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  • 201.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Struggle for Resource Control in a Petro-State: A Perspective from Nigeria2007Inngår i: National Perspectives on Globalization / [ed] Paul Bowles, Henry Veltmeyer, Scarlet Cornelissen, Noela Invernizzi and Kwong-leung Tang, New York: Palgrave Macmillan , 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 202.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    West African Security in the Context of the Global war on Terror2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 203.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    What happens to us after they suck out all the wealth from our lands?: Globalisation, environment and protest politics in Nigeria2009Inngår i: Politeia, ISSN 0256-8845, Vol. 28, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 204.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Boås, Martin
    Child Relocations in Africa: an Introduction, in Special Section on Child Relocations, in Africa2009Inngår i: Forum for Development Studies: The Nordic Journal of Development Research, Vol. 36, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 205.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Cheru, Fantu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Introduction, Africa in the 21st Century: Strategic and Development Challenges2010Inngår i: The Rise of China and India in Africa: Challenges, Opportunities and Critical Interventions / [ed] Fantu Cheru and Cyril Obi, London: Zed Books , 2010Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 206.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Darren, Kew
    Nigeria: Dilemmas of Cooptation in the Niger Delta2010Inngår i: Civil Society and Peacebuilding: A Critical Assessment / [ed] Thania Paffenholz, Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner , 2010Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 207.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hyden, Göran
    Roalkvan, Sidsel
    Dokken, Karen
    Chr. Michelson Institute: Evaluation of its activities 1997-20062006Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 208.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Olukoshi, Adebayo O.
    Obiozor, G.A.
    The Challenge of West African Regional Integration: an Introductory Overview1994Inngår i: West African Regional Economic Integration: Nigeria’s Policy Perspectives for the 1990’s / [ed] G.A. Obiozor, A.O. Olukoshi and C.I. Obi, Lagos: NIIA , 1994Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 209.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Rustad, Siri Aas
    Oil and Insurgency in the Niger Delta: Managing the Complex Politics of Petroviolence2011Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent escalation in the violent conflict in the Niger Delta has brought the region to the forefront of international energy and security concerns. This book analyses the causes, dynamics and politics underpinning oil-related violence in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It focuses on the drivers of the conflict, as well as the ways the crises spawned by the political economy of oil and contradictions within Nigeria's ethnic politics have contributed to the morphing of initially poorly coordinated, largely non-violent protests into a pan-Delta insurgency. Approaching the issue from a number of perspectives, the book offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive analysis available of the varied dimensions of the conflict. Combining empirically-based and analytic chapters, it attempts to explain the causes of the escalation in violence, the various actors, levels and dynamics involved, and the policy challenges faced with regard to conflict management/resolution and the options for peace. It also examines the role of oil as a commodity of global strategic significance, addressing the relationship between oil, energy security and development in the Niger Delta.

  • 210. Obiozor, G.A.
    et al.
    Olukoshi, A.O.Obi, Cyril I.Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    West African Regional Economic Integration: Nigerian Policy Perspectives for the 1990’s1994Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 211.
    Okeke, Jide
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Why Humanitarian Aid in Darfur is not a Practice of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Discussion Paper provides a compelling critique of the ‘new humanitarianism, ’particularly the ways in which leading donor states seek to incorporate humanitarian assistance and protection into the toolbox of political intervention in other countries. Drawing upon the history of humanitarianism and its origins in an ethos of neutrality, impartiality and non-violence, the author shows how since the end of the Cold War, and increasingly since 9/11, the ‘new’ form of internationational humanitarianism has become deeply politicised and has taken on human rights, strategic-security, liberal and developmental agendas as defined by donor states. The paper frames the critique of linking R2P to humanitarian protection values in the context of the new humanitarianism and the pursuit of the foreign policies of hegemonic states. It therefore provides a critical perspective on the politics of humanitarian aid in Darfur, and opens up a new basis for an alternative discourse on international humanitarian intervention and its connection with the politics of global powers in African conflict arenas. This paper is an important resource for scholars, civil society activists and policy practitioners with a keen interest in international humanitarian aid, international humanitarian law, conflict, peace and security in Africa.

  • 212.
    Okereke, C. Nna-Emeka
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nigeria and the African Union in Light of the Arab Revolts2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses Nigeria’s role in the African Union (AU) and con-cludes that the latter is a strategic platform for the conduct of Nigeria’s foreign policy objectives in Africa. The study finds that the country has a ‘manifest destiny’ to play leadership roles in Africa and debunks the perception that Nigeria’s role in the AU is in decline. The paper further explores Nigeria’s AU priorities since the Arab revolts and concludes that the country’s ability to steer a clear course at the AU holds out pro-spects for peace, stability and security in Africa.

  • 213.
    Okonta, Ike
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Biafran ghosts: The MASOB Ethnic Militia and Nigeria’s Democratisation Process2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), an ethnicmilitia, emerged in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria in 1999, shortly after military rule ended and Olusegun Obasanjo took office as elected President. MASSOB’s stated goal is the struggle for Igbo self-determination and the re-emergence of a new sovereign state in the eastern part of the country to be known as the ‘United States of Biafra’, thereby raising the spectre of a possible break up of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This Discussion Paper examines the circumstances of MASSOB’s emergence in a period of political transition and considerable uncertainty as the Nigerian armed forces began to prepare to relinquish their grip on power, and the specific ways the promoters of this ethnicmilitia movement have shaped Nigeria’s still unfolding democratization process since 1999.

  • 214. Olukoshi, Adebayo
    et al.
    Adewusi, AdebayoObi, Cyril I.Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.Omoweh, DanielBala, Jibril
    Industrialization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects1995Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 215.
    Olukoshi, Adebayo O.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Democratic Governance and Accountability in Africa: In Search of a Workable Framework2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides a thought-provoking and radical intervention into the ongoing debates on democratic governance and accountability in Africa. The author undertakes a critical overview of the discourse on democratisation in Africa and notes that democracy on the continent cannot be fully understood on the basis of the ways in which electoral pluralism has played out in the last 20 years. The paper critiques mainstream explanations and points out their shortcomings. It goes on to make a compelling case for an alternative framework based on historically informed dialectical analysis of everyday democracy and struggles for democracy in Africa. Noting that no two democracies are exactly the same, the paper advocates the need for democracy in Africa to be studied on its own terms, and in a way that facilitates taking the African experience into the global arena to produce a truly comparative theory of democratisation on a world scale. The paper is essential reading for all those interested in the history, present and future of democracy in Africa.

  • 216.
    Omotola, J. Shola
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Unconstitutional changes of government in Africa. What Implications for Democratic Consolidation?2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is based on a conceptual and analytical reading of cases of unconstitutional change of government in Africa. It provides a deep and up-to-date exploration of the prospects for democratic consolidation on the continent against the backdrop of an upsurge in unconstitutional changes of government. Rather than focus only on the internal threats to democracy in Africa, the author also analyses the role of neighbouring states, regional organisations and hegemonic forces within the international community in advancing or limiting democracy. In this regard, this work sheds light on why the pursuit of the liberal democratic project in Africa has so far appeared to alienate ordinary people, while providing space for dominant elites to tamper with democratic institutions and processes, which then work against popular participation and democratic development. This paper is essential reading for scholars, policy practitioners, analysts and all those with an interest in the prospects for democracy in Africa.

  • 217.
    Owuor, Yvonne A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Contemporary projections: Africa in the literature of Atrocity (Aftrocity)2009Inngår i: Writers, writing on conflicts and wars in Africa, London: Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. and Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 17-26 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 218.
    Rudebeck, Lars
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Electoral Democratisation in Post-Civil War Guinea-Bissau 1999 - 20082011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides a profound analysis of the theory of democratisation as applied in a post-conflict West African context. It includes a compelling analysis of ‘democratisation without development’ in Guinea-Bissau and lays the groundwork for what is to be done to facilitate democratic transformation in the country. This is a must-read for scholars, policy and development practitioners and activists keen on understanding the immediate background to the current challenges facing Guinea-Bissau and their possible resolution.

  • 219.
    Salih, M.A. Mohamed
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Transnational Islamist (Jihadist) Movements and Inter-State Conflicts in the Horn of Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Somalia has engendered the policy debate on the extent of the spread of transnational Islamist Jihadist groups in the Horn of Africa (HOA) and their consequences for peace and security across the region. These concerns are justified given the emergence since the late 1980s of extremist groups such as the Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement and the Somali Jihadist Islamist groups of the likes of Al-Ittihad, the Islamic Courts Union and currently Al Shabab. The leaders and fighters of these groups relocated to the HOA after the defeat of the Taliban following the 2001 US invasion of Afghanistan. The operations of these transnational Islamist groups within and across the countries of the Horn pose serious challenges to the region and beyond.

  • 220.
    Schoeman, Maxi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    South African female peacekeepers on mission in Africa: Progress, challenges and policy options for increased participation2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa’s contribution of troops to peace missions is the 13th largest in the world, and the country has the largest women’s contingent deployed in Peace Support Operations (PSOs). Although, South Africa is one of only a handful of countries incorporating women in combat positions and PSOs, on average the picture of female participation remains less rosy.On the policy level, South Africa has committed itself to gender mainstreaming in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). The UN Resolution on Women, Peace and Security calls for, among other things, full inclusion of women in all aspects of peace-related activities, including peacekeeping. On 31 October2010, the world will mark the 10th anniversary of Resolution 1325, just as in 2009 South Africa celebrated ten years of participation in international peacekeeping operations. This is a pertinent time to take stock of South Africa’s progress in improving the gender balance in its military, specifically in its contribution to PSOs, and the opportunities and obstacles that exist in this process.This Policy Note is based on information collected from questionnaires, interviews and reports, along with insights gleaned from discussion groups at the 2007 SANDF Women’s Day Conference to identify the progress of, and challenges to the SANDF in improving the gender balance in its peacekeeping activities. These initial research findings form part of a larger project on South African involvement in peacekeeping, focusing in particular on the status, position and role of women decision-makers and peacekeepers. Problems encountered by women peacekeepers and the challenges faced by the SANDF are not unique and the recommendations may therefore be of relevance beyond South Africa, particularly to those African countries across the continent attempting to attract more women into, and mainstream gender in the military and PSOs.

  • 221.
    Sebudubudu, David
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Molutsi, Patrick
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Elite as a Critical Factor in National Development: The case of Botswana2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Discussion Paper provides insightful explanations for Botswana’s emergence as one of Africa’s developmental success stories. It underscores the role of the ruling elite coalition in shaping the particular kind of politics, inclusive policies, consensus, partnerships and vision that have contributed to the emergence of Botswana as a democratic developmental state. This is an important paper that should be read by all those keen to understand how Botswana has managed to avoid the ‘natural resource curse’ and stand out as a model of democratic stability and sustained economic growth in Africa.

  • 222.
    Sellström, Tor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Hammarskjöld and apartheid South Africa: Mission unaccomplished2011Inngår i: African Journal on Conflict Resolution, ISSN 1562-6997, E-ISSN 2309-737X, Vol. 11, nr 1, 35-62 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 223.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Battles over boundaries: the politics of territory, identity and authority in three Ugandan regions2015Inngår i: The Journal of Contemporary African Studies, ISSN 0258-9001, Vol. 33, nr 2, 268-284 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Uganda, contested relations between the central government and sub-national regions have, since independence, shaped state formation and national identity in fundamental ways. Today, the country is characterised by regionally uneven state presence, and distinct sub-national identities and ongoing contestation over territorial demarcations, loci of authority and political identities. This article explores the politics of territory, identity and authority in three Ugandan regions in this context, in order to analyse the implications for exclusion and conflict at the sub-national level. This involves struggles over the territorial and administrative demarcations of and within regions; the loci and scope of authority with regards to these units; struggles over access to land; and the (non-)recognition of various cultural–political identities in these regions.

  • 224.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Between Militarism and Technocratic Governance: State Formation in Contemporary Uganda2013Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anders Sjögren is a researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala and in the Department of Political Science, Stockholm University. He has researched and published extensively on Ugandan and Kenyan politics over the last decade. This book is a revised version of his doctoral thesis. State-civil society relations in Africa have during recent decades been transformed in the context of economic liberalisation and state reform. This study explores state-civil society relations in contemporary Uganda, from 1986 to the present, in order to illustrate and explain the scope for and capacity of different social forces to create access to and democratise the state. The study interrogates state-civil society relations under the incumbent National Resistance Movement government as these are expressed through forms of interest representation and conflict regulation in different political arenas. It analyses this problem through an empirical study of the health sector at both national and local levels. Changes in the health regime – the rules and practices that regulate health politics – are analysed by a historical reconstruction of how different health regimes evolved from demands from social forces on the colonial and postcolonial state, in relation to broader patterns of political change. The ruling political coalition from 1986 has promoted a model for capitalist development based on donor-driven economic growth, institutional reform and political monopoly – what is referred to in the study as technocratic governance. Throughout, however, the technocratic tendency has been shaped in relation to the political economy of militarism as a more openly repressive form of authoritarian rule. The study argues that limits to democratisation of state society relations within the health sector and of Ugandan politics at large are best explained by relations of domination in society, within the state and among external political forces. The main conclusion is that democratisation of the state has been resisted by ruling groups, and therefore restricted.

  • 225.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Constitutional reform in Kenya: Towards a new order?2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 18-19 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 226.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Figli della terra, signori del territorio? Politica della terra, etnicità e cittadinanza nel Bunyoro, Uganda occidentale2011Inngår i: Afriche e orienti, ISSN 1592-6753, Vol. 12, nr 3/4, 90-106 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 227.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Land, Mobility and Belonging in West Africa by Carola Lentz (review)2014Inngår i: Anthropological Quarterly, ISSN 0003-5491, E-ISSN 1534-1518, Vol. 87, nr 4, 1325-1328 s.Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 228.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Scrambling for the promised land: land acquisitions and the politics of representation in post-war Acholi, northern Uganda2015Inngår i: Land Grabbing in Africa: the Race for Africa's Rich Farmland / [ed] Fassil Demissie, London: Routledge, 2015, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 229.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Scrambling for the promised land: land acquisitions and the politics of representation in post-war Acholi, northern Uganda2013Inngår i: African Identities, ISSN 1472-5843, E-ISSN 1472-5851, Vol. 12, nr 1, 62-75 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of return to relative peace in Acholi region, northern Uganda, from 2006, land matters have taken centre stage. After having been displaced into camps for many years, people have started to go back home. Their return is complicated by many factors, including above all, land disputes. While the Ugandan constitution and land legislation protects customary tenure, the social and economic institutions that uphold this tenure regime have been severely weakened as a result of war and displacement. The combination of demographic changes following large-scale displacement and gradual return; social and economic conflicts emanating from biting poverty for most and accumulation by a few; uncertain territorial demarcations by way of changing and contested statutory and communal boundaries in the context of weak and subverted regulatory institutions, together deepen conflicts over resources. This article analyses these issues by examining a case of land acquisition in Amuru: a bid by the Madhvani business group to access huge tracts of land in western Acholi for purposes of growing sugar cane, and the heated debates and protests this case has generated, as played out by political representation in different arenas such as the media, courts and representative assemblies.

  • 230.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Territorialising identity, authority and conflict in Africa: an introduction2015Inngår i: The journal of contemporary African studies, ISSN 0258-9001, Vol. 33, nr 2, 163-170 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In much of Africa, the simultaneous contestation over sub-national demarcations, political identities and the locus of authority has activated a territorial politics. In such contexts of uncertainty, state rulers and other social forces advance competing notions of the relevant and legitimate boundaries of territories and identities. This collection of articles examines how, across the continent, struggles over territory are linked to divergent understandings of identity and authority, with significance for territorial integrity, national identity and conflict.

  • 231.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Uganda: land disputes in the wake of civil war2011Inngår i: New Routes, ISSN 1403-3755, E-ISSN 2000-8082, Vol. 16, nr 4, 8-11 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 232.
    Sjögren, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Golooba-Mutebi, Frederick
    Going to the bush: Urban-rural links and violent conflicts in Uganda2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 233.
    Sjögren, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Murung'a, GodwinUniversity of Nairobi.Okello, Duncan
    Kenya: the struggle for a new constitutional order2014Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 234.
    Sjögren, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Murung'a, Godwin
    University of Nairobi.
    Okello, Duncan
    Towards a new constitutional order in Kenya: an introduction2014Inngår i: Kenya: the struggle for a new constitutional order / [ed] Godwin Murung'a, Duncan Okello and Anders Sjögren, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2014, 1-14 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 235.
    Specht, Irma
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    DDR of Youth in Africa: Theory, standards and practice2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 236. Stern, Maria
    et al.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Göteborgs universitet.
    Research in the Rape Capital of the World: Fame and Shame2015Inngår i: Masquerades of war / [ed] Christine Sylvester, New York: Routledge, 2015, Vol. s. 197-206, 197-206 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 237. Stern, Maria
    et al.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Göteborgs universitet.
    Telling Perpetrator’s stories: a reflection on effects and ethics2015Inngår i: Teaching About Rape in War and Genocide / [ed] edited by John K. Roth, Carol Rittner, London: Palgrave , 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 238.
    Swain, Ashok
    et al.
    ppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Uppsala universitet, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Zambezi River Basin: A Risk Zone of Climate Change and Vulnerability2012Inngår i: New Routes, ISSN 1403-3755, E-ISSN 2000-8082, Vol. 17, nr 3, 17-20 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 239.
    Tar, Usman A.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Shettima, Abba Gana
    Endangered democracy?: The struggle over secularism and its implications for politics and democracy in Nigeria2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines the pivotal role religion plays in Nigerian politics, particularly as it relates to the ways Islamic and Christian identities have been manipulated by competing political elites in their struggle for power. It provides a concise but well-informed history of the evolution of the religious factor in politics and its adverse implications for Nigeria’s democracy. Its point of departure is a critique of the notion of a secular Nigerian state (as prescribed by the constitution), which shows how governments and politicians have taken advantage of constitutional loop holes and used state resources to foster the politicisation of religion, with serious consequences for society at large. Some of the adverse consequences identified include religious conflict, political instability, insecurity and the undermining of the country’s democracy and development. The study carefully peels away the outward display of religious piety by political elites and leaders to reveal some of the underlying personal and narrow calculations. Over time, these calculations have eroded the social elements binding relations in a multi ethnic, multi-religious setting such as Nigeria, and there have been periodic explosions of sectarian and communal violence in various parts of the country. The authors show how the politicisation and ethnicisation of religious differences have further fuelled conflict between competing groups and geopolitical interests in Nigeria and raised serious questions for Nigeria’s democracy, development and the nation-state project. While noting that religion cannot be completely de-linked from politics, the study proffers some suggestions to begin to address and reverse the adverse effects of the intrusion of religion into democratic politics in Nigeria, Africa’s largest country and leading oil producer.

  • 240.
    Themner, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Former mid-level commanders in Big Man networks2012Inngår i: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Mats Utas, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2012, 205-223 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 241.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A Disempowering Peace: Explaining why Ex-Combatants Re-engage in Organised Violence2012Inngår i: From Intra-State War to Durable Peace: Conflict and Its Resolution in Africa after the Cold War / [ed] Thomas Ohlson, Dordrecht: Republic of Letters Publishing, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 242.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    A Leap of Faith: When and How Ex-Combatants Resort to Violence2013Inngår i: Security Studies, ISSN 0963-6412, E-ISSN 1556-1852, Vol. 22, nr 2, 295-329 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has given scant attention to the issue of how and when ex-combatants resort to organized violence. This article fills this research gap by comparing ex-fighters in the Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. It holds that ex-combatant violence is the result of interaction between entrepreneurs of violence, military affinities, intermediaries, and selective incentives. Ex-combatants take to arms when they have access to entrepreneurs of violence. By offering selective incentives and utilizing existing military affinities, entrepreneurs can generate the enticements and trust needed to convince ex-combatants to resort to arms. However, as entrepreneurs have limited contact with ex-fighters, they are dependent on intermediaries to do the actual recruiting for them. Contrary to previous assumptions, this article finds that ex-fighters are largely risk-averse individuals and that ex-combatant violence is seldom triggered by the mere presence of small arms, lack of economic opportunities, or experiences of insecurity.

  • 243.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Demilitarisering och säkerhets­sektorreform2012Inngår i: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2012, 257-272 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 244.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Demobilisering och säkerhetsreform2012Inngår i: Om krig och fred: En introduktion tilld freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 245.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Former Military Networks and the Micro-Politics of Violence and Statebuilding in Liberia2015Inngår i: Comparative politics, ISSN 0010-4159, E-ISSN 2151-6227, Vol. 47, nr 3, 334-353 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have highlighted the inability of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs to dismantle command structures in the aftermath of civil war. The effect that lingering military networks have on peace, however, is ambiguous. Therefore, a key question—which has so far been unanswered—is why some ex-military networks are remobilized for violent purposes while others are used for more productive ones, such as income-generating activities. In this article, I seek to address this question by comparing two former mid-level commanders (ex-MiLCs) in Liberia and the networks that they control. Based on this comparison I argue that it is ex-MiLCs who are shunned by governing elites as peacetime brokers of patronage—distributing economic resources to ex-fighters—that are most likely to remobilize their ex-combatant networks.

  • 246.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Intermediaries of peace or agents of war: the role of ex-midlevel commanders in Big Man networks2012Inngår i: African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks / [ed] Mats Utas, London: Zed Books, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 247.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilizers and Relationships2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 248.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Höglund, Kristine
    Conflict, peace and security2015Inngår i: The Future of Swedish Research!: Overview 2014 : Development Research, Stockholm: Swedish Research Council , 2015, 12-21 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 249.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Ohlson, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Legitimate Peace in Post-Civil War States: Towards Attaining the Unattainable2014Inngår i: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 14, nr 1, 61-87 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 250.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Swain, Ashok
    Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, Uppsala universitet.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Krampe, Florian
    Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, Uppsala universitet.
    Climate Change and the Risk of Violent Conflicts in Southern Africa2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify regions in the Zambezi River Basin in Southern Africa that are prone to risk of violent conflicts (collective violence, popular unrest) induced by climatic changes/variability. The Zambezi River is 575 kilometres long and the basin covers eight countries: Zambia, Angola, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania, Botswana, Mozambique and Namibia. Besides the ecological impact, the study argues that socio-economic and political problems are disproportionately multiplied by climate change/variability. Climate change/variability amplifies stresses on the socio-political fabric because it affects the governance of resources, and hence, is linked to the weakened mitigation and adaptation capacity of societies, that are already facing economic challenges (rising food prices, etc.). Society becomes highly vulnerable to climate induced conflicts when it suffers from poor central leadership, weak institutions and polarized social identities. Taking all these factors into consideration, this study identifies Bulawayo/Matableleland-North in Zimbabwe and the Zambezia Province in Mozambique as the most likely regions to experience climate induced conflicts in the near future. The reasons for arriving at this conclusion are: a) Climate change/variability will have a significant impact on these two regions; due to increasing water scarcity in Bulawayo/Matabeleland-North; and intensified flooding, sea-level rise, and costal erosion in the Zambezia Province. b) Due to climate change/variability, agricultural production in these two regions will become highly volatile, leading to severe food insecurity. c) Both regions are suffering from low quality political governance, having unscrupulous elites, weak institutions, and polarized social identities.

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