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  • 1.
    Abdi, Cawo, M.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A gendered perspective on the impact of conflict in the Horn of Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Note focuses on the gendered consequences of the militarisation of the Horn of Africa. Despite being in different ‘moments’ of conflict, the countries of this region share features of extreme social, economic and political violence, which impact negatively on their citizens. Protracted refugee and refugee-like conditions, extreme disinvestment in social programmes, increasing militarisation and political repression adversely affect women, thereby further entrenching gender disparities. Concerted national and international efforts and resources should support local democratic initiatives to find political solutions to these protracted conflicts and advance the struggle against sexual and gender-based violence and discrimination.

  • 2.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Growing mistrust – a threat to democracy in Ghana: opportunities and challenges in the upcoming general elections2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison with other African countries, faith in democracy is strong in Ghana. But the legal tussles that followed the last general election in 2012, and the disqualification of some candidates on trifling grounds in the lead-up to this year’s presidential elections, has spurred public mistrust. This policy note issues a warning about hate speech, violent demonstrations and macho-men militias.

  • 3.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Sweden's bid for a UN Security Council seat and what Africa stands to gain2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government should involve the African diaspora in Sweden to secure the support of African countries in the UN. It also needs to clarify in what ways Sweden's feminist foreign policy is compatible with African values of respect and dignity for womanhood. These are a couple of recommendations provided in this policy note on how Sweden should act to improve relations with African countries and succeed in its ambitions to achieve the sustainable development goals of Agenda 2030.

  • 4.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Angola's Sustainable Growth and Regional Role beyond the Elections2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Angola’s economic boom averaging about 17 per cent per annum, is centred on its extractive oil industry and has made Angola one of the fastest growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa and the world. With national peace providing stability and a strong military to negotiate regional threats, Angola is expected to consolidate its position as a regional power commensurate with its economic and military might. However, Angola faces challenges in the political, social, economic, governance, security and foreign policy arenas. It will also have to contend with election-related violence. While a bright medium-term future is in prospect for Angola, the country will have to negotiate and overcome these challenges to sustain its long-term peaceful development.

  • 5.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Electoral Violence in Africa2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategies to prevent and manage electoral violence.

  • 6.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Towards More Informed Responses to Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West African Settings2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence is incontrovertible that Liberia (with its two civil wars, 1989-97 and 2000-03) and Sierra Leone (with its 1991-2001 war) have emerged from two of the most inhuman, ferocious and cruel conflicts in the post-Cold war era. The scale of destruction, rape, mayhem, arson and torture perpetrated during these wars was among the greatest in Africa’s postcolonial history. Women, especially adolescents and young adults, were exposed to extreme sexual brutality at a time when a growing heterosexually-driven HIV pandemic was occurring in the West African sub-region. Both countries also experienced an economic and social collapse that resulted in human development indicators on employment, income, health, education, women’s status and child well-being that are among the lowest in the world. Protracted armed conflicts, as witnessed in Liberia and Sierra Leone and beyond, expose women and girls to unprecedented levels and forms of sexual violence. Moreover, the expectation that the transition from war to peace will lead to significantly reduced sexual violence against women (SVAW) is often disappointed. Instead, post-conflict transitions tend to produce a change in the predominant forms of sexual violence and the profile of its perpetrators. The extended and interlinked conflicts in these neighbouring countries relate at a fundamental level to the persistent denial of citizenship rights to particular population sub-groups over several decades. Within such landscapes of severe social, economic and political marginalization and deprivation, women and girls were bound to suffer more than men and boys during and after the wars as a result of long-established and deeply entrenched patriarchal structures and ideologies in both countries. The persistence of SVAW during post-conflict transitions tends to increase the risk of HIV infection among younger women relative to the phase of armed conflict. A key causal factor is men’s highly exploitative, transactional and cross-generational multiple sexual activities. Thus far, the dominant responses to this complex of issues in post-conflict West Africa have lacked a nuanced understanding of the underlying drivers of sexual violence and its intersections with women’s higher risk of HIV infection.The policy responses to the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building in West Africa have generally focused more on traditional security, physical infrastructurere building and economic revitalization issues than on such highly gendered human security concerns as sexual violence and violations of reproductive rights. Left unaddressed, these persisting or worsening human security challenges, affecting at least half their populations, make sustainable peace and development in post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone nearly impossible.

  • 7.
    Alden, Chris
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sidiropoulos, Elizabeth
    Africa-China-EU Cooperation in Africa: Prospects and Pitfalls2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africa-China-EU cooperation is still in its formative stages. It has the express focus of contributing to peace, stability and sustainable development in Africa. The creation of a virtuous circle of growth and development, one which employs the tools of globalisation to Africa’s best advantage, has to be a fundamental aim of any trilateral cooperation. At the same time, the opening up of trilateral dialogue should allow all three partners to give consideration to areas in which conflicting views or interests arise. Indeed, the spectre of a two-way China-EU “donor cartel” emerging from the process continues to negatively influence perceptions of the initiative in some African circles. Thus, the challenge facing Africa, China and the EU is to envisage a mechanism or modality for managing trilateral cooperation in the era of globalisation that addresses the concerns of all participants while maintaining an overarching commitment to African development. This policy note examines the origins of the trilateral dialogue, makes proposals for building on this dialogue, and ends with possible models for this trilateral cooperation.

  • 8.
    Angerbrandt, Henrik
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A fair electoral process can ease divisions in Nigeria: decentralised politics brought on a new set of challenges in the north2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Angerbrandt, Henrik
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region beyond Boko Haram2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of a recent UN Security Council resolution on the Lake Chad region, this policy note identifies major challenges that need to be addressed to create conditions for actors in the region to build a lasting peace. The issues include demobilising local vigilantes and resolving land-related conflicts.

  • 10.
    Arkhangelskaya, Alexandra A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    India, Brazil and South Africa Dialogue Forum: A Bridge between Three Continents: Challenges, achievements and policy options2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA) Dialogue Forum is a trilateral development initiative to promote South-South cooperation and exchange. The forum was launched with the adoptionof the Brasília Declaration in June 2003. Each of the three countries has ambitions to play a leading role in regional and global affairs. The role of the Group of Twenty (G20) in respondingto the global financial crisis reflects growing acceptance of IBSA’s emerging position by the world’s established powers. An analysis of IBSA as a rising global power bloc is therefore critical to understanding the new dimensions of South-South relations, particularly in a post-Cold War world. This policy note addresses IBSA’s framework, principles, achievements and challenges in Africa’s development perspective.

  • 11.
    Arvidsson, Tommy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Food security now or wait for research to assess risks?: genetically modified crops and smallholder farmers in Africa2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are by proponents considered as a possible solution to the food and nutrition problems in developing countries. However, there are also concerns of how side effects may affect environment and human health. These will probably still remain unknown for decades. But can Africa wait 30 years for research to give a definite answer about the risks connected with biotechnology?

  • 12.
    Benton, Adia
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ebola exhausts health systems: more resources are needed2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemics and institutional responses to them reveal the strengths and weaknesses of health systems. They also often engender and reflect existing political, economic and social tensions whenever and wherever they occur. This policy note outlines some of acute and chronic political and social conditions that have facilitated transmission and continue to pose a challenge for community and government responses to Ebola. It also highlights the significance of building health systems to avert and address future health crises.

  • 13.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Democracy or one-party system: political development in the Sudan after the 2015 election2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In June, Al-Bashir, Sudan's leader since 1989, was sworn in for another five years as president. Few if any experts had expected any other outcome of the 2015 election. But will the 71 year old ex-military leader, who is accused by the ICC of war crimes in Darfur, continue his initiatives for national dialogue and overcome the country's major economic and security hurdles?

  • 14.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Eritrea’s refugee crisis and the role of the international community2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Five thousand refugees leave Eritrea each month according to UNHCR, making it one of the world’s fastest-emptying countries. In this policy note, Redie Bereketeab, researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, analyses the role and responsibility of the international community in the Eritrean migration crisis.

  • 15.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Post-Secession State-Building and Reconstruction: Somaliland, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    State-building refers to the processes undertaken by new states, while reconstitution refers to the rearrangement of an existing state following either secession or collapse. Somaliland and South Sudan are involved in process of state-building, while Sudan and Somalia are engaged in state reconstitution. Three distinctive models of state-building are taking place in the four countries. This Policy Note analyses the interlinked yet distinct process of state building.

  • 16.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-determination and secession: A 21st Century Challenge to the Post-colonial State in Africa2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two approaches have characterised analysis of the postcolonial state in Africa. One emphasises the territorial integrity of the postcolonial state, with inherited colonial borders being viewed as sacrosanct and state-centred rights being given primacy. The other questions the sacrosanctity of colonial borders and seeks to promote the primacy of people-centred rights. The increasing frequency in recent years of quests for self-determination and secession in Africa poses an existential challenge to the postcolonial state on that continent. This Policy Note addresses this emerging trend.

  • 17.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Why South Sudan conflict is proving intractable: Ugandan forces and lack of international commitment two reasons2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2013 war broke out in South Sudan as a result of the power struggle between President Salva Kiir and the ex-vice president Riek Machar. Violence from both sides led to massacres and millions of displaced persons. Agreements to end hostilities have so far been violated. A sustainable peace calls for Ugandan forces to leave South Sudan. The political parties have to reform and be a part of national reconciliation instead of fighting one another.

  • 18.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Costly not to consider local resistance: Advice on agricultural investments in Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Failures in considering and properly addressing local resistance have become costly for both the local people and the investors. Land acquisition policies need to be accompanied by mechanisms that address local grievances and conflicts. These aspects are crucial not only to alleviate unjust practices, but also to enhance confidence of investors and performance of the investments.

  • 19.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Small farms under stress play a huge role for Africa: smallholder agriculture and emerging global challenges2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread poverty as well as food and income insecurity plague Africa’s dominant smallholder agriculture. Paradoxically, the very people who mainly depend on agriculture are not able to secure their own food and nutrition needs. Today, three-quarters of Africa’s malnourished children and the majority of people living in absolute poverty are found among the smallholder farmers who are key to the development of the continent.

  • 20.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Ethiopia in the United Nations Security Council 2017-20182017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Enforce the ‘African solutions to African problems’ principle in the UN and promote cooperation with the African Union and its regional communities. That is what Ethiopia should work for during its two-year term in the Security Council. To perform on this global stage, the Ethiopian government has to address its domestic democracy and governance issues.

  • 21.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Migration, mobility and transnational relations.
    Rethinking the Mediterranean crisis: advice for policy makers facing a humanitarian catastrophe2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Create legal entry points into the EU and start recruiting labour through EU embassies in Africa. But don’t forget to take into account the individual aspirations and capabilities of the migrants. Here are some recommendations for policy makers seeking a solution to the Mediterranean crisis.

    • The significant proportion of migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa must be taken into account when seeking solution to the Mediterranean crisis
    • Interventions should prioritise long-term solutions that take the aspirations and capabilities of migrants and refugees into account
    • Creation of legal entry points into the EU should be a central priority, in order to remove the incentive for future migrants to risk their lives at sea
    • Active recruitment of labour through EU embassies in Africa would further reduce the incentive to pursue illegal means of entering Europe.
  • 22.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Burkina Faso's one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the upcoming elections in Burkina Faso, there’s a need for a clear democratic break with the three decades of de facto one-party rule. At the same time, a moderate approach is needed in dealing with the controversial legacy of the former regime, to avoid further polarisation in an already fraught political situation. These are the recommendations of Jesper Bjarnesen and Cristiano Lanzano, senior researchers at the Nordic Africa Institute, in a policy note on Burkina Faso’s one-week coup and its implications for free and fair elections.

  • 23.
    Cheru, Fantu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Creating a Conducive International Environment for Africa’s Development: China’s role in Global Governance Reform!2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is at a critical juncture: there is the opportunity to come together to pursue a common agenda, or it can break into opposing groups based on differences in income, interests, religion or race. Globalisation exacerbates this tension between opportunity and threats. The most keenly felt tension is the sense that globalisation creates greater inequality in an already unequal world. If the world is unequal, then it must be undemocratic as well. As a result, globalisation and democracy come togetheras simultaneous challenges. As far as Africa is concerned, the challenge is how to gain voice in global governance.

  • 24. Coulter, Chris
    et al.
    Persson, Mariam
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Young women in African wars2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Young women are combatants in contemporary African wars. They also participate in a whole array of different roles. However, by and large, they remain invisible to us. In fact, our “northern” hackneyed views on women’s innate non-participation in war prevent us from seeing specific needs for young women during and in the aftermath of wars. For instance, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes often fail to address appropriate needs for young women and in a variety of ways “prevent” them from partaking. Issues of stigma, safe demobilisation, individual concerns for post-war marriage, health and education, need to be addresed in both a more gendered way, but also with an apposite understanding of young women’s agency in both peace and war. In this Policy note it is argued that to improve policy and programming efforts it is necessary to broaden the understanding of young women’s roles and participation in armed conflict in Africa historically and today.

  • 25.
    Crentsil, Perpetual
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Ebola: accurate information prevents rumours and panic: educating leaders is one measure - along with distributing soap2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is unprecedented in its scope. This Policy Note stresses the importance of knowledge of social factors in preventing the spread of the fatal disease. There are similarities with the previous HIV/AIDS epidemic. Traditional healers and heads of households are key players for health experts to target in protecting people against infection. Normal funeral services are one source of infection. A very basic preventive measure is providing families with soap.

  • 26.
    Engdahl, Mattias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Migrant remittances. An overview of global and Swedish flows2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant remittances – money and gifts sent to relatives back home – have attracted increasing international attention. The flow of remittances has become a major source of revenue for developing countries, exceeding the volume of aid. Three recent studies at Uppsala University bring this issue to light in the context of Sweden’s Policy for Global Development.

    Very little has so far been known about the flow of remittances from Sweden; official data indicate an amount exceeding 4 billion kronor in 2006. The real flows are most likely higher; Swedish and international studies estimate that real remittances are 30-50 per cent above the officially recorded amounts. Statistics Sweden (SCB) is recommended to enhance its records of remittances in terms of desirable scope and reliability, for instance regarding specification of the amounts remitted to different countries.

    Remittance flows from Sweden are linked to the remitters’ incomes and, hence, vary with the business cycle. Experience suggests that the ongoing world economic crisis will have a negative impact on remittance flows also from Sweden.

    It is suggested that enhanced knowledge in Sweden about available remittance services and their costs and measures to promote a better functioning remittance market could increase the net value of these money.

  • 27.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    Comprendre et aborder les violences sexuelles liées aux conflits: Enseignements tirés de la République Démocratique du Congo2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Le paysage de guerre de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) a acquis une exécrable réputation dans le monde entier à cause des rapports sur l’échelle massive des violences sexuelles. Bien qu’un nombre énorme d’autres formes de violences et d’abus aient également été commises à grande échelle, ce sont les violences sexuelles qui ont reçu la plupart de l’attention mondiale, en particulier parmi les observateurs «de l’extérieur». D’innombrables rapports, articles de journaux, coupures de presse, appels et documentaires ont été consacrés à cette question. Un grand nombre de journalistes, d’activistes et de représentants de diverses organisations et de gouvernements internationaux ont effectué des pèlerinages en RDC pour rencontrer et écouter les survivants de vive voix.

  • 28.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Stern, Maria
    Understanding and addressing conflict-related sexual violence: Lessons learned from the Democratic Republic of Congo2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC) warscape has become infamous globally from the reports on the massive scale of sexual violence. While vast amounts of other forms of violence and abuse have also been committed, it is sexual violence that has attracted the lion’s share of attention, especially among “outside” observers. Countless reports, newspaper articles, news-clips, appeals and documentaries have been devoted to the issue. Numerous journalists, activists and representatives of diverse international organisations and governments have made pilgrimages to the DRC to meet and listen to survivors first-hand.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. FOI Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut .
    Who put the 'Post' in the Post-Arab Spring?: Towards a Fresh Narrative for North Africa2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When will we see a regional UN headquarter for migration in Rabat, or a centre of excellence for ocean studies in Tripoli? In this policy note, NAI researcher Mikael Eriksson recommends outside-the-box thinking, in an effort to gain a fresh perspective on a region that may have lost its spring-time energy, but not the idea itself – or the people behind it.

  • 30.
    Eriksson Skoog, Gun
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reformed cocoa market benefits Liberian farmers: but watch out for new forms of market power and elite capture2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The business environment for smallholder cocoa farmers in Liberia has improved. Game-changing efforts by the government have increased competition among cocoa buyers and led to higher producer prices. Farmers are also encouraged by new investors to improve the quality of cocoa, for which they earn more. In addition, famers organisations have strengthened their bargaining power. However, policy-makers must be alert to a possible backlash if competion is not ensured, and from elite capture of farmers’ organisations.

  • 31.
    Gaasholt, Ole Martin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Who needs to reconcile with whom?: the conflict’s complexity in northern Mali calls for tailored solutions2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While negotiations are taking place in Algiers, some observers insist on the need for reconciliation between Northern Mali and the rest of the country and particularly between Tuareg and other Malians. But the Tuareg are a minority in Northern Mali and most of them did not support the rebels. So who needs to be reconciled with whom? And what economic solutions will counteract conflict? This Policy Note argues that not only exclusion underlies the conflict, but also a lack of economic opportunities.

  • 32.
    Goodison, Paul
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Impact de la réforme de la Politique agricole commune (PAC) sur le commerce des produits agricoles et alimentaires entre l’Afrique et l’UE2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Le présent document examine certains aspects fondamentauxdu processus d’ajustement du secteur agricole et alimentaire européen, dans le cadre de la réforme de la Politique agricole commune (PAC). Il met en évidence le changement d’outils politiques opéré par l’UE, illustré par l’abandon du soutien aux prix agricoles au profit du soutien aux revenus de ses agriculteurs, ainsi que par la réorientation de sa politique en faveur de la qualité des produits agricoles et alimentaires et au détriment de la quantité. De même, le document passe en revue les conséquences d’un tel changement, l’UE étant de moins en moins en faveur d’un recours aux mesures de politiquecommerciale dans les politiques de développement agricole en faveur de pays tiers. Il rappelle, au passage, les implications d’une telle évolution pour les secteurs agricole et alimentaire en Afrique, avant de tirer des conclusions et de formuler quelques recommandations d’ordre général.

  • 33.
    Goodison, Paul
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Situating the EPA negotiations: Issues and unresolved debates in Africa-EU trade relations2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time it has been necessary to move beyond sterile debates for or against Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). The real issue is: what kind of EPAs will support African governments in their efforts to promote the structural transformation of their economies, so that they can move beyond the production of simple and unprocessed products to the production of a range of higher value products, for national, regional and international markets, and in the process help them tackle poverty and employment issues. This paper seeks to situate the ongoing EPA negotiations and debate around contentious issues in the context of the wider European Union (EU) trade policy and African aspirations for sustainable development and poverty reduction.

  • 34.
    Goodison, Paul
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The impact of common agricultural policy (CAP) reform on Africa-EU trade in food and agricultural products2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to look at certain fundamental features of the EU food and agricultural sector adjustment process as it manifests itself through the reform of the CAP. It highlights the shift in policy tools, from price support for agricultural products to income support for EU farmers and the shift in policy emphasis from the quantity of agricultural products to the quality of food and agriculturalproducts. It reviews the implications of this policy shift for the EU’s diminishing tolerance of the use of trade policy tools as part of agricultural development policies in third countries. It highlights in passing the implications of these developments for the African food and agriculturalsectors, before drawing out some broad conclusions and recommendations.

  • 35.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Radicalisation and terrorist recruitment among Kenya’s youth2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With little chance of getting any education or jobs, young slum dwellers in Kenya are easy prey for terrorist recruiters from al-Shabaab and ISIS. Politicians must therefore address the social development of poor neighbourhoods and specifically target the youth. Equally important in order to prevent further radicalisation, this policy note argues, is the fight against corruption.

  • 36.
    Hårsmar, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    More Tax, Better Governments2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that aid donors should focus more on supporting low-income countries to broaden their tax base and raise overall taxation. Besides increasing revenue, this has also a political objective. When citizens are taxed without excessive coercion, taxation can contribute considerably to improved governance and accountability, and to state building. Due to the effects of the financial crisis, calls for increased mobilisation of domestic resources are now being renewed. But is broadened taxation a viable strategy? Some signs of progress are visible in sub-Saharan Africa. However, governments and donors need to see taxation as part of the broader framework of social contracts and not to lose sight of the bigger picture.

  • 37.
    Hårsmar, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Why is agriculture so important to reducing poverty?2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few years, there has been both talk about and action regarding the long-term neglect of agriculture in development. An agricultural revival has occurred, with African governments committing themselves to spending at least 10 per cent of their budgets on agriculture. Donors such as the World Bank and many bilateral organizations are refocusing on the sector. This is partly due to the prevalence of rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa as well as in South Asia. Despite this, the debate on the appropriate role of agriculture in economic growth lingers on among academics and policymakers. In particular, agriculture’s contribution to broader economic growth is questioned. Should growth be driven by agriculture or by something else? Recent empirical studies and earlier theoretical work demonstrate that growth in the agricultural sector has contributed more to poverty reduction than growth in non-agricultural sectors. This paper discusses this issue and highlights some of the preconditions for the achievement of this outcome.

  • 38.
    Isaksson, Ann-Sofie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Migration, mobility and transnational relations.
    Neighbours and family first: donors should consider the effects of political favouritism in Africa2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In many African countries it is a known fact that a person belonging to the same ethnic group as the president is less likely to be treated unfairly by the government. The same is valid for people living in the president’s home region, regardless of their ethnic affiliation. Ethnic and regional favouritism are two distinct but parallel problems. This Policy Note, drawn from data involving 20 000 citizens in 15 African countries, explore the scope of favouritism and its implications for citizens and democratic attitudes.

  • 39.
    Khumalo, Nkululeko
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mulleta, Fantu
    EPAs and the post-Lisbon Implementation Status2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The negotiations for Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA) between African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the European Union (EU) were launched in 2000. The talks are carried out in terms of the Cotonou Agreement, which seeks to replace the non-reciprocal export preferences ACP countries have had with the European Community (EC) with reciprocal free trade arrangements. These negotiations have been carried out on a regional basis since January 2008 in order to align the parties’ trade regime with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. Accordingly, a number of ACP countries initialled Interim Economic Partnership Agreement texts at the end of 2007. The IEPAs are a stopgap measure meant to prevent trade disruptions while negotiations on fully fledged EPAs continue. The second stage of negotiations, which will include services, investment, competition and government procurement, is expected to lead to the conclusion of fully fledged EPAs. This policy note seeks to provide a brief overview of the implementation status of the EPAs in selected African regions. The paper also looks at the impact of the Interim Economic Partnership Agreements (IEPAs) on the countries that initialled them and provides recommendations on how to ensure that the eventual full EPA agreements promote the interests of African countries.

  • 40.
    Kuwali, Daniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The African Union and the challenges of implementing the “responsibility to protect”2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of the “responsibility to protect” (“R2P”) was endorsed by the world’s leaders sitting at the 2005 World Summit level in the UN General Assembly. The World Summit Outcome Document affirmed that every sovereign government has a responsibility to protect its citizens and those within its jurisdiction from genocide, war crimes, “ethnic cleansing” and crimes against humanity (UN 2005 paras. 138–139). The concept of R2P is cast in the three core pillars: first, an affirmation of the primary and continuing obligation of individual states to protect its population from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity, as well as incitement thereof; second, a commitment by the international community to assist states in meeting these obligations; and third, acceptance by UN member states of their responsibility to respond in a timely and decisive manner through the UN Security Council, if national authorities are manifestly failing to protect their populations from these mass atrocity crimes. R2P is a restatement of positive binding obligations of states to protect their citizens from mass atrocity crimes; and the collective responsibility to the international community to prevent mass atrocity crimes. R2P is about taking effective action at the earliest possible stage (Evans 2008). These obligations are particularly relevant to Africa in the face of crises such as those in Sudan (Darfur), parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Somalia. It is, however, rather early to pass definitive judgement on the relatively young notion of R2P without addressing some of the challenges confronting its implementation in Africa.

  • 41.
    Lindell, Ilda
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Hedman, Maria
    Nathan-Verboomen, Kyle
    The World Cup 2010 and the urban poor: ‘World class cities’ for all?2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa was expecting to benefit by hosting the World Cup 2010. For urban disadvantaged groups, however, the reality proved very different. Street vendors and marketers were among the excluded. Evictions caused many of them to lose their livelihoods, and strict regulations made it difficult for them to derive economic benefit from the mega-event. This Policy Note explores their predicament, as well as the responses of grassroots organizations. Finally, lessons are drawn for cities aspiring to host similar events in the future.

  • 42.
    Makachia, Peter
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Participative Design for Urban Housing2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Menkhaus, Ken
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    If Mayors Ruled Somalia: Beyond the State-building Impasse2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Mohamed Nour, Samia Satti
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Khartoum.
    Africa bridging the digital divides2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africa’s leapfrogging information and communication technology development is fueled by mobile broadband. The number of mobile-broadband subscriptions on the continent has increased more than 15 times over the past six years, a growth rate that is three times the global average. However, there are also worrying trends, such as a growing digital divide between men and women, and between urban and rural areas.

  • 45.
    Mohamoud, Awil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Participation of the Diaspora in the Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Joint Africa-EU Strategic Partnership and Action Plan was adopted in Lisbon in 2007. This new strategy, which is often referred to as a ‘people-centred partnership’, was launched with the purpose of scaling-up political dialogue between the African Union (AU) and the EU in the interests of building a solid and sustainable continent-to-continent partnership. It aims to reinvigorate and elevate cooperation between Africa and Europe in the fight against poverty, injustice, human rights violations, lawlessness, insecurity and political and social instability. The priorities of the partnership programme are organised around eight themes: peace and security; democratic governance and human rights; trade, regional integration and infrastructure; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); energy; climate change; migration, mobility and employment; and science, information society and space. The programme stipulates that Africa and the EU will pursue and implement policies and programmes that facilitate the active involvement of diaspora communities in the implementation of the strategy.

  • 46. Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi
    et al.
    Adama-Ajonye, Onyanta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Improved recycling performance: Policy options for Nigerian cities2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nigeria there is a glaring absence of formal recycling of municipal waste. As a result, the informal sector has taken up the role of “critical but unacknowledged gap filler” in the waste recycling system, achieving low but significant recy­cling rates. This policy note deals with what can be done to improve recycling performance in Nigerian cities.

  • 47.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Thirsty, hungry and no power?: African resources in a global world2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water, food and energy are fundamental to African development. However, several crucial issues need to be addressed. Are African resources used to meet African needs or are they being exploited to satisfy the needs of other actors facing food and energy insecurity?

  • 48.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water and climate change in Africa – from causes to consequences2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to extend the climate change discourse. This should not be by paying less attention to the causes, which are now well known, but by stressing more the consequences, which have been largely neglected in political discourses, especially changes in water systems. This is also an issue of how global society should react to the uncertainties climate change represent for Africa and its development. Globally, the current political agenda focuses mainly on mitigation of carbon emissions, a consideration that also structures international aid policies, and less on adaptation and how to develop countries and societies when hydrology and environment changes. Thus, a water perspective may add important insights and future policy guidelines of particular relevance to Africa’s development.

  • 49.
    Onyanta, Adama
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Privatising services as if people matter: Solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an overwhelming focus on the state and the private sector in the language and practice of privatisation, even though it calls for a tripartite arrangement that includes the people. A major consequence is the failure to comprehend and assess fully the important role of the people. While the people have a major part in supporting privatisation through payment of user charges, they are not often seen as key partners by city governments in Africa. Public participation has important implications for finance and cost recovery. Thus a people-centred approach to privatisation in which the users of services are consulted and involved in decision-making processes is crucial to the emergence of sustainable solid waste management systems in African cities. This study provides useful insights into the complexity of public participation in the context of privatisation of solid waste services and offers policy guidelines relevant to the major stakeholders.

  • 50.
    Rios-Herran, Roberto
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Effects of Rules of Origin on the European Union - Africa Economic Partnership Agreements: summary of issues2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rules of Origin (ROO) determine the economic nationality of an imported product. Where margins of trade preferences are higher, ROO tend to be very restrictive and even sometimes dilutes the benefits of such preferences. As the ACP-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations enter a critical phase, the devil of the agreement will be in the detail of the impending EPAs ROO. According to the original mandate, EPA is supposed to be concluded by December 2007 and should be development friendly. Yet, the recent EC ROO offer to the ACP countries (Commission Staff Working Document Concerning the Definition of “Originating Products and Methods of Administrative Cooperation”) are seen by commentators as completely undermining the development dimension of EPA. Bearing in mind the current EPA negotiations, Roberto Rios explains how ROO impact the pattern of trade between countries and how they can be development friendly.

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