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  • 1.
    Adebanwi, Wale
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Globally Oriented Citizenship and International Voluntary Service2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores Nigeria’s human development aid to Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries under its international volunteer programme called the Technical Aid Corps (TAC). It critically examines the relationship between participation in international civic service and civic nationalism. Using a combination of empirical and analytical methods, the author is able to provide insights into the impact of two decades of Nigeria’s aid diplomacy within the context of South-South solidarity and into the inculcation of values linked to globally oriented citizenship in TAC volunteers. The findings of this study are of value to those interested in emerging African development cooperation in the global South and the expanding notions of citizenship beyond borders. Scholars, development actors and policymakers will find this study refreshingly different and highly informative.

  • 2.
    Adong, Florence Odora
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Recovery and Development Politics: Options for Sustainable Peacebuilding in Northern Uganda2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Agbu, Osita A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ethnicity and Democratisation in Africa: Challenges for Politics and Development2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the challenges that ethnicity poses for democratisation and development in Africa. It provides an overview of the literature on ethnicity and democratisation and an analysis of the trends on the continent since the end of the Cold War. In this regard, it critically examines perspectives on the impact of ethnicity on democracy and analyses the ethnicity-citizenship nexus in the context of the national democratic question in Africa. This provides the basis for the analysis of emerging challenges facing Africa and the way forward. The paper provides additional insights into the ongoing debates about democracy and the nation-state question in Africa and is of interest to scholars, practitioners and the general reader.

  • 4.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West Africa: Issues and responses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion paper examines the linkages between gender and gender inequality in the context of conflict, sexual violence and HIV transmission, and their impact on postconflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone and Liberia. It makes two critical contributions to a gendered perspective on post-conflict transitions in West Africa. First, it notes that contrary to conventional wisdom, post-war transitions to relative peace have made little difference to women’s exposure to chronic sexual violence, with potential implications for increased HIV transmission. Second, the study interrogates those assumptions linking war-related sexual violence to high HIV prevalence in post-conflict contexts, by showing that despite over a decade of armed conflict, Liberia and Sierra Leone had adult HIV prevalence rates that were among the lowest in West Africa. This paper goes beyond generally held notions of the sexual and gender dimensions of civil wars in Africa and points to a gap in, and key challenge for studies and policies on post-conflict reconstruction in Africa.

  • 5.
    Arowosegbe, Jeremiah O.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reflections on the Challenge of Reconstructing Post-Conflict States in West Africa: Insights From Claude Ake’s Political Writings2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is based on a theoretical exploration of state reconstruction and the prospects for peacebuilding in post-conflict West African countries based on critical reflections on the political thought of Claude Ake, one of Nigeria’s foremost political thinkers. Its point of departure is the refutation of the view that the state project in Africa is ‘hopeless’ or at a dead-end. It therefore revisits the debate on the viability of the state project in the continent, particularly as it relates to those West African states emerging from or affected by violent conflict. While acknowledging the shortcomings of the state-formation project in some post conflict West African countries, the author argues that the state remains a key institutional and social actor that needs to be understood more in terms of its historical moorings, political economy and marginal position in the international order. Drawing on Ake’s postulations about the limited autonomy of the state in Africa and its links to political violence and conflict, the author critiques both the hegemonic discourses on the nature of the state in Africa and those relating to post-conflict peacebuilding in the continent. The analysis of the latter focuses on the epistemological groundings of mainstream peacebuilding discourses, and posits that there is no guarantee that such imported models ensure sustainable peace in West Africa. Thus, the paper makes a compelling case for reinventing the state in West Africa based on autochthonous democratic transformation in favour of ordinary people. In this regard, it argues for an endogenous transformation of the state in Africa in ways that can strongly root it in the people as a fundamental step towards sustainable and locally owned participatory peacebuilding. It thereby opens up a new perspective on state reconstruction as a step towards ending violent conflict in the sub-region.

  • 6.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Self-Determination and Secessionism in Somaliland and South Sudan: Challenges to Postcolonial State-building2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the notion of self-determination and secession by adopting acomparative perspective on two case studies, namely Somaliland and South Sudan. Somaliland declared its independence in 1991 following the collapse of the Somali state. Since then, Somaliland has been making relentless efforts to secure recognition from the international community. South Sudan successfully negotiated the right to exerciseself-determination, a right that was formalised in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed between the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). The people of South Sudan held a referendum and voted overwhelmingly for secession, with formal independence being achieved on 9 July 2011. International law may better qualify Somaliland for statehood than South Sudan for three reasons: (i) it was created by colonialism, (ii) it has already been recognised, albeit only for a few days, as an independent state in 1960, and (iii) it has proven to be stable, functional and relatively democratic. Yet Somaliland has failed to achieve international recognition. This paper interrogates this discrepancy. It concludes that the existence of a partner ready to accept the right of self-determination, and geostrategic concerns about security as well a seconomic and political interests, determine international recognition.

  • 7.
    Bond, Patrick
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    South Africa and global apartheid: continental and international policies and politics2004Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers a variety of political and economic aspects of Africa's and South Africa's relationships to the world. The author considers the context of global apartheid, in terms of international stagnation, uneven development and African marginalisation, and evaluates the South African setting as a telling site of worsening inequality. Where does then the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) stand on the largest economic and political problems? South Africa's other proposed global reforms are also discussed. Finally, the author records an emerging ideology based not on commodification via globalisation but on decommodification and deglobalisation, and the strategies, tactics and alliances required for African and international progress.

    CONTENT

    The context of global apartheid

    Class apartheid in South Africa

    NEPAD economics and global apartheid

    Whose NEPAD?

    South Africa’s frustrated international reforms

    Conclusion: African anti-capitalism?

    Figures and Table

  • 8.
    Brock-Utne, Birgit
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Language, democracy and education in Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication comprises two papers, both written during January and February 2002 when the author was a guest researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI).

    In the first paper, "The Language Question in Africa seen in the Context of Globalisation, Social Justice and Democracy", the language question is looked at through the eyes of a social and political scientist. The choice of an official language in Africa is viewed as a question of social class, of power. What social classes profit from the continued use of European languages in Africa? Who benefits? Who loses? The focus here is not only on language use in education but also on language use in the courts and in the political domain, especially in South Africa. Examples are mostly drawn from South Africa and Tanzania, where the author is conducting two research projects in the area of language and education.

    The second paper, "The Battle over the Language of Instruction in Tanzania", describes two further research projects in which the author is currently involved. In this paper, the author focuses on the question of the language of instruction through the eyes of an educationist. The paper builds on recent research conducted in Tanzania by the author and her Tanzanian Master's degree students.

  • 9. Brüntrup, Michael
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Taylor, Ian
    Africa, regional cooperation and the world market: socio-economic strategies in times of global trade regimes2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the regime of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), local and regional policies are increasingly determined by global factors. One example is the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). It stresses an earlier notion of African Renaissance, which includes the emphasis on collective self-reliance, but at the same time seeks closer cooperation with the global trade system and its international agencies. Bi- and multilateral trade relations between external actors and individual African states or regional blocs are becoming ever more decisive. This is also true of the more recently negotiated Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the post-Lomé era of EU-African relations. In light of such trends the question of coherence between trade as aid and other areas of development strategy and cooperation remains to be answered. The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon related matters of socio-economically viable strategies seeking to reconcile the global and the regional in an African perspective. They were originally presented to the Panel 'Regional Cooperation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Between Collective Self-Reliance and Global Trade Regimes'” organised by the Nordic Africa Institute within the 11th General Conference of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) in September 2005 in Bonn.

  • 10.
    Buur, Lars
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kyed, Helene Maria
    State recognition of traditional authority in Mozambique: the nexus of community representation and state assistance2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How should the Mozambican traditional leaders' double role as community representatives and state assistants be captured? This discussion paper addresses some fundamental questions pertaining to the 2002 official recognition of traditional leaders as community authorities. After a brief history of the changing role of, and faith in, traditional authorities as a basis for understanding the importance of their recent official recognition, the paper outlines the key objectives of the Decree 15/2000 that officially recognises community authorities. Some of the key concepts underpinning the Decree are then critically assessed. It is argued that the double role that community authorities are expected to fulfil as both community-representatives and state-assistants is not equally balanced in the Decree: the scale tips heavily towards the state-assistance aspect. The reasons for this are explored in the context of a set of reified notions underpinning the Decree, such as its understanding of 'traditional rules' and the concept of 'community'. The paper concludes by pointing out some unintended con-sequences of these reified notions for kin-based forms of community authority and especially for the ideal of community participation.

  • 11.
    Campbell, Bonnie K.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Akabzaa, Thomas M.
    Butler, Paula
    Regulating mining in Africa: for whose benefit?2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main hypotheses underlying much of the discussion about extractive industries, and a central recommendation in the Report of the World Bank Group's Extractive Industries Review, is that the quality of a country's governance is a key determinant of the development outcomes of extractive industry activities. While the quality of national governance is undoubtedly a key ingredient, this comparative study of mining code reform in Africa seeks to demonstrate that no amount of local governance is sufficient if it is not accompanied by legal and fiscal frameworks designed to meet development objectives, and implemented in the context of good international policies and rules. Based on five case studies (Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Madagascar, and Tanzania), the volume suggests that the reform measures introduced largely on the recommendation of multilateral financial institutions over the last twenty years have entailed a redefinition of the role of the state so profound that it is without historical precedent. The comparative study of three generations of African mining codes concludes that past reforms have the potential to drive down standards in areas of critical importance to social and economic development, as well as to protecting the environment in the countries concerned.The question that arises from this study is whether a country which deregulates and liberalises in order to be fully competitive in the context of evolving norms and incentives, and which respects its obligations under WTO rules, can, indeed, ensure the enforcement of environmental norms, pursue development objectives that build backward and forward linkages to resource extraction (such as value added processing of minerals), and introduce "trade balancing," involving, if necessary, export/import restrictions to increase local content and stimulate local productive activities. At best, the answer to this question appears to be uncertain, leading to the further question: Regulating mining - for whose benefit?

  • 12.
    Chitando, Anna
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Imagining a peaceful society: a vision of children's literature in a post-conflict Zimbabwe2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagining a Peaceful Society: A Vision of Children's Literature in a Post-Conflict Zimbabwe addresses the marginalisation of children's literature from the discourse on conflict and peace building in Africa. By presenting a unique perspective to how writers of children's literature, and children themselves understand, grapple with, and envision peace in a post-conflict Zimbabwean society, this Discussion Paper calls attention to the immense, but largely untapped potential of literature as a critical resource for the promotion peace in Africa.

  • 13.
    Courson, Elias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND): political marginalization, repression and petro-insurgency in the Niger Delta2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion paper addresses the linkages between the political economy of oil and violent conflict in Nigeria’s main oil and gas producing region, the Niger Delta. It is based on a case study of the insurgent Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), which has targeted and attacked the interests of international oil companies and the federal government in the oil-rich, but impoverished, Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in its professed campaign for the control of the oil wealth of the region for the benefit of local people. Through this study of MEND, fresh perspectives are brought to bear on the causes and ramifications of the oil conflict in the region, and the role of various actors at the local, national and international levels. This is important in grasping the nature of the violence in the Niger Delta and Nigeria and the enormity of the task of resolving the complex conflict in which the region is immersed. It is a challenge, which as the author argues, transcends the resort to the militarized or securitized solutions that often fail to adequately address the roots of conflict.

  • 14.
    Dahl, Gudrun
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Responsibility and partnership in Swedish aid discourse2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997 the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs elaborated a 'New Policy for Africa'. Its purpose was to co-ordinate the country's cultural assistance, trade and development aid to African countries by giving these activities a frame of common goals and an ideological rationale, emphasising 'partnership' rather than 'solidarity' or 'aid'. This paper analyses the metaphors and paradoxes of the rhetorical draping of the policy as presented in the main report and the speeches of various officials. Of particular concern is what image of moral and reciprocal relations the policy mediates.

  • 15.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Contesting views and changing paradigms: the land degradation debate in Southern Africa1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with issues of environmental change and degradation, with special reference to Southern Africa. Over the last couple of decades this debate has become quite heated. The aim of this paper is to clarify contrasting opinions, and to describe the more far-reaching shifts in scientific thinking. This is done by discussing definitions of the processes involved, the commonly used indicators and ascribed causes of degradation and the importance of time and space, especially in the context of the variability and heterogeneity which characterises the semi-arid environments. The value of interdisciplinarity is highlighted throughout the paper.

  • 16. Dansereau, Suzanne
    et al.
    Zamponi, Mario
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe - the political economy of decline2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The two articles are revised versions of papers presented at the end of May 2004 to a Zimbabwe Conference at the Nordic Africa Institute, which was co-organised by the project "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA). They highlight current socio-economic aspects of Zimbabwean society. By doing so, they raise relevant issues, yet ones that have tended to be neglected given the almost exclusive concentration on political events. While this is understandable, the articles fill the gap in our knowledge and add insights into important sectors of society. These include information on the Zimbabwean economy and the present constraints of the decline, which together help us to understand the structural legacy that any future government will have to deal with. What is more, the elections in Zimbabwe in 2005 provide an ideal moment to discuss such matters. This Discussion Paper will thereby make a substantive contribution to the analysis of the overall picture in Zimbabwe.

    CONTENT

    Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Zimbabwe's Development Impasse. Suzanne Dansereau

    From Social Justice, to Neo-liberalism, to Authoritarian Nationalism - Where is the Zimbabwean State going? Mario Zamponi

  • 17.
    Darkwa, Linda
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Challenge of Sub-Regional Security in West Africa : The case of the 2006 ECOWAS convention on small arms and light weapons2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides insights into the challenges posed by the proliferation of small arms and light weapons in West Africa, paying particular attention to the ECOWAS convention on small arms and light weapons as a collective sub-regional response to a potent threat to peace, security and development. It connects global and regional discourses on illicit arms control and provides a balanced, empirical xamination of the performance of the convention. It is a useful contribution to debates on arms-proliferation control in Africa and provides well-informed recommendations of interest to scholars, peace activists, policy practitioners and strategists working on peace and security in Africa.

  • 18. Davids, Yul Derek
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Measuring democracy and human rights in Southern Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Are there ways and means of measuring democracy and “good governance”? The contributions to this Discussion Paper present attempts to do this by means of surveys on democratic attitudes in Mozambique and Namibia respectively as well as by exploring the degree of commitment to and violation of human rights in a comparative perspective in Namibia and South Africa. They illustrate attitudes by offering empirical evidence of the preferences and views of local people, as well as by examining the track record of a human rights culture. In doing so, by going beyond a level of theoretical analysis, they offer concrete evidence of attitudes prevalent among both individuals and state agencies in societies of Southern Africa.

  • 19.
    Diagne, Souleymane Bachir
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, HenningNordiska Afrikainstitutet.Mama, AminaNyamnjoh, Francis B.
    Identity and beyond: rethinking Africanity2001Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper presents the plenary presentations by the three main speakers during the Nordic Africa Days, with an introduction offering an overview and comment on the various approaches on Gender and Power in African Contexts, Africanity as an Open Question and Rethinking Power in Africa.

  • 20.
    Ebobrah, Solomon T.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reconceptualising Democratic Local Governance in the Niger Delta2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines local governance in the Niger Delta and its relevance to the search for inclusive and sustainable conflict-resolution in the oil-rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It critiques the existing local government system and explores the possibility of reconceptualising local governance along more inclusive, accountable and participatory lines that would institutionalise democracy, development and peace at the grassroots or community level in the troubled oil-rich region. Its originality lies in its departure from top-down perspectives, and its refocusing of attention on the oft-neglected local sites of conflict and under development. The paper will appeal to scholars, policy actors and development planners with a particular interest in developments at the African grassroots level.

  • 21.
    Egerö, Bertil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    South Africa's bantustans: from dumping grounds to battlefronts1991Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the South African State there are ten different bantustan "states", complete with administrations, military and police. Once the bantustans were described as "dumping grounds". In this paper the author shows that they are much more than that. They have turned into scenes of protest and resistance against apartheid. The bantustan leaders today are needed both by Pretoria and the ANC, and also try to defend their own interests. A post-apartheid government may need the bantustan state machinery as instruments of order and reform. This paper discusses the implications of this scenario.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Hans
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Hagströmer, Björn
    Chad - towards democratisation or petro-dictatorship?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a background of the socio-political situation in Chad and the oil project, and analyses how the two will develop and interact in the future. A key feature is an analysis of the incentives in the oil project and their possible future changes.

    Chad is currently undergoing two processes of significant importance for its future development - political democratisation and transformation into an oil economy. For a country plagued with civil war for decades until 1990, and known as one of the poorest and most corrupt states in the world, this is a real challenge.

    The oil export started in late 2003, and boosted the economy in 2004. To avoid the disastrous experiences of most poor African oil states, unique oil management, control mechanisms and other conditionalities have been imposed by the World Bank - much thanks to pressure from the civil society and the international community. If implemented well, Chad may become a model for how a poor resource-rich country is able to promote socio-economic development and poverty reduction. However, this demands a close and coordinated cooperation between the Chadian government and the civil society, based on accountability and good governance, and with continuous support of the World Bank and the international community. The situation is fragile and progress is uncertain. If a broader economic development is achieved, conditions for an improved democratisation can be created in the long term.The Chadian oil project deserves continued close attention and monitoring.

  • 23.
    Gao, Xuan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    The proliferation of anti-dumping and poor governance in emerging economies: case studies of China and South Africa2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Through examination of the alleged rationale of the anti-dumping (AD) instrument, this paper argues that it has little to do with fairness or with level playing fields. AD trade protection enjoys broad political support merely because its convoluted technical complexities prevent all but a few insiders and experts from understanding the reality that underlies the rhetoric, thus enabling inefficient but well-organised domestic producers to safely utilise the instrument to protect themselves from foreign competition, at times in collusion with foreign exporters and with the national AD authorities as a broker. While the best option for AD reform, i.e., complete removal, is not practically available, this paper proposes improving AD’s procedural institutions by enhancing the quality of public governance in the formulation of AD decisions by national authorities. It further examines the AD practices and laws of China and South Africa, arguing that poor governance in emerging economies contributes to their prolific use of AD, usually disproportionate to their small share of world imports. These economies already maintain higher tariff barriers than industrial countries, so that without effective steps to ensure better governance to restrain the arbitrary and proliferating use of AD, they may lose out significantly on the gains from the trade liberalisation for which they have been striving for decades.

    CONTENTS

    Foreword

    1. Introduction

    2. Anti-dumping: Rhetoric vs. Reality

    2.1 The Rehtoric of AD: To Ensure Level Playing Fields by Offsetting Unfair Competition

    2.1.1 The Economic Rationale of Free Trade and Competition

    2.1.2 AD: A Competition-Distorting and Protectionist Instrument

    2.2 AD: Misundertanding, Ignorance and Indifference

    2.2.1 Collaboration between Special Interest Groups and Decision Makers

    3. Harnessing Anti-Dumping: A Good Governance Approach

    3.1 Good Governance in AD Decision Making

    3.2 The Prolific Use of AD by Emerging Economies and the Low Quality of Governance

    3.2.1 AD Desicion Making in China

    3.2.2 AD Decision Formulation in South Africa

    4. Conclusions

    References

     

     

  • 24.
    Gelot, Linnea
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    The African Union in Light of the Arab Revolts: An appraisal of the foreign policy and security objectives of South Africa, Ethiopia and Algeria2013Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The fall of authoritarian regimes in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya has changed political dynamics on the African continent. One immediate concern has been the implications of these developments for the African Union (AU) and its member states. Would overall political dynamics in the AU be changed? Would the most powerful member states use the altered circumstances to enhance their influence on AU policies andframeworks? What would the impact be for the AU's overall authority? In this Discussion Paper series, three edited papers are presented that tackle AU political and institutional dynamics in light of the Arab revolts. A particular puzzle addressed is the current postures of South Africa,Ethiopia and Algeria within the AU. A separate analysis of Nigeria's role was published earlier in the NAI-FOI Lecture Series on African Security.

    The work in this discussion series reflects the longstanding collaboration between the Swedish Defence Research Agency's Project Studies in African Security and the Nordic Africa Institute to build Africa-related research capacity on peace and security.

  • 25.
    Good, Kenneth
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Bushmen and diamonds: (un)civil society in Botswana2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Botswana's democracy is often considered to be a comparatively advanced and positive example of an African state in terms of political culture and the notion of "good governance". This paper challenges the assumption that the country's current political and socio-economic system is, in fact, exemplary. It highlights some of the limitations by focussing on the particular situation of the Bushmen/San as a margina-lized minority denied citizens' rights and losing out against the material interests accompanying the exploration and exploitation of diamonds, the most lucrative natural resource contributing to Botswana's "success story".The author has on previous occasions presented and published related analyses within the research network on "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA), which is currently coordinated through the Nordic Africa Institute. This publication is another result of the collaboration within this project.

  • 26. Gustafsson, Hans
    et al.
    Odén, Bertil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Tegen, Andreas
    South African minerals: an analysis of Western dependence1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the thesis about Western dependency on South african minerals. An analysis of world production, trade and consumption patterns leads to conclusions about South Africa's role as supplier, and possible alternatives in southern Africa and elsewhere. The study gives an up-to-date picture of the South African role as minerals supplier in the southern Africa region, and is at the same time an insightful review of one key element of the sanctions debate of the last decade.

  • 27.
    Hendricks, Cheryl
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender and Security in Africa: An Overview2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the debates, theoretical perspectives and current trends in gender, conflict and post-conflict reconstruction, and security sector reform (SSR) in Africa. It provides a broad overview of and critical insights into the gender-conflict-security nexus, capturing the trends in the discourses, identifying the gaps in the literature and prioritising issues and areas for future research. This Discussion Paper is essential reading for all those with a deep interest in gender, peace, development and security in Africa, particularly gender scholars, students, activists and practitioners.

  • 28.
    Hendricks, Fred T.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Fault-lines in South African democracy: continuing crises of inequality and injustice2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from apartheid to democracy in South Africa has raised questions, on the one hand, about the tension between the imperatives of justice and equality and, on the other, reconciliation. Transforming the decades' old apartheid system under conditions of a political compromise has turned out to be a formidable challenge. This paper is about the complexity of the transformation processgoing on in South Africa. Although too early for a real assessmentof the experiment, the tensions, dilemmas, contradictions, paradoxes and some of the changes have already begun to manifest themselves.

    In this Discussion Paper, the author gives the full measure of the tensions, dilemmas, and paradoxes involved in the transformation of South Africa. Apartheid was more than formal discrimination along racial lines: it was a system of exploitation and oppression in which race, class, gender and other markers of social identity all overlapped. The paper shows how political deals affect the administration of justice, and how they impinge upon the nature of democracy, often by frustrating efforts to realise social goals in the post-authoritarian phase. It also raises the fundamental question of the broader necessities for the long-term survival of democracy in South Africa, which, the paper argues, must include:

    - addressing the enormous disparities between wealth and poverty and black and white left in the wake of apartheid and

    - creating a legitimate polity that respects the rule of law.

  • 29. Hermele, Kenneth
    et al.
    Odén, Bertil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sanction dilemmas: some implications of economic sanctions against South Africa1988Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses some of the arguments in the debate on economic sanctions against South Africa and why this debate at times is confused. Taking its point of departure in recent literature on sanctions, it elaborates some of the main issues: The example of Rhodesia, sanctions and the structural weaknesses of the South African economy, repercussions on the front line states, and effects of  "disinvestment" by the transnational companies.

  • 30.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Inequality and Identity: Causes of War?2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, four theories on the causes of civil war are reviewed. One theory, associated with Paul Collier, emphasises feasibility over factors related to grievance. A second theory, espoused by Frances Stewart, focuses on the role of horizontal inequalities. The third theory, identified with William Zartman, highlights the different roles “need, creed and greed” factors play in various phases of a conflict. And the fourth theory, associated with the World Bank /World Development Report 2011, points out “commitment” problems leading to institutional failures as a crucial factor. Each of the theories leads to quite different policy conclusions. Their strengths and weaknesses, and their claimed empirical support, are discussed.In addition, some of the mechanisms underpinning the theories are highlighted on the basis of empirical data. In particular, the central role of horizontal inequalities between social groups is discussed.

  • 31. Hulterström, Karolina
    et al.
    Kamete, Amin Y.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, Henning
    Political opposition in African countries: the cases of Kenya, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is another result of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was coordinated at the Institute between 2001 and 2006. The papers are revised versions of presentations to a Session of the Research Committee “Comparative Sociology” at the XVI World Congress of Sociology held at the end of July 2006 in Durban. They explore the role of opposition parties under different aspects in several East and Southern African countries, which differ according to the socio-political determinants.

  • 32.
    Hunsu, Folashade
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Zangbeto: Navigating Between the Spaces of Oral Art, Communal Security and Conflict Mediation in Badagry, Nigeria2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper critically examines Zangbeto, a highly revered society, among the Egun people in the town of Badagry, near the city of Lagos, in south west Nigeria, that have creatively re-invented tradition to serve multiple purposes. It shows how Zangbeto has in the context of economic crisis and challenges linked to urban growth, adapted its roles to include communal policing, conflict mediation, oral art and entertainment, and the maintenance of communal order. In more ways than one, it captures the essence and multiple identities of Zangbeto within Badagry society. The involvement of Zangbeto in local policing or ‘night watching’ provides an alternative or an exception to the dominant representation of vigilantism in Nigeria as disorderly violence, sometimes for political or criminal ends. This paper also demonstrates how Zangbeto, drawing upon local Egun culture and traditional practices is able to maintain security and local order at the community level. It is argued that rather than act in an arbitrary and violent manner, Zangbeto operates through the combination of traditional symbolic actions and oral art in mediating local conflicts and preserving social harmony and local order. An interesting point relates to how Zangbeto co-exists peacefully with formal political and security institutions, and operates without causing tensions within Badagry town, where some inhabitants share different ethnic identities and religious faiths. The study also opens up a humanist perspective to how the aesthetics of Zangbeto’s cultural tropes of oral presentation, rhetoric and representation act as a powerful force for preserving cherished communal norms and values, and facilitating communication in ways that strengthen social cohesion. In this regard this paper demonstrates the wealth of possibilities that exist within Africa’s traditional cultures and oral arts for alternative grassroots based conflict mediation and security.

  • 33.
    Ismail, Olawale
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Dynamics of post-conflict reconstruction and peace building in West Africa: between change and stability2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This NAI Discussion Paper critically explores the concepts, norms and practices of reconstruction and peace building in post-conflict West Africa, drawing largely on the case of Liberia and Sierra Leone. It provides an up-to-date analysis and critique of the impact of the UN-led praxis and practice of peace building in the post-conflict states in the region. The material in this study covers the context of post-conflict reconstruction and peace building in West Africa; the evolution and analysis of the global peace building regime; the architecture of peace building in West Africa; the ‘un-making’ of peace building in Sierra Leone. It also interrogates the basic assumtions that underpin international peace building in Africa, noting that at best, it is designed to promote stability and security rather than a deeper and more sustainable popular and socially rooted peace.

  • 34.
    Kappel, Robert
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Structural stability in an African context2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural Stability is a particular focus for reconceptualising developmental strategy and development aid and has provoked unfore-seen responses in the course of a recent, mainly German debate. This debate began late in 2000 when a number of prominent German scholars in African Studies initiated a policy dialogue through a widely circulated and publicly discussed "Afrika Memorandum" centred on the notion of structural stability. Its arguments are relevant not only to a German audience but offer stimulating and thought-provoking inputs into the debate in the wider European context on bilateral and multilateral relations with Africa. This Discussion Paper presents the revised contributions to a Consulta- tive Workshop on Structural Stability in an African Context that took place at the Nordic Africa Institute in Uppsala on 31 March and 1 April 2003.

  • 35. Kössler, Reinhart
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Strand, Per
    Development from below: a Namibian case study2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper offers a revised lecture by Reinhart Kössler, which was originally presented to a Research Forum organised by The Nordic Africa Institute jointly with the Seminar for Development Studies of Uppsala University. It deals with aspects of rebuilding societies from below firstly in a general development studies discourse on a more theoretical level, considering aspects of the current debate on globalisation. This is followed by a concrete case study from southern Namibia. It illustrates local responses by the Witbooi-Nama in Gibeon to (re-)define identity within the context of a (nation-)state in a post-apartheid society. The paper is commented upon by two discussants (Per Strand and Henning Melber).

    The contributions reflect on the issue of social reconstruction in the context of (southern) Africa with reference to a particular marginalised group. They deal, among other things, with the question of social power and the "invention of tradition" in local efforts to gain from, or seek integration into, the nation building process.

  • 36.
    Legassick, Martin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Armed struggle and democracy: the case of South Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the concept(s) of armed struggle for the notion(s) of democracy in South(ern) Africa is the focus of this paper. Originally submitted to a conference on '(Re-) Conceptualising Democracy and Liberation in Southern Africa', held in Windhoek/Namibia during July 2002, it argues from the point of departure of the personal involvement of the author in the issues raised.

    The author was part of a group which criticised the strategy of armed struggle in the ANC. For the articulation of this dissenting view they were suspended from the movement in 1979 and finally expelled in 1985. With this paper he inspires a debate, which can claim relevance for current issues of democracy in South Africa and the Southern African region more generally. Given the degree of personal involvement of its author, this analysis is contemporary history based on personal insights, and provides arguments for a necessary discussion.

  • 37.
    Leys, Colin
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mamdani, Mahmood
    Crises and reconstruction - African perspectives: two lectures1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Discussion Paper two leading scholars address the international crisis of development and African attempts at reconstruction.

  • 38.
    Li, Anshan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Chinese medical cooperation in Africa: With special emphasis on the medical teams and anti-malaria campaign2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Li, Anshan
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Liu, Haifang
    Pan, Huaqiong
    Zeng, Aiping
    He, Wenping
    FOCAC Twelve Years Later: Achievements, Challenges and the Way Forward2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve years have passed since the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), an event that marked an important milestone in China-Africa relations. The forum is a platform to promote mutually beneficial South-South cooperation between China and Africa, based on mutual respect and non-interference in the internal affairs of African countries. In its ten year existence, FOCAC has achieved in deepening China-Africa relationsin the economic field. Trade, investment, infrastructure and capacity building have been comprehensively promoted. But as FOCAC prepares to enter the second decade, a number of steps must be taken by Chinese and African partners to improve the current institutional arrangement by expanding space for private sector and civil society participation in decision-making and by increasing the frequency of follow-up processes to ensure effective implementation of agreed upon targets.

  • 40.
    Lopes, Carlos
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Enough is enough! For an alternative diagnosis of the African crisis1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The African crisis is a recurrent theme in all discourse on Africa in the 1990s, in stark contrast with the optimism of the first decades of independence. This discussion paper questions the very description of the state of affairs in Africa, and is written as an African input in the debate on problems and prospects in Africa.

  • 41.
    Lukalo, Fibian Kavulani
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Extended handshake or wrestling match?: youth and urban culture celebrating politics in Kenya2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the factors affecting the social, political and economic situation in Africa today is the youth. Among today's African populations, there are various groups of younger people who find themselves disillusioned with the inevitable lack of political space available to them for meeting their needs. Kenya is uniquely positioned within Africa, since it has experienced relative peace and avoided major political turmoil. However, there is no question that since the early 1980s the youth have increasingly begun to agitate for political accountability from their leaders. This agitation has taken various forms, key among which were artistic expressions through music. In this way, youth carved out for themselves a niche of 'social inclusion' from which they questioned corrupt practices. These practices, by state agents, leaders and the common 'mwananchi', were intimately linked to moral decay in the society. This discussion paper addresses the varied notions of culture, politics and youth music in the Kenyan context during former President Moi's presidency. Moving away from the notion that youth activities can be equated with terror and acts of idleness, the author examines the historical centrality of music and politics in Kenya. Using imagery derived from proverbs as a basis of thinking, the author discusses the changing views of culture and identity among the youth of Kenya. To enhance the discussion, politics and the urban context serve as the basis for interrogating youth involvement through music in the political space in Kenya. Finally, the discussion presents the youth musician Eric Wainaina and discusses his use of music as an intervention into the issue of political decay and corruption. The underlying thrust of this discussion is to reflect upon and dispel the assumption that, through their music, youth in Kenya are engaged in violent activities against the state.

  • 42.
    Lund, Christian
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Land rights and citizenship in Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the interface between rights and identity in the struggles for land rights and citizenship in Africa. It provides a robust overview of developments in the literature on land rights and citizenship in Africa, poses relevant research questions and sketches the parameters of policy engagement by researchers. By laying emphasis on the priority of mapping the dynamics and impacts of the unfolding struggles, the author provides a critical intervention in ongoing debates on the subject. The paper is a rich source of material on the state of scholarship on land rights and citizenship in Africa and the future directions for research on the subject. Scholars, researchers and policy analysts are bound to benefit from its rich and critical insights.

  • 43.
    Marafa, Lawal Mohammed
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Africa’s Business and Development Relationship with China: Seeking Moral and Capital Values of the Last Economic Frontier2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion paper investigates the extent to which China’s own experience in regional infrastructural development as the center piece of its development strategy can be replicated in the African continent. The author argues that China’s extensive investment in Africa’s infrastructure—from dams to major trunk roads—is a positive development in light of the neglect of this important sector by Africa’s western development partners for many decades. The increasing penetration of China in the African market is spearheaded by the major Chinese state-owned construction, telecommunication, and energy exploration companies who have access to long-term financial support from the Chinese state. This is an opportune moment for African countries to address the backlog of infrastructure investmentthat has kept African development at the minimum.

  • 44.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Governance and state delivery in Southern Africa: examples from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper highlights in complementary ways problems and challenges for governance issues under centralised state agencies, which base their authority and legitimacy on a dominant party and its influence. The case study on Namibia argues for a need for parliamentary and administrative reform to improve the efficiency of lawmakers. The Botswana chapter explores the decision on the location of the country’s second university as an act without consultation of the local population. The Zimbabwe paper advocates an approach in favour of using the African Peer Review Mechanism as an instrument to assist in a change towards better governance. All the authors have intimate knowledge of the matters discussed through their own involvement with the respective cases and/or their individual positioning within these societies. This publication is among the final results of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was undertaken at the Institute between 2001 and 2006.

  • 45.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): African perspectives2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of February 2002 the GermannHanns Seidel Foundation held its annual consultative meeting with African counterparts from projects in nine different countries on the continent. The subject oriented workshop discussed "The New Partnership for African Development" (NEPAD) and its implications from the point of view of the participants.

    This Discussion Paper publishes some of the presentations to the workshop in an effort to document the current debate just initiated from different positions. It thereby aims to contribute to a process of taking the latest programmatic document from the African heads of state serious in its possible implications for the future development of the continent.

  • 46.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe's presidential elections 2002: evidence, lessons and implications2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Presidential Elections that took place from March 9 to 11, 2002 in Zimbabwe provoked enormous internal and international controversies. The impact of the politically contested continued presidency of Robert Mugabe, head of state and leader of the government under ZANU-PF since Zimbabwe's Independence in 1980, for the country, the region and the continent might be far reaching. The consequences are not yet fully apparent, but the current debates also centre around the case of Zimbabwe as a litmus test for the notion of "good governance" and democracy as perceived and acknowledged by other African leaders especially in the context of the "New Partnership for Africa's Development" (NEPAD). The contributions to this Discussion Paper offer critical and political comments from scholars mainly in or from the Southern African region, who have been closely involved with regional and Zimbabwean issues.

  • 47.
    Melber, Henning
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Saunders, Christopher
    Transition in Southern Africa: comparative aspects2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1990s completed a process of transition in Namibia and South Africa that brought formal decolonisation in Africa to an end. These two contributions review some aspects of the transformation and complement each other. They take stock of the transformation in a historical, comparative perspective and investigate the experiences and prospects of democratisation under sovereign, legitimate political rule. They were compiled subsequent to a public lecture arranged by the Nordic Africa Institute and given by Christopher Saunders on "The Transitions to Democracy in Namibia and South Africa" on 5 April 2001. Henning Melber was a discussant at the presentation.

  • 48.
    Melber, Melber
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Regionalism and regional integration in Africa: a debate of current aspects and issues2001Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A Consultative Workshop on "Regional Integration in Africa" was organised by and at the Nordic Africa Institute on March 8 and 9, 2001. The contributions compiled in this volume were related to this policy oriented but academic endeavour. They identify and review current issues of regionalism and regional integration within the era of globalisation in the African context. Their approaches present different theoretical and regional perspectives which provide new insights, challenge existing concepts and perceptions and contribute to an enriched debate.

  • 49.
    Mengisteab, Kidane
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Critical Factors in the Horn of Africa's Raging Conflicts2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when much attention is focused on the Horn of Africa as one of Africa’s most war-ravaged regions and a continued source of security concern regionally and globally, this Discussion Paper provides deep insights into the complex dimensions of and linkages between the violent conflicts in the region. Delving into history and the core and contextual factors underpinning these wars in the postcolonial era, the author provides a conceptual framework for grappling with the complex inter- and intra-state conflicts by focusing on the institutional and structural causes of war. He goes on to make a compelling argument that conflict for institutional and democratic state transformation in the Horn of Africa is a fundamental step towards long-term peace and sustainable development.

  • 50.
    Meyer, Angela
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Peace and Security Cooperation in Central Africa: Developments, Challenges and Prospects2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides the most up-to-date insights into Central Africa’s peace and security architecture. Its breath and depth attest to a deep knowledge of the history and politics of regional cooperation in a region that has attracted less attention in the literature than West, East and Southern Africa. It provides readers with first-hand knowledge of regional cooperation and integration, and the expansion of this agenda in Central Africa to include peace and security issues. Dispassionate and clear insights are offered into the intra-regional dynamics of the regional peace and security institutions FOMAC and MICOPAX, the challenges and constraints confronting regional peace in Central Africa and the potential for change. It is essential reading for all those seeking a good grasp of the complex dimensions of peace and security in Central Africa and the prospects for the future.

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