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  • 51.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Nature of Archaeology: Beyond the Linguistic Turn: (Comments on discussion article by Brit Solli)2011Inngår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 44, nr 1, 30-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Source of the Blue Nile: Water Rituals and Traditions in the Lake Tana Region2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 53.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Thirsty, hungry and no power?: African resources in a global world2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?

  • 54.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Wagner, John R. (ed.). The social life of water. xii, 313 pp., maps, tables, figs, illus., bibliogrs. Oxford, New York: Berghahn, 20132015Inngår i: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, ISSN 1359-0987, E-ISSN 1467-9655, Vol. 21, nr 4, 945-946 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion / [ed] Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 38-50 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water in the archaeology of ritual and religion includes water as a perspective and water as empirical data. The life-giving waters in society and religion are the fresh waters in their many facets in the hydrological cycle. Water is always in a flux. The fluid matter changes qualities and capacities wherever it is, and it always takes new forms. This transformative character of water is forcefully used in ritual practices and religious constructions. Water represents the one and the many at the same time, and the plurality of ritual institutionalizations and religious perceptions puts emphasis on water’s structuring principles and processes in culture and the cosmos. Water is fundamental in many ritual practices and to conceptions of the divinities and cosmos in prehistoric religions, and consequently the study of water in ritual and religion may reveal insights into both what religion is and how devotees perceive themselves, the divine spheres, and their own religious practices and rituals. The pervasive role of water-worlds in society and cosmos unites micro and macro cosmos, creates life, and legitimizes social hierarchies and religious practices and beliefs. Water is a medium which links or changes totally different aspects of humanity and divinities into a coherent unit; it bridges paradoxes, transcends the differenthuman and divine realms, allows interactions with gods, and enables the divinities to interfere with humanity. Water is a medium for everything—it has human character because we are humans; it is a social matter but also a spiritual substance and divine manifestation with immanent powers; and, still, it belongs to the realm of nature as a fluid liquid. The hydrological cycle links all places and spheres together, and water transcends the common categories by which we conceptualize the world and cosmos (Tvedt and Oestigaard 2006). The religious water-worlds, cosmologies, beliefs, and ritual practices are evident in the archaeological record, mythology, and written sources. Hence, it is necessaryto identify different types of water, the particular qualities associated with each of them,and how water materializes as religious and ritual structures, practices, and beliefs.

  • 56.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water and climate change in Africa – from causes to consequences2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the climate change discourse. This should not be by paying less attention to the causes, which are now well known, but by stressing more the consequences, which have been largely neglected in political discourses, especially changes in water systems. This is also an issue of how global society should react to the uncertainties climate change represent for Africa and its development. Globally, the current political agenda focuses mainly on mitigation of carbon emissions, a consideration that also structures international aid policies, and less on adaptation and how to develop countries and societies when hydrology and environment changes. Thus, a water perspective may add important insights and future policy guidelines of particular relevance to Africa’s development.

  • 57.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water, Christianity and the Rise of Capitalism2013Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water Scarcity and Food Security along the Nile: Politics, population increase and climate change2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2050, the population in all the Nile Basin countries is expected to be ten times higher than it was in 1950. This will put ever increasing pressure on water as a resource for development. The Nile Basin catchment area is shared by 11 countries covering about one-tenth of the African continent. Globally, around 70 per cent of fresh water consumption is used in agriculture. This puts the spotlight on future scenarios regarding food production: will there be enough water for food security in the Nile Basin countries? In this Current African Issues publication, water scarcity and food security are analysed from a range of perspectives. What are the future predictions regarding population increase and climate change, and how will these affect development in Nile Basin countries? What are the current water theories addressing the above issues, and what are the main challenges the Nile Basin countries will face in a context that is also strongly shaped by its history?

  • 59.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    When everything depends on the rain: Drought, rain-fed agriculture and food security2012Inngår i: Annual Report : 2011: Africa's changing societies: reform from below, ISSN 1104-5256, 24-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Witchcraft, witch killings and Christianity: The works of religion and parallel cosmologies in Tanzania2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa: a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 182-199 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 61.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Abawa Firew, Gedef
    University of Bergen.
    Gish Abay – the source of the Blue Nile2011Inngår i: Water and Society / [ed] In Pepper, D. W. & Brebbia, C. A., Southampton. Boston: WIT Press, 2011, 27-38 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Nile is by many seen as the most important river in the world. The source of the Blue Nile is a spring called Gish Abay in Ethiopia. This is the source of Gilgal Abay (meaning the little Abay), which is the most voluminous of the some sixty rivers flowing into Lake Tana. Although the Nile Quest has attracted emperors and explorers alike since Antiquity, after the sources of the Nile were discovered the majority of studies have focused on hydrology and not on cultural and religious aspects of the river. Gish Abay has been seen as the outlet of the river Gihon flowing directly from Paradise linking this world with Heaven. The holiness of Abay and the source in particular have had and still have an important role in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Moreover, before the source was Christianised it had a central role in the indigenous religion where lavish ox sacrifices were conducted. Thus, in this article we highlight the ritual and religious role of Gish Abay in a historic perspective.

  • 62.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaliff, Anders
    Cremation, Corpses and Cannibalism. : Comparative Cosmologies and Centuries of CosmicConsumption.2017Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Death matters and the matters of death are initially, and to a large extent, the decaying flesh of the corpse. Cremation as a ritual practice is the fastest and most optimal way of dissolving the corpse’s flesh, either by annihilation or purification, or a combination. Still, cremation was not the final rite, and the archaeological record testifies that the dead represented a means to other ends – the flesh, and not the least the bones – have been incorporated in a wide range of other ritual contexts. While human sacrifices and cannibalism as ritual phenomena are much discussed in anthropology, archaeology has an advantage, since the actual bone material leaves traces of ritual practices that are unseen and unheard of in the contemporary world. As such, this book fleshes out a broader and more coherent understanding of prehistoric religions and funeral practices in Scandinavia by focusing on cremation, corpses and cannibalism.

  • 63.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaliff, Anders
    Kremation och kosmologi: en komparativ arkeologisk introduktion2013Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Nilsson, David
    Scandinavia in the ‘Scramble for Africa’: Then and Now2013Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 65.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 1. Vol. 3: The World of Water2013Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 2, Vol. 1.: Ideas of Water : From Ancient Societies to the Modern World2015Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 67.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization2014Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 68.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Tvedt, Terje
    Urban Water Systems: A Conceptual Framework2014Inngår i: A History of Water. Series 3, Vol. 1.: Water and Urbanization / [ed] Terje Tvedt and Terje Oestigaard, London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2014, 1-21 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 69.
    Olanya, David Ross
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    From Global Land Grabbing for Biofuels to Acquisitions of African Water for Commercial Agriculture2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion of biofuel investment in Africa has been supported by indebted poor governments because of perceived potential benefits such as sustainable energy development, support to poor farmers, development of rural economies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the intensity of the biofuels political economy in poor countries worsens inequality for the vulnerable poor. This is evidenced by large-scale land acquisitions in Africa for biofuel and crop production primarily for foreign consumption – food, animal feeds and energy crops. The search for land in African countrieshas been triggered by growing concerns over food and energy security in developed countries following the global food crisis of 2008. Moreover, these recent developments in large-scale land acquisitions in Africa are not a new phenomenon, but represent the renewal of old practices incommercial agriculture, which is either conducted through purchases or long-term leases. In addition to biofuel expansion, this study notes that current large-scale land acquisitions in sub-Saharan Africa have been further driven by demands to access water resources for other commercial agricultural crops. The land purchases or leases automatically guarantee access to African water. This demand for water is a response to climate change: most industrialists believe that acquiring land near a main water reservoir will guarantee future agricultural potential. Few analyses have been done on the land-water access nexus. This article considers recent developments in large-scaleland acquisitions in Africa in terms of water security for commercial agriculture to safeguard the production of agricultural crops with a large water footprint. Using political economy analysis, this article examines national policy on these acquisitions, the rights accorded to foreign investors and how land acquisitions undermine indigenous rights to the common resources that have been the mainsource of livelihood in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 70.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    A delicate balance: Short-term gains or long-term food security?2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 28-29 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 71.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Consequences and challenges of tourism and seaweed farming: a narrative on a coastal community in Zanzibar2013Inngår i: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, nr 2, 169-184 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although international influences have affected Zanzibar for centuries, some rural areas have remained largely unaffected by globalization until a few decades ago when Zanzibar emerged as a tourist destination and commercial seaweed farming was introduced. This paper focuses on local responses to these two external drivers of change, from the perspectives of women and men on the south-eastern coast of Unguja Island where they strive to improve their livelihoods. Longitudinal social anthropological surveys using interactive methods were used to reveal the perspectives and coping strategies of individuals under multidimensional poverty. The study thus focused on micro-level diversity and diversification in the modes of livelihood over time and within broader national and global frameworks. The tourist boom in the 1990s was followed by fluctuations and a decline in backpackers who had until then benefited the local economy. Seaweed production, undertaken almost exclusively by women, has steadily increased since the late 1980s. Although it entails hard work for limited returns, seaweed has become highly significant in boosting women’s empowerment and securing their livelihood; economic diversification is central to the livelihood of poor women.

  • 72.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Notions of Poverty and Wealth in Coastal Zanzibar: The Policy Relevance of Local Perspectives2009Inngår i: Ethnographic Practice and Public Aid: Methods and Meanings in Development Cooperation / [ed] Sten Hagberg & Charlotta Widmark, Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2009, 125-159 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73.
    Virtanen, Tea
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Between cattle and Islam: Shifting social and gendered significance of cattle among the Mbororo pastoralists in Cameroon2010Inngår i: Good to eat, good to live with: Nomads and animals in northern Eurasia and Africa / [ed] Florian Stammler; Hiroki Takakura, Sendai: Tohoku University , 2010, 123-139 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 74.
    Virtanen, Tea
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Educating pastoralists2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 20-20 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Virtanen, Tea
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The one who has not eaten cannot pray: Tightroping between wordly and spiritual well-being in rural Cameroon2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 24-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 76.
    Wamala, Caroline
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Hoes, tractors and information technologies2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 30-30 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 77.
    Woldegiorgis, Birhanu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Land Laws and Proclamations in Tanzania and Ethiopia2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
12 51 - 77 of 77
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