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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Tommy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Food security now or wait for research to assess risks?: genetically modified crops and smallholder farmers in Africa2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are by proponents considered as a possible solution to the food and nutrition problems in developing countries. However, there are also concerns of how side effects may affect environment and human health. These will probably still remain unknown for decades. But can Africa wait 30 years for research to give a definite answer about the risks connected with biotechnology?

  • 2.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Agricultural water institutions in East Africa2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing growing variability and uncertainty in rainfall in Africa. Since the continent's food production systems are dominantly rain-fed, these changes are putting food security at even higher risk. In order to reduce this dependency, institutional reforms in the agricultural water sectors have become a priority in research and policy.

    In this report, Atakilte Beyene, senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, together with twelve researchers based in Africa, studies current agricultural water reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and other East African countries. The report consists of four case studies and an introductory section. The first case study evaluates the performance of community participation in water resources governance in the Mount Kenya Region. It uncovers the implication of a ban on traditional institutions on water security at a catchment level. The second case analyses the prospects of introducing pro-poor water schemes in conditions where climate change and water inequality are already challenges. It identifies incentive mechanisms that enhance more efficient distribution and utilization of water resources. The third case examines impacts of competitive and intensive farming strategies, especially irrigation schemes, on water demands. The final case study explores how advances in information and communication technologies improve water-use management systems across organizational and geographic scales.

  • 3.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Costly not to consider local resistance: Advice on agricultural investments in Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Failures in considering and properly addressing local resistance have become costly for both the local people and the investors. Land acquisition policies need to be accompanied by mechanisms that address local grievances and conflicts. These aspects are crucial not only to alleviate unjust practices, but also to enhance confidence of investors and performance of the investments.

  • 4.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Large-scale land acquisitions in Tanzania and Ethiopia: a comparative perspective2015Inngår i: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa : a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, 170-181 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Small farms under stress play a huge role for Africa: smallholder agriculture and emerging global challenges2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread poverty as well as food and income insecurity plague Africa’s dominant smallholder agriculture. Paradoxically, the very people who mainly depend on agriculture are not able to secure their own food and nutrition needs. Today, three-quarters of Africa’s malnourished children and the majority of people living in absolute poverty are found among the smallholder farmers who are key to the development of the continent.

  • 6.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Burkina Faso's one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the upcoming elections in Burkina Faso, there’s a need for a clear democratic break with the three decades of de facto one-party rule. At the same time, a moderate approach is needed in dealing with the controversial legacy of the former regime, to avoid further polarisation in an already fraught political situation. These are the recommendations of Jesper Bjarnesen and Cristiano Lanzano, senior researchers at the Nordic Africa Institute, in a policy note on Burkina Faso’s one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections.

  • 7. Châtel, Francesca
    et al.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Nile: Shifting Balance of Powers2012Inngår i: Revolve, ISSN 2033-2912, 32-39 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Crentsil, Perpetual
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Ebola: accurate information prevents rumours and panic: educating leaders is one measure - along with distributing soap2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its scope. This Policy Note stresses the importance of knowledge of social factors in preventing the spread of the fatal disease. There are similarities with the previous HIV/AIDS epidemic. Traditional healers and heads of households are key players for health experts to target in protecting people against infection. Normal funeral services are one source of infection. A very basic preventive measure is providing families with soap.

  • 9. Dietz, Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    et al.
    Havnevik, KjellNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.Kaag, MaykeOestigaard, TerjeNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    African Engagements: Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World2011Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 10.
    Engström, Linda
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    When investors leave2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 24-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Gessesse, Dessie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Favouring a Demonised Plant: Khat and Ethiopian smallholder enterprises2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Khat is a plant native to Ethiopia that has been consumed over several centuries as a mental and physical stimulant. This report outlines khat’s role as a source of livelihood. Khat, dubbed a social ill by many, is at the same time part and parcel of the livelihoods of many others. With consumption of the stimulant spreading to many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, khat production has become a controversial global issue. In most European and North American countries khat is illegal. The debates so far focus on the consumption of khat and its allegedly harmful health ,economic and social effects. The argument here is that expanded khat production, driven by growing demand for the stimulant, is made possible through multidimensional links between producers, sellers and others. Today, khat production is part of the wider agro-silvi-pasture complex that characterises Ethiopian rural landscapes. At the farm level, khat shares space with food and tree crops and contributes cash to the household economy. The fact that its production is a smallholder venture andis expanding through a variety of farming systems indicates its importance to cultivators and their use of land. This paper is not exhaustive, but makes an exploratory attempt to highlight khat-related livelihood issues and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates on the stimulant and to prompt further research.

  • 12.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    The Concept of Food Security2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lecture by Professor Kjell Havnevik. Filmed 14 December 2011 at the Nordic Africa Institute (60 min).

  • 13.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaag, Mayke
    Introduction: A changing world and its consequences2011Inngår i: African Engagements : Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World / [ed] Dietz, Antonius Johannes, Havnevik, Kjell, Kaag, Mayke, Oestigaard, Terje, Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, 1-32 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 14.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Isinika, Aida C.
    Tanzania in transition: From Nyerere to Mkapa2010Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This book is the first comprehensive contribution to understanding the character of important societal transitions in Tanzania during Benjamin Mkapa's presidency (1995 - 2005). The analyses of the trajectory of these transitions are conducted against the background of the development model of Tanzanian's first president, Julius Nyerere (1961 - 1985), a model with lasting influence on the country. This approach enables an understanding of continuities and discontinuities in Tanzania over time in areas such as development strategy an ideology, agrarian-land, gender and forestry issues, economic liberalization, development assistance, corruption and political change.

    The period of Mkapa's presidency is particularly important because it represents the first phase of Tanzania's multi-party political system. Mkapa's government initially faced a gloomy economic situation. Although Mkapa's crusade against corruption lost direction, his presidency was characterised by relatively high growth rates and a stable macro-economy. Rural and agrarian transitions were dominated by diversification rather than productivity growth and transformation. Rural attitudes in favour of land markets emerged only slowly but formal land disputes showed more respect for women's rights. Some space emerged for widening local participation in forest management, but rural dynamics was mainly found in trading settlements feeding on economic liberalization and artisanal mining.

    The transitions documented and analysed of Mkapa's presidency, however, indicate only limited transformational change. Rural poverty is therefore likely to remain deep and the sustainability of economic development to be at risk in the future. Mkapa was, however, able to protect the legacy of peace and political stability of Nyerere, but there were nevertheless important challenges to the first multiparty elections and governance, and particularly in Zanzibar. The post- script (covering 2005 2010), indicates that the incumbent president, Jakaya Kikwete, has yet to prove that he can change this legacy of Mkapa.

    The contributions to the eleven chapters of this book are evenly shared between Tanzanian, Nordic and other European researchers with a long-term commitment to Tanzanian development research. The book is dedicated to the youth of Tanzania.

    

  • 15.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Matondi, Prosper B.Beyene, Atakilte
    Biofuels, Land Grabbing and Food Security in Africa2011Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy crisis and climate change have generated global demands for alternative non-fossil fuel sources. This has led to a rapid increase of investments in production of liquid biofuels based on agricultural feed stocks such as sugar cane. Most African governments see biofuels as a potential for increasing agricultural productivity and export incomes and thus strengthening their national economies, improving energy balances and rural employment. At the same time climate change may be addressed through reduction of green house gas emissions.

    There are, however, a number of uncertainties mounting that challenge this scenario. Using in-depth African case studies this book addresses this knowledge gap by examining the impacts of large-scale biofuel production on African agriculture in regard to vital land outsourcing and food security issues. The surge for African biofuels has also opened space for private investors both domestic and external to multiply and network 'independently' of the state. The biofuel expansion thus generates new economic alliances and production relations, resulting in new forms of inclusions and exclusions within the rural population.

    An essential book for anyone wishing to understand the startling impact of biofuels and land outsourcing on Africa.

  • 16.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Oestigaard, TerjeNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.Tobisson, EvaVirtanen, TeaNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Framing African development : challenging concepts2016Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Bois sacrés ou aires protégées?: Sacralisation des espaces forestiers et savoirs locaux dans un village komono (Burkina Faso)2015Inngår i: Savoirs et reconnaissance dans les sociétés africaines / [ed] Pascale Moity-Maïzi, Paris: Karthala, 2015, 181-206 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Crisi e transizione in Burkina Faso2014Inngår i: Afriche e Orienti, ISSN 1592-6753, Vol. XVI, nr 3, 133-139 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Mahgoub, Farida
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Current Status of Agriculture and Future Challenges in Sudan2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation and long-lasting civil wars and conflict mean that the demographic pattern in Sudan is changing drastically. Nevertheless, 60%–80 % of Sudanese engage in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial sector in the economy as a major source of rawmaterials, food and foreign exchange. It employs the majority of the labour force, and serves as a potential vehicle for diversifyingthe economy. However, no rigorous studies have explained productivity in this sector inrelation to food security. The situation has worsened because agriculture in particular has been neglected sincethe advent of oil production in the early 2000s. Moreover, Sudan’s agricultural growth has been unbalanced, with the majority of irrigated agriculture concentrated in the Centre and ahuge disparity in development indicators between the best- and worst-performing regions. Thus, studies show that the vast majority of Sudanese are reported to be food insecure,especially internally displaced persons and in conflict regions such as Darfur, Kordofan and other regions.

  • 20.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Understanding Fast Track Land Reforms in Zimbabwe2012Inngår i: Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet; Zed Books , 2012, 1-17 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 21.
    Matondi, Prosper B.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform2012Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fast-Track Land Reform Programme in Zimbabwe has emerged as a highly contested reform process both nationally and internationally. The image of it has all too often been that of the widespread displacement and subsequent replacement of various people, agricultural-related production systems, facets and processes. The reality, however, is altogether more complex. Providing new, in-depth and much-needed empirical research, and based on a broader geographical scope than any previous study carried out on the subject, Zimbabwe’s Fast-Track Land Reform examines how processes such as land acquisition, allocation, transitional production outcomes, social life, gender and tenure, have influenced and been influenced by the forces driving the programme. It also explores the ways in which the land-reform programme has created a new agrarian structure based on small- to medium-scale farmers. In attempting to resolve the problematic issues the reforms have raised, the authors argue that it is this new agrarian formation which provides the greatest scope for improving Zimbabwe’s agriculture and development. A landmark work on a subject of considerable controversy.

  • 22.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    African marriage practices and the global financial crisis2009Inngår i: Annual Report / Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2008, 10-11 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Disease and disruption: Chagga witchcraft and relational fragility2009Inngår i: Dealing with uncertainty in contemporary African lives / [ed] Haram, Liv & Bawa Yamba, C., Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet , 2009, 1, 118-140 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 24.
    Myhre, Knut Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Om ritualer og sosiale relasjoner.: Refleksjoner rundt et kraftfullt bytte2007Inngår i: Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0802-7285, E-ISSN 1504-2898, Vol. 18, nr 3-4, 253-265 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes a bridewealth prestation amongthe Chagga-speaking people of Tanzania. Departingfrom approaches that rely on the notion of reciprocity,the author explores how the prestation per se constitutes,rather than represents, the relationship betweenwife-givers and wife-receivers. By investigating themateriality of the exchanged object, the relationships itforms part of are laid bare, and it is argued that theobject forms part of a reproductive network wherepersons, things and social relationships are mutuallyconstituted. Against this background, materiality andsociality, things and meanings, reality and representation,are interrelated and the problems raised by thenotion of reciprocity are transcended.

  • 25.
    Nilsson, David
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sweden-Norway at the Berlin Conference 1884–85: History, national identity-making and Sweden's relations with Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of Sweden is one of a small, democratic and peace-loving country without the moral burden of a colonial past. However, in this Current African Issues publication, the notion that Sweden lacks a colonial past in Africa is brought into question. At the Berlin Conference 1884–85, the rules for colonisation of Africa were agreed upon among a handful of white men. With the blessing of King Oscar II, the united kingdoms of Sweden-Norway participated in the Berlin conference, ratified the resulting convention and signed a trade agreement with King Leopold’s International Congo Association. Thereafter, hundreds of Swedish militaries, seamen and missionaries took an active part in the brutal colonial project in the Congo. What was Sweden-Norway really doing at the Berlin Conference and in the ensuing Scramble for Africa? Is it now time to re-assess Swedish identity in relation to Africa, an identity so far centered on colonial innocence? Dr DAVID NILSSON is a researcher at the Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. His research focuses on global longtermperspectives on sustainable development in Africa.

  • 26.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    United by Oil, Divided by Politics2007Inngår i: Equal Representation: A Challenge to Democracy and Democracy Promotion / [ed] Mia Melin and Lars Rudebeck, Uppsala, Sweden: Collegium for Development Studies, Uppsala University , 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Afrikas befolkning betalar ett högt pris2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 28.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Book review of Hynynen et al., 2012. Water fountains in the worldscape. KehräMedia Ltd.2012Inngår i: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 5, nr 3, 721-722 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Changing rituals and reinventing tradition: The burnt Viking ship at Myklebostad, Western Norway2015Inngår i: Changing rituals and ritual changes: Function and Meaning in Ancient Funerary Practices / [ed] Brandt, J. R., Ingvaldsen, H. & Prusac, M., Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015, 359-377 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cosmogony2011Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion: Timothy Insoll, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 76-88 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmogony as a term is derived from the two Greek words kosmos and genesis. Kosmos refers to the order of the universe and/or the universe as the order, whereas genesis refers to the process of coming into being (Long 1993: 94). Thus, cosmogony has to do with founding myths and the origin and the creation of the gods and cosmos and how the world came into existence. There are schematically several different types of cosmogenic myths classified according to their symbolic structure: (1) creation from nothing, (2) creation from chaos, (3) creation from a cosmic egg, (4) creation from world parents, (5) creation through a process of emergence, and (6) creation through the agency of an earth diver. Several of these motifs and typological forms may be present in a given cosmogenic myth-system, and these types are not mutually exclusive but may rather be used in parallel in creation ororigin myths (Long 1993: 94). There are cosmogenic myths in all religions. In the Hebrew myth, there is creation from nothing: ‘And God said. “Let there be light”; and there was light’ (Gen. 1: 3). Importantly, in transcendental religions such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam the omnipotent god exists totally independent of its own creation (Trigger 2003: 473), but still there are cosmogenic myths. Usually, however, cosmogony refers to a divine structuring principle where cosmos and the world are not independent of its original creation, but dependent upon the outcome of the ritual relation between humans and deities for its future existence, and such religions are traditionally called cosmogenic, putting the emphasis on human rituals. Thus, there are differences between cosmogenic and transcendental religions with regards to structures of beliefs and practices. A cosmogenic religion links humans’ rituals in the present with the divine glory in the past and cosmic stability and prosperity in the future. Hence, a cosmogenic religion enables and prescribes particular types of ritualpractices which are archaeologically manifest in the material culture, and all the early civilizations have been cosmogenic (Trigger 2003: 444–5) together with the majority of prehistoric religions. Although cosmogony had been an analytical term before Mircea Eliade developed these perspectives, his writings in the 1950s (e.g. Eliade 1954, 1959a [1987]) have strongly influenced researchers’ views of peoples’ beliefs of the world and universe in early civilizations (Trigger 2003: 445). Cosmogony as a religious framework for understanding the world and the universe necessitates specific types of interactions and rituals with the divinities. Hence, due to the strong influence of Eliade’s work on cosmogony as a principleand process, this article will focus on (1) his premises and analyses, (2) criticism and development of cosmogony as a concept, and (3) how it is possible to analyse cosmogenic rituals and religious practices as manifest in the archaeological record. This will include:(a) rituals, with particular emphasis on death and sacrifices in the Aztec civilization; and(b) monuments, with particular emphasis on the pyramids in the ancient Egyptian civilization, since these are processes and places where the dual interaction between humans and divinities took place, which recreated cosmos against the threat of chaos. Together, these case studies will illuminate the possibilities of a cosmogenic perspective in the archaeology of ritual and religion despite the difficulties with Eliade’s structural universalism.

  • 31.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremating Corpses: Destroying, defying or Deifying Death?2015Inngår i: Ancient Death Ways : Proceedings of the workshop on archaeology and mortuary practices. Uppsala, 16-17 May 2013 / [ed] Hackwitz, K. v. & Peyroteo-Stjerna, R., Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2015, 65-83 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cremation as a funeral practice is unique in the sense that throughfire as a medium the dead are actively incorporated into otherspheres and realms. The problem of decaying corpses has beensolved through history in one way or another, irrespective of culture.Although Christianity has seen cremation as destructive andnegative, obliterating death and destroying the corpse, consequentlyhindering resurrection, in other cultures and time periodsthe cremation fire has been a positive and transformative medium.It is through transformation that the deceased is revitalised andgains new life in another existence, and it may even enable divineexistences. Thus, with different comparative cremation practicesin the past and the present, this paper discusses concepts of death.

  • 32.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Cremations in culture and cosmology2013Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial / [ed] Tarlow, S & Nilsson, L. S, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 497-509 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dammed divinities: the water powers at Bujagali Falls, Uganda2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The damming of Bujagali Falls, located only 8 kilometers north of the historic source of the White Nile or the outlet of Lake Victoria, has been seen as one of the most controversial dams in modern times. In 2012, the dam was eventually inaugurated after years of anti-dam opposition and delays. A unique aspect of the controversies was the river spirit Budhagaali living in the falls blocking the dam and opposing the destruction of the waterfalls. This spirits embodies a particular healer – Jaja Bujagali, but he was bypassed by another healer who conducted no less than three grandiose appeasement and relocation ceremonies for the Budhagaali spirit clearing the way for the dam. Why has this particular dam been so controversial? How can a water spirit block a nearly billion dollar dam? What was the ritual drama behind the construction of the dam and is it possible to move a spirit? And what happened to Budhagaali and the indigenous religion after the falls were flooded and can a river spirit be drowned in its own element – water?

  • 34.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Developing the ‘Other’: Challenging Concepts2016Inngår i: Framing African Development: Challenging Concepts / [ed] Havnevik, K., Oestigaard, T., Tobisson, E. & Virtanen, T., Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2016, 16-34 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Development dilemmas and manufactured hazards2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 4-6 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Development processes have conflicting aims and players, and these are a challenge for making good policy. Choosing the wrong development path could have devastating consequences. Research into development issues is key to understanding the realities about which political decisions have to be made.

  • 36.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Fred på Somalisk jord2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Holy water: the universal and the particular : discussion2014Inngår i: Archaeological Dialogues, ISSN 1380-2038, E-ISSN 1478-2294, Vol. 21, nr 2, 162-165 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Holy water: the works of water indefining and understanding holiness.2017Inngår i: WIREs Water, ISSN 0935-879X, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 4, nr 3, 1-12 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Holy water has a central role in shaping the understanding and beliefs of holiness in general, but how does holy water work, and what defines holy water? By analyzing holy water in three different religious traditions—Christianity in Northern Europe, Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and Hinduism—the aim is to discuss the metaphysical essence of water in human understanding and ideas of holiness embodied in water. On the one hand, holy water represents purity and has to be protected from defilement, but on the other hand, many holy rivers are severely polluted. This seeming paradox will be analyzed by focusing on actual beliefs and uses of holy water in ritual and religious practices. Holy water transmits purity and holiness, but it also transfers, transports, and transforms impurities. In the process of obtaining spiritual purity, devotees may pollute the holy because holy water is believed to have a divine agency. By comparing ritual practices and beliefs in three distinct religious traditions in Europe, Africa, and Asia, it is possible to enhance the understanding of the ways holiness and holy water are perceived to work in cultural-specific religious worldviews based on essential capacities of water cross-culturally. This directs the attention to the structuring mechanisms at work because water is conceptualized and used as holy in remarkably similar ways in many religions.

  • 39.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux:: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation c. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Inngår i: Ostrakon. Norsk egyptologisk selskaps bulletin., Vol. 3, 23-24 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 40.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Horus' Eye and Osiris' Efflux: The Egyptian Civilisation of Inundation ca. 3000-2000 BCE.2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Death and the life-giving waters of the Nile were intimately interwoven in ancient Egyptian religion. The principal objective of this study is to develop a synthetic perspective for enhancing the understanding of the religious roles water had in the rise and constitution of the Egyptian civilisation during the Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom. The author employs an archaeological, inter-disciplinary and comparative ‘water perspective’ in which water not only forms the analytical framework, but also provides empirical data that allow for new questions to be addressed. Thus, the Nile itself is used as the primary point of departure to analyse how, why and when religious changes took place, with a particular emphasis on the development of the Osiris cult. Use is made of contemporary written sources, in particular the Pyramid Texts, but also other mortuary texts as well as flood records. The evolution of the Osiris cult is then analysed in relation to the development of the mortuary monuments; the mastabas in the First and the Second Dynasties and the emergence of the pyramids from the Third Dynasty. Hence, by comparing the different funerary monuments and practices with the emergence of the Osiris cult in relation to climatic changes and fluctuations in the Nile’s yearly inundation, Ancient Egyptian religion and the rise of the civilisation is analyzed according to a water perspective. It is noted that the Blue Nile was not blue, but red-brownish during the flood. When the flood started, the White Nile was not white, but green. The author argues that these fundamental characteristics of the Nile water formed the basis for the Osiris mythology. The red floodwaters in particular represented the blood of the slain Osiris.

  • 41.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Ian Kuijt, Colin P. Quinn, and Gabriel Cooney: Transformation by Fire: The Archaeology of Cremation in Cultural Context. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2014. 322 pp. ISBN 978-0-8165-3114-12015Inngår i: Norwegian Archaeological Review, ISSN 0029-3652, E-ISSN 1502-7678, Vol. 48, nr 1, 53-55 s.Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Lack of water, industrial cropping and food security2013Inngår i: The Nordic Africa Institute Annual Report 2012, ISSN ISSN 1104-5256, 21-23 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Looking back, looking ahead2015Inngår i: Habari, ISSN 0345-437, nr 4, 21-21 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Løsning eller katastrofe?2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Nile River2012Inngår i: Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability Volume 9: Afro-Eurasia: Assessing Sustainability, Berkshire Publishing Group LLC , 2012, 228-230 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Positiv kunnskapsflukt2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Religion at work in globalised traditions: rainmaking, witchcraft and christianity in Tanzania2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Richness and poverty through rituals2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 26-27 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sol och vattenkult i den egyptiska civilisationen2012Inngår i: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, nr 1, 28-29 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sol- og vannkult i Egypt2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
12 1 - 50 of 77
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