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  • 1.
    Adetula, Victor A. O.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Jaiyebo, Olugbemi
    Regional economic communities and peacebuilding in Africa: the experiences of ECOWAS and IGAD2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    African states have responded to the challenges of the post-Cold War international system mostly by collectively promoting subregional and continental-wide initiatives in conflict resolution and peacebuilding. Admittedly, the existence of many violent conflicts in Africa, as well as their ‘domino’ effects at thesub-regional level, contributed significantly to the growing desire for collective security systems and conflict management mechanisms. The broadening of the role and functions of African regional organisations to include responsibility for peacebuilding and conflict management generally adds credence to the efficacy of regional integration. Many issues, however, present themselves in the engagement of RECs with the peacebuilding process in Africa. Although primarily set up to promote economic integration, Africa’s RECs have increasingly taken up a prominent role in conflict resolution and peace support operations, as evident in the recent peace processes in Burundi, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Mali, Congo DRC, Sudan, and South Sudan, among others. In spite of the challenges they face, RECs are capable of playing important roles with regard to peace mediation, peacekeeping and peacebuilding.

  • 2.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    La complexité de la violence: Analyse critique des violences sexuelles en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC)2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Ce rapport est basé sur une étude de cas originale, incluant des entretiens extensifs avec les forces armées en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC). En explorant de manière critique et remettant en question de manière convaincante les stéréotypes existants et récits sur les violences sexuelles dans des lieux de conflit, les auteurs mettent en lumière le besoin d’une compréhension nuancée des violences basées sur le genre, ainsi que ses victimes invisibles. Leur analyse va au-delà des explications réductrices qui distinguent les violences sexuelles d’autres formes de violences qui affectent les sociétés déchirées par la guerre et hantent les contextes d’après-guerre. Ainsi nous apportent-elles des enseignements très importants sur les circonstances dans lequelles les violences sexuelles se produisent.

  • 3.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Utas, MatsNordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Beyond ”Gender and Stir”: Reflections on gender and SSR in the aftermath of African conflicts2012Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a policy field largely characterised by handbooks and manuals, gender and Security Sector Reform (SSR) has been insufficiently studied and analysed. Analytical discussion of what gendering SSRmeans is quite rare, as is the study of the already gendered nature of the security institutions that are the subject of intervention. This policy dialogue unpacks aspects of the discourses and practices regarding gender and SSR. It highlights limitations and problems both in the conceptualisation of gender and its incorporation into practical SSR work. The publication also demonstrates how researchers and policymakers often have divergent views of what gendering SSR means. Finally, it calls for closer and more constructive dialogue between researchers and practitioners, a dialogue which acknowledges the conditions and constraints in these two spheres of work.

  • 4. Follér, Maj-Lis
    et al.
    Haug, Christoph
    Knutsson, Beniamin
    Thörn, Håkan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?: Donor-civil society partnerships and the case of hiv/aids work2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil society organisations are today considered crucial indevelopment partnerships. This Policy Dialogue argues that current aid programs tend to turn such CSOs into businesses that are required to meet donor demands for reportable results, rather than to serve the needs of intended beneficiaries. Based on case studies drawn from HIV and AIDS work in Mozambique, Rwanda and South Africa, the report explores the methods donors use to govern development partnerships and their effect on the distribution of responsibility among partners. It further examines the responses by recipient organisations to these requirements, ranging from acquiescence to resistance. These case studies, drawn from the field of HIV/AIDS, are also invaluable in shedding light on wider issue of the governance of international development cooperation with civil society.

  • 5.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gelot, Ludwigde Coning, Cedric
    Supporting African peace operations2012Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Africa Institute, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs hosted a seminar in Uppsala, Sweden, on 15 and 16 December 2011, that brought together AU, EU and UN officials closely involved in peace operations in Africa. The seminar’s purpose was to allow participants to compare their experiences of the different support models that have been used to date in Sudan and Somalia. International support for African peace operations provides opportunities but also poses challenges. This report examines four of these challenges in some detail: the AU Commission’s limited capacity to plan and manage peace operations; insufficient political engagement by African member states with AU peace operations; the short-termism and self-interest of some of the AU’s partners; and the need for UN Security Council permanent members to value and ensure a shared AU-UN strategic vision. The report also includes policy recommendations for resolving these challenges.

  • 6.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Bryceson, Deborah
    Birgegård, Lars-Erik
    Matondi, Prosper
    Beyene, Atakilte
    African Agriculture and The World Bank: Development or Impoverishment?2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    African smallholder family farming, the backbone of the continental economy throughout the colonial and early post-colonial period, has been destabilized and eroded over the past thirty years. Despite the World Bank’s poverty alleviation concerns, agrarian livelihoods continue to unravel under the impact of economic liberalization and global value chains. Can African smallholders bounce back and compete? The World Development Report 2008 argues they can and must. How realistic is this given the history of World Bank conditionality in Africa? This essay explores the productivity and welfare concerns of Africa’s smallholder farming population in the shadow of the World Bank.

  • 7.
    Nlandu Mayamba Mbuya, Thierry
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Building a Police Force "for the good" in DR Congo: Questions that still haunt reformers and reform beneficiaries2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The police in DRC are indeed a permanent domestic risk. The lack of policy, service or management regime for the acquisition of equipment explains the deficient, dilapidated, obsolete and very often inappropriate equipment. Moreover, police units have very weak operational capacity and police officers lack self-confidence and pride in their profession. These shabbily dressed men and women in faded uniforms daily develop an indifferent attitude towards their profession and work in general. Inefficient and ineffective, the Congolese policeforce is wholly demoralised and unprofessional. This has negatively affected the relationship between police and population. It has led to the withdrawal of people’s cooperation, a must for successful police work and for meeting people’s expectations.

  • 8.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Sexual abuse survivors and the complex of traditional healing: (G)local prospects in the aftermath of an African war2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In its efforts to assist post-conflict societies in africa the international aid community has acitvely promoted projects of psycho-social healing among people traumatized during wars and violent conflict. To a large degree these projects have been established in the tradtion of Western psychology. More recently, however, it has been realized in order to help survivors of war effectivley it is necessary to adapt projects and enhance “local” psycho-social healing. This policy report locates the structures – with local legitimacy – that are available to young people who experienced sexual abuse during the Sierra Leone civil war (1991–2002). To this end, this booklet discusses a healing complex that comprises a number of overlapping actors, including herbalists, Zoe Mammies (heads of the female secret societies), Mori-men (Muslim healers); Karamokos (Muslim teachers) and Christian pastors.

    CONTENTS

    1. Introduction

    2. Scope of the study

    2.1 Methods

    2.2 Research ethichs

    3. Limitations of the study

    4. War-related sexual abuse

    4.1 Quantitative findings

    4.2 Qualitative findings

    4.3 Turning a page? Sexual abuse in post-war reality

    5. Variations of traditional healing

    5.1 Notes on mental illness in Sierra Leone

    5.2 The healing complex6. Traditional healing of sexual abuse

    6.1 From the girls’ and young women’s perspective

    6.2 The herbalist

    6.3 The Karamoko and the Mori-man

    6.4 The Soweh mammy and female herbalist (Kuntumoi musu)

    6.5 Cleansing the bush

    6.6 The pastor

    6.7 Talking trauma – notes on counselling

    7. Findings and recommendations

    7.1 Social approaches towards the sexually abused

    7.2 Girls’ and young women’s practices related totraditional healing

    7.3 Findings on traditional healers

    7.4 Recommendations

    Appendices

  • 9.
    Utas, Mats
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Persson, Mariam
    Coulter, Chris
    Young female fighters in African wars: conflict and its consequences2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the numerous armed conflicts that are tearing the African continent apart, young women are participants and carry guns alongside their male comrades-in-arms. Challenging the stereotype of women in African wars as victims only, this issue of the Nordic Africa Institute Policy Dialogues shows how in modern African wars women have often been as active as men. Female fighters are victimized, yet they are not mere victims. Girls and young women who volunteer to fight often possess quite considerable strength and independence. Programmes for disarming, demobilizing, and reintegrating former fighters must be based on better understanding of the range of women's roles and experiences in war and post-war settings in order to act in a gender-sensitive way and to empower this group of women in the aftermath of war.

  • 10.
    Vainio, Antti
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Market-based and Rights-based Approaches to the Informal Economy: A comparative analysis of the policy implications2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Dialogue compares two very different conceptions of the informal economy that are prominent internationally: a market-based approach and a rights-based approach. It reflects upon the policy implications of adopting one perspective or the other, and argues that the terms ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘worker’ are often ideologically charged rather than a reflection of the structural positions of the ‘informals’. The paper is critical of a market-based perspective and of the related notion of informal entrepreneurs, as these may lead to policy recommendations that undermine the already fragile livelihoods of many people. The ideas presented in this paper are part of a work in progress and are intended to promote further debate about sustainable policy-making aimed at enhancing the economic and social standing of vulnerable people in the informal economy.

  • 11.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    'Legal Empowerment of the Poor' versus 'Right to the City': Implications for access to housing in urban Africa2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of urban deprivation and exclusion in the urban South has given rise to varied and shifting policies and ideas. Two sets of ideas have gained great currency in recent years in international policy and academic circles. The Legal Empowerment of the Poor approach, rooted in neoliberal thinking, focuses on the legal rights of the urban poor as the means to secure access to basic services and needs. The Right to the City perspective, on the other hand, stresses issues of citizenship and the appropriation and uses of urban space. This Policy Dialogue analyses the different ideological and normative foundations of the two perspectives and discusses how they lead to different policy formulations. It then takes a closer look at how the two perspectives find expression in contemporary discussions on and approaches to access to housing in urban Africa. To this end, it compares what each approach identifies as the source of the problem and recommends as the policy solution.

  • 12. Zack-Williams, Alfred
    et al.
    Cheru, Fantu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The quest for sustainable development and peace: the 2007 Sierra Leone elections2008Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Post-conflict African states such as Sierra Leone, face critical challenges as they embark on the complex tasks of reconciliation, peace and the rebuilding of war-torn societies. Conflict transformation ultimately depends on the democratisation of society, in ways that promote equitable inclusiveness in the political process, social justice and the promotion of citizenship rights. This collection of three essays explores the significance of Sierra Leone's 2007 elections in the light of the quest of the people for a democracy that is responsive to social demands, welfare and popular aspirations. It provides first-hand information and analysis of the struggles of the Sierra Leonean citizens to overcome the legacy of a traumatic past, by using their vote to sanction bad governance, and choose a path to a good life and sustainable democracy as the most viable guarantee for peace and development.

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