well as the challenges to them: political resources, legal standing, financial assets, capabilities and organizational set up. Moreover, they investigate whether regional organizations, as compared to the UN, are better suited to deal with today’s intra-state conflicts. The book also aims to dissect the evolution of these institutions historically – in relation to Chapter VIII of the UN Charter which mentions the resort to 'regional arrangements’ for conflict management – as well as more generally in relation to the principles of international law and UN principles of peacemaking.

    This book, written by a mixture of established scholars, diplomats and high-level policymakers, will be of great interest to students as well as practitioners in the field of peace and conflict studies, regional security, international organisations, conflict management and IR in general.

  • 104.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    AU-UN Synergy: Envisioning Credible Ownership of African Peace and Security Architecture?2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 105.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Regional-Global Security: The African Union - United Nations Partnership in Darfur2012Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the century the regional-global security partnership became a key element of peace and security policy-making. This book investigates the impact of the joint effort made by the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN) to keep the peace and protect civilians in Darfur.

  • 106.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    PoC in Darfur: AMIS and UNAMID2012Inngår i: The protection of Civilians in UN Peacekeeping: Concept, Implementation and Practice / [ed] Benjamin de Carvalho and Ole Jacob Sending, Berlin: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2012, 127-142 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 107.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    United Nations and Sub-Saharan Africa2012Inngår i: Africa Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2011 / [ed] Andreas Mehler, Henning Melber, Klaas van Walraven, Brill Academic Publishers, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 108.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Bachmann, Jan
    Between Protection and Stabilization? Addressing the Tensions of Contemporary Western Interventions in Africa: An Introduction2012Inngår i: African Security, ISSN 1939-2206, E-ISSN 1939-2214, Vol. 5, nr 3-4, 129-141 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue sets out to analyze—from different epistemological perspectives and based on different case studies—tensions that have arisen in a number of recent security interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The character of international peace and security missions in the Global South has changed significantly after the end of the Cold War. On the one hand, we witness a greater willingness to engage in order to terminate or prevent violent conflict. This willingness is grounded in a broader understanding of security in which the protection of the population is prioritized over the claim to security of a sovereign state. A state’s sovereignty is increasingly interpreted as entailing a responsibility to protect the citizenry. On the other hand, a broadened international will to intervene in conflicts in the Global South raises a number of controversial questions regarding when and how and on whose behalf to intervene. What should be the projected end state of such liberal interventions? What does a responsibility to protect entail, conceptually and in practice? Who are the principal actors in complex and ambitious missions aimed at creating stability, peace, or (human) security? When should a stabilization mission end? What are the consequences when (short-term) security or humanitarian interests and (long-term) state-building or development interest are all legitimized through a discourse of protecting vulnerable populations? And, perhaps most importantly, what stakes do the actors directly affected by the conflict and the international response have? These are some of the questions the contributors address and analyze in this special issue.

  • 109.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Bachmann, Jan
    The African Union and the protection of civilians: mediating ownership and sovereignty2013Inngår i: Globalization and Development. Rethinking interventions and governance / [ed] Arne Bigsten, England: Routledge, Routledge studies in development economics , 2013, 213-236 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gelot, Ludwigde Coning, Cedric
    Supporting African peace operations2012Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Africa Institute, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs hosted a seminar in Uppsala, Sweden, on 15 and 16 December 2011, that brought together AU, EU and UN officials closely involved in peace operations in Africa. The seminar’s purpose was to allow participants to compare their experiences of the different support models that have been used to date in Sudan and Somalia. International support for African peace operations provides opportunities but also poses challenges. This report examines four of these challenges in some detail: the AU Commission’s limited capacity to plan and manage peace operations; insufficient political engagement by African member states with AU peace operations; the short-termism and self-interest of some of the AU’s partners; and the need for UN Security Council permanent members to value and ensure a shared AU-UN strategic vision. The report also includes policy recommendations for resolving these challenges.

  • 111.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Karlsrud, Johnde Coning, Cedric
    Options Stratégiques pour l'Avenir des Opérations de Paix Africaines 2015-2025: Rapport de Séminaire2015Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    La complexité grandissante des environnements sécuritaires impose unhaut niveau d’exigences vis-à-vis des opérations de paix africaines etcomplique les efforts de long terme pour la consolidation de la paix etle renforcement de l’État. Les expériences de l'Union africaine (UA) etdes sous-régions au cours de la dernière décennie montrent qu’unmodèle africain des opérations de paix a émergé, qui est en contradictionavec les scénarios et les hypothèses multidimensionnelles demission qui sous-tendaient originellement le cadre de la Force africaineen attente (FAA).

  • 112.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Karlsrud, John
    de Coning, Cedric
    Strategic Options for the Future of African Peace Operations 2015-2025: Seminar Report2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    An African model of peace operationsIncreasingly complex security environments are placing high demandson African peace operations, and complicating efforts at long-termpeace- and statebuilding. From the experiences of the African Union(AU) and the sub-regions over the last decade, an African model ofpeace operations has emerged that is at odds with the missionscenarios and multi-dimensional assumptions that underpinned theoriginal framework of the African Standby Force (ASF).

  • 113.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Söderbaum, Fredrik
    Rethinking Intervention and Interventionism2012Inngår i: Development Dialogue, ISSN 0345-2328, nr 58, 134-152 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 114.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Radicalisation and terrorist recruitment among Kenya’s youth2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With little chance of getting any education or jobs, young slum dwellers in Kenya are easy prey for terrorist recruiters from al-Shabaab and ISIS. Politicians must therefore address the social development of poor neighbourhoods and specifically target the youth. Equally important in order to prevent further radicalisation, this policy note argues, is the fight against corruption.

  • 115.
    Hendricks, Cheryl
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender and Security in Africa: An Overview2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the debates, theoretical perspectives and current trends in gender, conflict and post-conflict reconstruction, and security sector reform (SSR) in Africa. It provides a broad overview of and critical insights into the gender-conflict-security nexus, capturing the trends in the discourses, identifying the gaps in the literature and prioritising issues and areas for future research. This Discussion Paper is essential reading for all those with a deep interest in gender, peace, development and security in Africa, particularly gender scholars, students, activists and practitioners.

  • 116.
    Hunsu, Folashade
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Zangbeto: Navigating Between the Spaces of Oral Art, Communal Security and Conflict Mediation in Badagry, Nigeria2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines Zangbeto, a highly revered society, among the Egun people in the town of Badagry, near the city of Lagos, in south west Nigeria, that have creatively re-invented tradition to serve multiple purposes. It shows how Zangbeto has in the context of economic crisis and challenges linked to urban growth, adapted its roles to include communal policing, conflict mediation, oral art and entertainment, and the maintenance of communal order. In more ways than one, it captures the essence and multiple identities of Zangbeto within Badagry society. The involvement of Zangbeto in local policing or ‘night watching’ provides an alternative or an exception to the dominant representation of vigilantism in Nigeria as disorderly violence, sometimes for political or criminal ends. This paper also demonstrates how Zangbeto, drawing upon local Egun culture and traditional practices is able to maintain security and local order at the community level. It is argued that rather than act in an arbitrary and violent manner, Zangbeto operates through the combination of traditional symbolic actions and oral art in mediating local conflicts and preserving social harmony and local order. An interesting point relates to how Zangbeto co-exists peacefully with formal political and security institutions, and operates without causing tensions within Badagry town, where some inhabitants share different ethnic identities and religious faiths. The study also opens up a humanist perspective to how the aesthetics of Zangbeto’s cultural tropes of oral presentation, rhetoric and representation act as a powerful force for preserving cherished communal norms and values, and facilitating communication in ways that strengthen social cohesion. In this regard this paper demonstrates the wealth of possibilities that exist within Africa’s traditional cultures and oral arts for alternative grassroots based conflict mediation and security.

  • 117. Jörgel, Magnus
    et al.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Mano river basin area: formal and informal security providers in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118.
    Kelsall, Tim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    An introduction to some issues in transitional justice2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119.
    King, Nathaniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conflict as integration: youth aspiration to personhood in the teleology of Sierra Leone's 'senseless war'2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rebel war in Sierra Leone has been given various characterisations. One of the most commonplace of them brands it a ‘senseless war’. In this study the author examines the views of the Sierra Leoneans themselves on this notion, and through a sociological lens he explores the “youthscape“ of the war. The study also revisits some of the central works on the Sierra Leonean war by authors such as Paul Richards, Ibrahim Adbdullah and Yusuf Bangura.

  • 120.
    Kuwali, Dan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Persuasive prevention: Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the legality of intervention without Security Council authorisation is still debatablein international law, over-reliance on military intervention increases the risk of too much focus on reactive rather than proactive strategies. If the thresholds for Article 4(h) intervention – like those of the responsibility to protect – are serious international crimes subject to universal jurisdiction, it follows that measures to ensure the observance of the law in prospect, rather than intervention and penalisation of violations in retrospect,are important in preventing violations. Therefore, in order to in a timely manner and effectively implement Article 4(h) and R2P, the missing link is borderless ‘persuasive prevention’ which aims at enforcing fundamental human rights obligations to prevent mass atrocity crimes stipulated in Article 4(h). To this end, as a minimum, the AU should discharge its responsibility to prevent human rights violations through the ‘force of law’. Where atrocities are likely to take place, the African Standby Force (ASF) should be deployedin a timely way, not to defeat a State, but to pursue perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes. To achieve this, the ASF should have the ‘capability to protect’ to ensure the ‘obligationto prosecute or extradite’. Although the AU has taken an interventionist stance, what is needed most is early action to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The AU may need to establish a body to monitor the implementation of obligations whose breach may lead to the heinous crimes in Article 4(h). In addition, the AU needs a legally binding instrument to ensure accountability and end impunity for crimes in Article 4(h). The idea is to influencethe calculus of potential authors of atrocities and ensure compliance with human rights and humanitarian law obligations.

  • 121.
    Käihkö, Ilmari
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Of man and myth2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 43-43 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 122.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    War in Mali: Background study and annotated bibliography. July 2012 - March 20132013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Not long ago, Mali was considered a beacon of stability and a model of democratic evolution in West Africa. The country then experienced a military coup in the capital in March 2012, followed by the usual post-coup volatility and uncertainty. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, armed insurgents swiftly took over half the country. It did not take long to dismantle a country that on the paper appeared to be functioning, stable and democratic. French troops intervened in the conflict in the north. Yet even if this intervention put a stop to the outright threat of the insurgents taking over the south and significantly shifted the balance of forces in the north, it did not end the conflict. The insurgents have dispersed into remote areas in the sub-region, changing their tactics to terrorist-like activities. Different forms of political negotiation and reconciliation are certainly needed in the region. With the current global clash between radical Islam and the Western “War on Terror”, northern Mali will probably continue to be contested terrain for a long time. In the meantime, a transition to democratic rule is planned for the country, with elections scheduled for July this year. In all likelihood, this will prove to be only an illusory end to an intense power tussle over state control in Bamako.

  • 123.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Youth and the labour market in Liberia: on history, state structures and spheres of informalities2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the historical development of the Liberian labor market with a particular focus on young men and women. It asks, what constitutes and shapes the Liberian labour market? By looking at labour mobilization and the structure of the (in)formal labour market – both in peace and war – our understanding of the contemporary Liberian labour marketis substantially enhanced. The study finds that there are many recurring patterns of labor migration, labor mobilization and distribution that have existed in the Liberian pre-war, war and post-war settings. Historical structures of informality and patrimonialism continue to dominate Liberia today. In addition to this, the study's focus on youths provides an insight into how this section of society moves through the labour market. It also examines the idea of unemployed youths as particularly prone to violence.

  • 124.
    Lund, Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Land rights and citizenship in Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the interface between rights and identity in the struggles for land rights and citizenship in Africa. It provides a robust overview of developments in the literature on land rights and citizenship in Africa, poses relevant research questions and sketches the parameters of policy engagement by researchers. By laying emphasis on the priority of mapping the dynamics and impacts of the unfolding struggles, the author provides a critical intervention in ongoing debates on the subject. The paper is a rich source of material on the state of scholarship on land rights and citizenship in Africa and the future directions for research on the subject. Scholars, researchers and policy analysts are bound to benefit from its rich and critical insights.

  • 125.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Affective Politics in Transitional North Africa: Imagining the Future: Workshop and roundtable report. 27–28 may 2013, Alexandria, Egypt2014Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 126.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Egypt in Motion2014Annet (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 127.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Feature Preview: The Sound of Silence2014Inngår i: Anthropology NowArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 128.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ihbaat again?2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 37-42 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 129.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Making Uncertain Manhood: Masculinities, Embodiment and Agency among Male Hamas Youth2014Inngår i: Gender and Conflict: Embodiments, Discourses and Symbolic Practices / [ed] Georg Frerks, Reinhilde König and Annelou Ypeij, Farnham, Surrey, UK ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 130.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. New York University.
    Porous masculinities: agential political bodies among male Hamas youth2015Inngår i: Etnográfica, ISSN 0873-6561, E-ISSN 2182-2891, Vol. 19, nr 2, 301-322 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructions of gender, embodiment and agency among male Hamas youths in the West Bank are discussed in this article through the prism of violence. It focuses on the constructions of uncertain masculinities in a complex interplay of violence, political Islam, suffering and loss, and the importance of analyzing the body in such processes – both as agential and as victimized – is highlighted. To be able to move away from the sensationalist Western media that often portray Middle Eastern Muslim men as “violent,” and as terrorists, we need to understand the motivations and the meanings of violence. The method of analysis is to use a discourse-centered approach and to use experience-near ethnography that begins with men’s own practices and attends to how they understand themselves, how their bodies are involved, and how they live out norms and ideologies in their everyday lives. Thereby we are able to understand how men’s realities and identities are interpreted, negotiated and constructed and how the body is actively involved in these processes. This approach is relevant since it is possible to analyze the singularity of experience, not only as a form of social interaction, but as linked to social structures and discourses, which implies negotiations of tensions, conflicts, and uncertainties.

  • 131.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. New York University, Department of Anthropology.
    The Continuous Making of Pure Womanhood among Muslim Women in Cairo: Cooking, Depilating, and Circumcising2015Inngår i: Gender and sexuality in Muslim cultures / [ed] Gul Ozyegin, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015, 139-161 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 132.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Politics of Female Circumcision in Egypt : Gender, Sexuality and the Construction of Identity2016Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of women aged 15-49 in Egypt who have undergone the procedure of female circumcision, or genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) stands at 91%, according to the latest research carried out by UNICEF. Female circumcision has become a global political minefield with 'Western' interventions affecting Egyptian politics and social development, not least in the area of democracy and human rights. Maria Frederika Malmstrom employs an ethnographic approach to this controversial issue, with the aim of understanding how female gender identity is continually created and re-created in Egypt through a number of daily practices, and the central role which female circumcision plays in this process. Viewing the concept of 'agency' as critical to the examination of social and cultural trends in the region, Malmstrom explores the lived experiences and social meanings of circumcision and femininity as narrated by women from Cairo. It is through the examination of the voices of these women that she offers an analysis of gender identity in Egypt and its impact on women's sexuality.

  • 133.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The production of sexual mutilation among Muslim women in Cairo2013Inngår i: Global DiscourseArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Female circumcision has become a global political minefield, with ‘Western’ interventions affecting Egyptian politics and social development, not least in the area of democracy and human rights. As younger generation of women in Egypt informed by international human rights discourse begins to question norms still upheld by the previous generation, new dilemmas and tensions emerge. In this article, I discuss the risk that international interventions designed to modify local practices may fail when the local moral worlds in which such practices are embedded are inadequately understood. Rather than increasing women's agency, such interventions may reduce it and instead produce a sense of sexual mutilation among women.

  • 134.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Sound of Silence in Cairo: Affect, Politics and Belonging2014Inngår i: Anthropology Now, ISSN 1942-8200, Vol. 6, nr 2, 23-34 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 135.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation-Cutting: Accelerating Change : Annual Report 2010 : Nurturing Change from Within.2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting (FGM/C): Accelerating Change is to contribute to the abandonment of FGM/C in 17 African countries within a generation. FGM/C is a deeply embedded in social norm – woven into all aspects of social, cultural and political life. Although the practice is a violation of human rights and causes untold harm to the health and wellbeing of women and girls, it has long been viewed as a cultural necessity. In this context, simply exhorting people to change their beliefs and behaviour is not eff ective and can, in fact, be counterproductive. People must arrive at these decisions on their own; public support and consensus are key to promoting sustainable change. In its work to change such a deeply ingrained cultural practice as FGM/C, from its inception the Joint Programme has supported a holistic, culturally sensitive and participative approach grounded on a firm foundation of human rights. This approach ensures that the principles of human rights guide all programmatic activities and analysis in the target countries. The aim is to create local environments characterized by participation, empowerment, non-discrimination, equity, accountability and the rule of law. This holistic, participative approach has proven to be a most eff ective means for ending FGM/C in a sustainable manner. It also tends to promote wider community empowerment. Similarly, a supportive national environment based on an accurate, country-specific, culturally sensitive understanding of the causes and eff ects of FGM/C is also crucial to accelerating the abandonment of the practice.

  • 136.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Abu Ras, Aida
    Al Fassi, Hatoon
    El Sanousi, Magda
    Hamza, Nabila
    Kablan, Shahrazad
    Khafagy, Fatemah
    Largueche, Dalenda
    Osman, Hibaaq
    Tallawy, Mervat
    Have the Arab Uprisings Helped or Harmed Women’s Rights?: Women and the Arab Revolutions : From Equality in Protest to Backlash in the Transition from Old Regimes to New Governments2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 137.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Dellenborg, Lisen
    University of Gothenburg.
    Internationella Relationer. Könskritiska perspektiv.: Kvinnlig omskärelse/könsstympning och mänskliga rättigheter: Att äga sin förändring2013Inngår i: Internationella Relationer. Könskritiska perspektiv. / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes, Maud Eduards, Fia Sundevall, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, 1-280 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 138.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hellstrand, Anna
    Imagining the New Egypt: Agential Egyptian Activism/Feminism, Translation, and Movement2014Inngår i: Middle East: Conflicts & Reforms / [ed] Mohammed M. Aman and Mary Jo Aman, Washington DC: Westphalia Press , 2014, 257-274 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 139.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Kapchan, Deborah
    The Materiality of Affect in North Africa: Politics in Flux2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 140.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. New York University, Department of Anthropology.
    Raemdonck, An van
    "The Clitoris is in the Head!": Female Circumcision and the Making of a Harmful Cultural Practice in Egypt2015Inngår i: Interrogating Harmful Cultural Practices: Gender, Culture and Coercion / [ed] Chia Longman and Tamsin Bradley, Farnham, Surrey, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015, 121-138 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 141.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. New York University, Department of Anthropology.
    Zangana, Goran A. Sabir
    Barton, Faith
    In conversation on female genital cutting2015Inngår i: Gender and sexuality in Muslim cultures / [ed] Gul Ozyegin, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015, 167-179 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 142.
    Mengisteab, Kidane
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Critical Factors in the Horn of Africa's Raging Conflicts2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when much attention is focused on the Horn of Africa as one of Africa’s most war-ravaged regions and a continued source of security concern regionally and globally, this Discussion Paper provides deep insights into the complex dimensions of and linkages between the violent conflicts in the region. Delving into history and the core and contextual factors underpinning these wars in the postcolonial era, the author provides a conceptual framework for grappling with the complex inter- and intra-state conflicts by focusing on the institutional and structural causes of war. He goes on to make a compelling argument that conflict for institutional and democratic state transformation in the Horn of Africa is a fundamental step towards long-term peace and sustainable development.

  • 143.
    Menkhaus, Ken
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    If Mayors Ruled Somalia: Beyond the State-building Impasse2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 144.
    Meyer, Angela
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Peace and Security Cooperation in Central Africa: Developments, Challenges and Prospects2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides the most up-to-date insights into Central Africa’s peace and security architecture. Its breath and depth attest to a deep knowledge of the history and politics of regional cooperation in a region that has attracted less attention in the literature than West, East and Southern Africa. It provides readers with first-hand knowledge of regional cooperation and integration, and the expansion of this agenda in Central Africa to include peace and security issues. Dispassionate and clear insights are offered into the intra-regional dynamics of the regional peace and security institutions FOMAC and MICOPAX, the challenges and constraints confronting regional peace in Central Africa and the potential for change. It is essential reading for all those seeking a good grasp of the complex dimensions of peace and security in Central Africa and the prospects for the future.

  • 145.
    Murunga, Godwin R.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Spontaneous or premeditated?: Post-Election Violence in Kenya2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper examines the high levels of post-electoral violence that followed the 2007 Kenyan elections. While noting that the conflict was triggered by the incumbent party’s abuse of the electoral process with the complicity of certain state agencies, the author traces the background causes to the long pent-up grievances among the majority of Kenyan peoples, alienated from and oppressed by a fractious but predatory ruling elite. The paper provides insights into the roots and nature of Kenya’s post-election violence; its manifestations in various regions of the country; and the roles of the ruling Party of National Unity and the opposition Orange Democratic Movement, the police and the international community. Overall, it provides a highly informative and critical account of the unprecedented levels of post-electoral violence in Kenya, exploring its complex ramifications, and the prospects for justice, reconciliation and democratic governance.

  • 146.
    Ndibe, Okey
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hove, Chenjerai
    Introduction [to Writers, writing on conflict and wars in Africa]2009Inngår i: Writers, writing on conflicts and wars in Africa, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. and Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 9-12 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 147.
    Ndibe, Okey
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hove, ChenjeraiNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Writers, writing on conflict and wars in Africa2009Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many African countries are caught up in perennial or recurrent political conflicts that often culminate in devastating wars. These flaring conflicts and wars create harrowing economic hardships, dire refugee problems, and sustain a sense of despair in such countries. By their nature, these conflicts and wars affect writers in profound and sometimes paradoxical ways. On the one hand, literature—whether fiction, poetry, drama, or even memoirs—is animated by conflict. On the other hand, the sense of dislocation as well as the humanitarian crises unleashed by wars and other kinds of conflicts also constitute grave impediments to artistic exploration and literary expression.  Writers and artists are frequently in the frontline of resistance to the kinds of injustices and abuses that precipitate wars and conflicts. Consequently, they are often detained, exiled, and even killed either by agents of state terror or by one faction or another in the tussle for state control.  Writers, Writing Conflicts and Wars in Africa is a collection of testimonies by various writers and scholars who have experienced, or explored, the continent’s conflicts and woes, including how the disruptions shape artistic and literary production.  The book is divided into two broad categories: in one, several writers speak directly, and with rich anecdotal details about the impact wars and conflicts have had in the formation of their experience and work; in the second, a number of scholars articulate how particular writers have assimilated the horrors of wars and conflicts in their literary creations.  The result is an invaluable harvest of reflections and perspectives that open the window into an essential, but until now sadly unexplored, facet of the cultural and political experience of African writers.  The broad scope of this collection—covering Darfur, the Congolese crisis, Biafra, Zimbabwe, South Africa, among others—is complemented by a certain buoyancy of spirit that runs through most of the essays and anecdotes.

  • 148.
    Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Zimbabwean Nation-State Project: A Historical Diagnosis of Identity and Power-based Conflicts in a Postcolonial State2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper draws attention to the often overlooked aspects of the limits, poverty and contradictions embedded in the “unfinished business” of the Zimbabwe nation state project. It is located within the broader context of the crisis of the nation-state in an African continent increasingly buffeted by waves of globalisation. It also revisits the debate on whether postcolonial nationalism can completely avoid reproducing the racial and ethnic discrimination that characterised its colonial past. Zeroing in on Zimbabwe, the paper argues that the nation-state crisis has roots in the legacy of settler colonialism, the ethnic fragmentation that marked the history of the liberation movement and the character of the nationalist elite. Its critique of the politics of the nationalist and political elite, the Lancaster House Agreement, the National Democratic Revolution and the Global Political Agreement makes this paper an important contribution to the debates on the real legacy of the liberation struggle in Zimbabwe and the prospects for a common national identity based on nationalism, social justice, inclusive democracy and development in the country.

  • 149.
    Nlandu Mayamba Mbuya, Thierry
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Building a Police Force "for the good" in DR Congo: Questions that still haunt reformers and reform beneficiaries2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The police in DRC are indeed a permanent domestic risk. The lack of policy, service or management regime for the acquisition of equipment explains the deficient, dilapidated, obsolete and very often inappropriate equipment. Moreover, police units have very weak operational capacity and police officers lack self-confidence and pride in their profession. These shabbily dressed men and women in faded uniforms daily develop an indifferent attitude towards their profession and work in general. Inefficient and ineffective, the Congolese policeforce is wholly demoralised and unprofessional. This has negatively affected the relationship between police and population. It has led to the withdrawal of people’s cooperation, a must for successful police work and for meeting people’s expectations.

  • 150.
    Norberg, Carin
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Obi, Cyril
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reconciling winners and losers in post-conflict elections in West Africa: political and policy imperatives2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In post-conflict societies, elections play several roles. They provide citizens with the opportunity to freely chose their leaders and representatives, and provide countries emerging from civil wars with new opportunities to come to terms with a traumatic past and rebuild their lives and societies in a secure and stable environment. For the international community, post-conflict elections lend credibility to peace agreements and provide an exit strategy. However, when elections are poorly timed or administered, and outstanding issues of justice, participation, national ownership and sustainability of the peace process are not well addressed, there is always a chance that the entire process may unravel. This report based on the debates and discussions of a panel debate on Winners and Losers in Post-Conflict Elections in West Africa, draws on insights from post-conflict elections in the sub-region and provides some crucial policy recommendations as well as areas for further research.

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