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  • 1.
    Abutudu, Musa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Garuba, Dauda
    Natural Resource Governance and EITI Implementation In Nigeria2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In their Natural Resource Governance and EITI Implementation in Nigeria, Musa Abutudu and Dauda Garuba provide the most up-to-date and in-depth analysis of the Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI), providing a balanced yet critical evaluation of its performance, limitations and potential as an institution for helping Africa’s largest oil exporter to escape the so called resource curse and lay a firm basis for sustainable development. This Current African Issue contains valuable insights and information that will be of interest to all those with a keen interest in institutionalising transparency and accountability in natural resource governance in Africa.

  • 2.
    Adepoju, Aderanti
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Migration in sub-Saharan Africa2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africans arriving by rickety fishing boats to the Canary Islands, risking the passage across the Straits of Gibraltar or washed upon the Italian island of Lampedusa are familiar examples of therecent growth in migration from Africa to Europe. There is a darkside of migration in human trafficking, but the picture of a continenton the move also includes highly skilled professionals fromNigeria and Ghana who seek employment in universities and otherprofessions in South Africa. On the positive side migrant remittancesare a major source of income in many sub-Saharan Africancountries, helping to sustain the lives of poor home communities.A major challenge now facing sub-Saharan Africa is how to attractskilled emigrants back for national development.

  • 3.
    Adetula, Victor A. O.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    African conflicts, development and regional organisations in the post-Cold War international system: the annual Claude Ake memorial lecture : Uppsala, Sweden 30 January 20142015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of recent studies have expressed optimism about the constant decrease in armed conflicts around the world. The prognosis for Africa does not reflect the same optimism. Poverty reduction, transparent and accountable governance and citizen satisfaction with the delivery of public goods and service have shown no sign of significant improvement. In this lecture, Victor Adetula examines the performance of Africa’s regional organisations in ensuring peace and security on the continent. In doing this, he draws attention to the need for national and regional actors to pay attention to good governance and development as part of their efforts to operate effective collective security systems and conflict resolution mechanisms without ignoring the essence of the global context.

  • 4.
    Amankwaah, Clementina
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Election-Related Violence: The Case of Ghana2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Current African Issue gives an overview of the causes and experiences of electionrelated violence in relation to patronage politics in Ghana. Ghana has been framed b ythe international community as a unique bastion of democracy and peace on the African continent. Nevertheless, the country has come from a military regime like many of its democratic African counterparts and is still prone to some of the problems faced by its more turbulent neighbours. The three main guiding issues that this publication will address in relation to election-related violence in Ghana are:

    • The causes of election-related violence in Ghana
    • Who the people most likely to cause election-related violence are
    • The role that “big men” play in election-related violence
  • 5.
    Baker, Jonathan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethiopia's road to perestroika: in search of the end of the rainbow?1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Agricultural water institutions in East Africa2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing growing variability and uncertainty in rainfall in Africa. Since the continent's food production systems are dominantly rain-fed, these changes are putting food security at even higher risk. In order to reduce this dependency, institutional reforms in the agricultural water sectors have become a priority in research and policy.

    In this report, Atakilte Beyene, senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, together with twelve researchers based in Africa, studies current agricultural water reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and other East African countries. The report consists of four case studies and an introductory section. The first case study evaluates the performance of community participation in water resources governance in the Mount Kenya Region. It uncovers the implication of a ban on traditional institutions on water security at a catchment level. The second case analyses the prospects of introducing pro-poor water schemes in conditions where climate change and water inequality are already challenges. It identifies incentive mechanisms that enhance more efficient distribution and utilization of water resources. The third case examines impacts of competitive and intensive farming strategies, especially irrigation schemes, on water demands. The final case study explores how advances in information and communication technologies improve water-use management systems across organizational and geographic scales.

  • 7.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Durevall, Dick
    The African economy and its role in the world economy2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a broad survey this issue of Current African Issues presents a multifaceted picture of the current state of the African economy. After a period of falling per capita incomes that started in the 1970s, Africa finally saw a turnaround from about 1995. The last few years have seen average per capita incomes in Africa grow by above 3 per cent per year on average, partly due to the resource boom but also due to improved economic policies. Africa receives more aid per capita than any other major region in the world and there is a significantly positive effect of aid on growth. One of the most notable aspects of the current process of globalisation is the increase in trade between Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, particularly China and India. The authors conclude with a call for policy coherence among donors. The politically most problematic areas for policy change of those discussed in the paper are not aid policy but trade policy and the European Union CAP (Common Agricultural Policy). This is a challenge to EU policy makers, since the latter areas are probably the most important to change if we take our commitment to development seriously.

  • 8.
    Bongartz, Maria
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The civil war in Somalia: its genesis and dynamics1991Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Bush, Ray
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kibble, S
    Destabilisation in Southern Africa, an Overview1985Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Campbell, Horace
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The siege of Cuito Cuanavale1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Červenka, Zdenek
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    African National Congress meets Eastern Europe: a dialogue on common experiences1992Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A report from a conference where high level delegations of the African National Congress and the Czech, Slovak, Polish and Hungarian republics met, with the aim to share lessons of their experiences under crumbling dictatorships. The exchange was intense and frank, as the note in this report convey.

  • 12.
    Červenka, Zdenek
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Legum, Colin
    Can national dialogue break the power of terror in Burundi?: report on the impact of the international conference National Dialogue held in Bujumbura on May 15-18 [1994] on Burundian efforts to restore democratic process in the country1994Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A report on the impact of the international conference "National Dialogue" held in Bujumbura in May 1994 on Burundian efforts to restore democratic process in the country.

  • 13.
    Cheru, Fantu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Africa's development in the 21st century: Reshaping the research agenda2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As Africa enters the 21st century, it faces mounting challenges as well as new opportunities. Unlike in the 1980s and the 1990s, however, the conditions for Africa's sustained growth and development are more favourable today than ever before. As a result of economic reforms the overall growth has been in excess of 4.5 percent annually since the mid 1990s. There is greater consensus among Africans now than at any previous time on what needs to be done to accelerate growth, reduce poverty and promote sustainable development. The positive response of Africa's international partners enhances the prospects for sustaining the progress. Africa is also benefiting from a commodity boom and increased investment in infrastructure and the extractive industry sector. But many questions remain unanswered. The most pressing question is how Africa can best benefit from the rise of the Asian giants, China and India.

  • 14.
    Chikhi, Said
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Algeria: from mass rebellion in October 1988 to workers' social protest1991Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Diallo, Garba
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mauritania - the other apartheid?1993Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A report on the racial and cultural conflict in Mauritania. The author argues that the black population is being discriminated by the ruling Arab population.

  • 16. Dunton, Chris
    et al.
    Palmberg, Mai
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Human rights and homosexuality in Southern Africa1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At the 1995 Zimbabwe International Bookfair the organisation of Gays and Lesbians in Zimbabwe was prevented from taking part. This opened up an unprecedented debate in southern Africa, which is conveyed in this report, together with a survey of African views on homosexuality, a global overview on homosexuality and the law, and an address list of human rights organisations and organisations working for gay and lesbian rights. A first-hand report and analysis of the new book fair drama in Harare 1996 is included in the new expanded edition.

  • 17.
    Ebeku, Kaniye S. A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The succession of Faure Gnassingbe to the Togolese presidency: an international law perspective2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The African renaissance - the renewal of the continent - effectively started in the last decade of the second millennium. A critical element is the increasing and widespread democratic awakening in all parts of Africa since the early 1990s as evidenced by the number of multi-party elections. Demonstrating their commitment to democracy, African leaders, under the auspices of regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union (AU), have increasingly made a number of treaties, declarations and other political commitments in the field of democracy and good governance (including the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the Declaration on Africa’s Response to Unconstitutional Changes of Government). Significantly, the recent politico-constitutional crisis in Togo, occasioned by the sudden death of President Gnassingbe Eyadema in early February 2005, after he had ruled the country with an iron-fist for 38 years, and the interim succession of his son, Faure Gnassingbe, to the presidency, raised issues of democracy and good governance and provided an opportunity for African countries to test the effectiveness of the various democracy-related instruments. Adopting a legal-jurisprudential perspective, the author skillfully examines the contradictions between the regional-international legal instruments that permit interference in the internal affairs of a Member State of ECOWAS and AU and the principles of international law that provide for sovereign equality of States and non-interference in the internal affairs of a sovereign State. Undoubtedly, this work will interest scholars, students and researchers in international law, international politics and international relations as well as general readers, especially those interested in African affairs.

    CONTENT

    Introduction

    Politico-Constitutional Antecedents of the Recent Developments

    Regional Instruments on Democratic Principles in Africa

    Some Basic Principles of International Law: In a Nutshell Faure’s Succession: Validity of the Removal of Fambare Ouattara Natchaba from Office

    Faure’s Succession and Legality of Constitutional Amendment

    Faure’s Succession and the Doctrine of State Necessity

    Faure’s Succession and Regional Instruments on Democracy and Good Governance

    Concluding Remarks

    References

  • 18.
    Egerö, Bertil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mozambique and the Southern African Struggle for Liberation1985Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Fellesson, Måns
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, African International Links.
    Mählck, Paula
    Academics on the Move: Mobility and Institutional Change in the Swedish Development Support to Research Capacity Building in Mozambique2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the competitive global knowledge economy, highly qualified individuals are increasingly recognised as being the key to development. In particular, doctorate holders are not only the most qualified in terms of educational attainment, but also those specifically trained to be at the forefront of innovation and in a position to drive advances in science, technology and knowledge of society. In developing countries with relatively weak research structures, not least with regard to PhD graduates, the training of PhDs has been intimately linked to the reproduction of human capacity in national research systems. This study examines the mobility of PhD graduates funded under the Swedish development aid program to build institutional research capacity in Mozambique from 1990 to 2013. Principal areas of investigation are extent and direction of geographic, sectoral and vertical mobility, perception and individual rationales for mobility and career choices and experience of the so-called "sandwich model".

  • 20. Fombad, Charles Manga
    et al.
    Kebonang, Zein
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    AU, NEPAD and the APRM: democratisation efforts explored2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The African Union (AU) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) represent an unprecedented collective political effort by African governments at the beginning of the 21st century to address issues of democracy and good governance on a continental scale within an emerging framework of institutions and instruments designed to assist in this effort. The visible commitments to jointly tackle political and socioeconomic challenges in order to overcome the structural legacies that hamper national and social development are reflected in the adoption of a variety of programmatic blueprints and a series of newly created or recently strengthened institutions. The most visible of these since the integration of NEPAD into the AU is the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), a process- aimed at addressing some of the challenges on the basis of a voluntary assessment of African government policies. The contributions to this publication trace these recent developments from a policy perspective and explore the scope and limitations of current democratisation efforts. Going beyond the rhetoric surrounding the emergence of the new initiatives, the authors provide an interim and realistic prognosis of the prospects for these new dynamics to achieve the declared goals of sustainable and meaningful change.

  • 21.
    Gessesse, Dessie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Favouring a Demonised Plant: Khat and Ethiopian smallholder enterprises2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Khat is a plant native to Ethiopia that has been consumed over several centuries as a mental and physical stimulant. This report outlines khat’s role as a source of livelihood. Khat, dubbed a social ill by many, is at the same time part and parcel of the livelihoods of many others. With consumption of the stimulant spreading to many parts of Africa, Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, khat production has become a controversial global issue. In most European and North American countries khat is illegal. The debates so far focus on the consumption of khat and its allegedly harmful health ,economic and social effects. The argument here is that expanded khat production, driven by growing demand for the stimulant, is made possible through multidimensional links between producers, sellers and others. Today, khat production is part of the wider agro-silvi-pasture complex that characterises Ethiopian rural landscapes. At the farm level, khat shares space with food and tree crops and contributes cash to the household economy. The fact that its production is a smallholder venture andis expanding through a variety of farming systems indicates its importance to cultivators and their use of land. This paper is not exhaustive, but makes an exploratory attempt to highlight khat-related livelihood issues and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debates on the stimulant and to prompt further research.

  • 22.
    Gutto, Shadrack B. O.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Human and peoples' rights in Africa: myths, realities and prospects1991Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Holmberg, Johan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa: assets and vulnerabilities2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africa is rich in oil and mineral resources, but has severe shortages of water and suffers from an accelerating pressure on its arable land and forests. Climate change is expected to cause major problems for African populations with increase of water stress and severely compromised agricultural production. Local food supplies will be negatively affected and, towards the end of the 21st century, sea-level rise will affect low-lying coastal areas. The report argues that the poorest countries are most vulnerable to climate change and that Africa is particularly exposed. Sweden should consider full integration of climate change adaptation strategies in its development cooperation with African partners. This will likely mean that some existing priorities will be further accentuated, such as needs to provide water and sanitation services to the poor, raising agricultural productivity, and curbing deforestation.

  • 24.
    Hårsmar, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Understanding poverty in Africa?: A navigation through disputed concepts, data and terrains2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In any international comparison, sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the most pervasive poverty. The study of African societies requires the study of numerous dynamics, processes and situations with links to poverty issues. Recent methodological innovations hold that research into poverty should be multidimensional, dynamic and cross-disciplinary. But how can such research be undertaken? This volume comprises two separate articles. The first provides an overview of major conceptual positions on poverty. With the focus on theoretical and methodological issues, it argues that the epistemological and normative elements have not been sufficiently emphasised in the attempts to bring different disciplinary approaches together. Such elements constitute fundamental dividing lines in the poverty debate. However, the article goes on to argue that the capability approach has promising potential for bridging these divides.The second article is an empirical study of recent poverty developments in Tanzania and Burkina Faso. Common to both countries – one in East and the other in West Africa – is that a largely subsistence agricultural sector dominates their economies. The article combines quantitative and qualitative methods to show that regional differences in the structures of agricultural production may in large part explain variations in poverty.

  • 25.
    Jassey, Katja
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Nyanzi, Stella
    How to be a 'proper' woman in the time of AIDS2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How to Be a ‘Proper’ Women in the Time of AIDS is written as a piece of music for multiple voices. The voices of Katja Jassey and Stella Nyanzi – both professional women, both mothers, both anthropologists, one European, one African – are intertwined with the voices of other women (and men) telling about their lives coping with AIDS and/or struggling against the epidemic.  Personal storylines and interviews are interspersed with analytical reflections and a string of amazing photographs of African HIV/AIDS billboard posters, captured by Suzy Bernstein.

    Unconventional questions are posed: What kind of sexuality is portrayed in the anti-HIV/AIDS campaigns? Why is there such an absence of messages that would include or make sense to those living with HIV? What does it mean to be a ‘proper’ woman in the time of AIDS? The authors decided that instead of producing yet another publication citing the number of people infected, they would reflect on their own stories and professional experience, how they had come to think and react to HIV, and how their different positions influenced their understandings. By doing so they manage to create new insights and open new perspectives. They don’t say what is right and wrong. They say stop! Stop awhile and think about yourselves. Stop and think for yourselves.

  • 26.
    King, Nathaniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conflict as integration: youth aspiration to personhood in the teleology of Sierra Leone's 'senseless war'2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rebel war in Sierra Leone has been given various characterisations. One of the most commonplace of them brands it a ‘senseless war’. In this study the author examines the views of the Sierra Leoneans themselves on this notion, and through a sociological lens he explores the “youthscape“ of the war. The study also revisits some of the central works on the Sierra Leonean war by authors such as Paul Richards, Ibrahim Adbdullah and Yusuf Bangura.

  • 27.
    Kuwali, Dan
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Persuasive prevention: Towards a Principle for Implementing Article 4(h) and R2P by the African Union2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the legality of intervention without Security Council authorisation is still debatablein international law, over-reliance on military intervention increases the risk of too much focus on reactive rather than proactive strategies. If the thresholds for Article 4(h) intervention – like those of the responsibility to protect – are serious international crimes subject to universal jurisdiction, it follows that measures to ensure the observance of the law in prospect, rather than intervention and penalisation of violations in retrospect,are important in preventing violations. Therefore, in order to in a timely manner and effectively implement Article 4(h) and R2P, the missing link is borderless ‘persuasive prevention’ which aims at enforcing fundamental human rights obligations to prevent mass atrocity crimes stipulated in Article 4(h). To this end, as a minimum, the AU should discharge its responsibility to prevent human rights violations through the ‘force of law’. Where atrocities are likely to take place, the African Standby Force (ASF) should be deployedin a timely way, not to defeat a State, but to pursue perpetrators of mass atrocity crimes. To achieve this, the ASF should have the ‘capability to protect’ to ensure the ‘obligationto prosecute or extradite’. Although the AU has taken an interventionist stance, what is needed most is early action to prevent mass atrocity crimes. The AU may need to establish a body to monitor the implementation of obligations whose breach may lead to the heinous crimes in Article 4(h). In addition, the AU needs a legally binding instrument to ensure accountability and end impunity for crimes in Article 4(h). The idea is to influencethe calculus of potential authors of atrocities and ensure compliance with human rights and humanitarian law obligations.

  • 28.
    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Models for life: advancing antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Models for Life: Advancing antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa is based on two conferences that were held in Copenhagen and Uppsala, in September 2004. The events brought together more than 70 key actors from Denmark, Sweden and Uganda in the field of HIV/AIDS and its treatment: antiretroviral therapy. The conferences were unique in that each panel and the subsequent discussion brought together researchers, donors and representatives from non-governmental organisations, in order to link theory, operations research and practice.

    The working paper covers a wide range of the issues that were brought up at the conferences, but focuses on the following three main topics:

    - Access to antiretroviral therapy

    - Holistic approaches to providing antiretroviral therapy, prevention and support

    - Antiretroviral therapy and public health services.

    Each section begins by introducing the core issues to be addressed. The different presentations are then put into perspective by summarising the main questions from the participants and the other panellists. In addition, the editors have further developed some of the key points made by drawing on current literature in the field. The final section concludes with a list of take-home messages for non-governmental organisations.

  • 29. Lee, Margaret C.
    et al.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    China in Africa2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions to this compilation add in various ways to the ongoing discussion on China’s role in Africa. They offer a blend of general overviews on the new scramble for Africa’s resources, the Chinese expansion into Africa and case studies on Uganda and South Africa. They present reflections on and insights to a current theme, which is widely and controversially debated also within Africa.

  • 30.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Youth and the labour market in Liberia: on history, state structures and spheres of informalities2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the historical development of the Liberian labor market with a particular focus on young men and women. It asks, what constitutes and shapes the Liberian labour market? By looking at labour mobilization and the structure of the (in)formal labour market – both in peace and war – our understanding of the contemporary Liberian labour marketis substantially enhanced. The study finds that there are many recurring patterns of labor migration, labor mobilization and distribution that have existed in the Liberian pre-war, war and post-war settings. Historical structures of informality and patrimonialism continue to dominate Liberia today. In addition to this, the study's focus on youths provides an insight into how this section of society moves through the labour market. It also examines the idea of unemployed youths as particularly prone to violence.

  • 31.
    Lindell, Ilda
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Transnational Activism Networks and Gendered Gatekeeping: Negotiating Gender in an African Association of Informal Workers2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has witnessed the rise of a great number of transnational social movements and activist networks. While many of these movements have been initiated in the North, some are driven by people from the Global South with the aim of addressing various forms of destitution and asserting a variety of basic economic and cultural rights. Such transnational organizing is increasingly evident in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some of these initiatives relate particularly to the growing numbers ofpeople depending on forms of informal work for survival. This edition of Current African Issues looks into the transnationalization of a local association of informal workers as it becomes involved in an international network of grassroots organizations. While this transnational engagement opens up new political possibilities, it also poses new challenges. Participation in international activities is highly unequal and mediated rather than direct, as influential actors engage in practices of gate-keeping that tend to work to the disadvantage of women. Tensions also emerged as a result of the divergent gender ideologies espoused by different participants. The paper draws on various theoretical perspectives on spatial politics in the global age to interrogate the unequal and contested spatialities of this transnational activism. Feminist scholarship sheds further light on the gendering processes at work in the transnationalization of a grassroots association.

  • 32.
    Maghimbi, Sam
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Lokina, Razack B.
    Senga, Mathew A.
    The Agrarian Question in Tanzania?: A State of the Art Paper2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mwalimu Nyerere Professorial Chair in Pan-African Studies was established at the University of Dar es Salaam in 2008. The main objective of the chair is to reinvigorate intellectual debate on the campus and stimulate basic research on burning issues facing the country and the continent from a pan-African perspective. This is the first state of the art paper published by the chair.

    The Agrarian Question in Tanzania. There are about four million peasant families in Tanzania. They farm on the smallest scale, the average farm being two acres in size. The principal agricultural equipmentis the hand hoe. Since the onset of the colonial era, those in authority have pursued policies to dominate the peasantry. It is argued that the small scale of operations has contributed to the widespread poverty among farmers. There is still good agricultural land that is not farmed, but the current land tenure of peasants reproduces itself on new farmland. The conclusion is that in order to accelerate agricultural development, land tenure must be institutionalized.

  • 33.
    Mahgoub, Farida
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Current Status of Agriculture and Future Challenges in Sudan2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation and long-lasting civil wars and conflict mean that the demographic pattern in Sudan is changing drastically. Nevertheless, 60%–80 % of Sudanese engage in subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial sector in the economy as a major source of rawmaterials, food and foreign exchange. It employs the majority of the labour force, and serves as a potential vehicle for diversifyingthe economy. However, no rigorous studies have explained productivity in this sector inrelation to food security. The situation has worsened because agriculture in particular has been neglected sincethe advent of oil production in the early 2000s. Moreover, Sudan’s agricultural growth has been unbalanced, with the majority of irrigated agriculture concentrated in the Centre and ahuge disparity in development indicators between the best- and worst-performing regions. Thus, studies show that the vast majority of Sudanese are reported to be food insecure,especially internally displaced persons and in conflict regions such as Darfur, Kordofan and other regions.

  • 34.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Demography and the development potential of sub-Saharan Africa2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth in Africa has laid the foundation for the eventual development of a prosperous region. Since the 1950s, sub-Saharan Africa has doubled its population twice over to become one of the most populous regions in the world. If sub-Saharan Africa succeeds in taking advantage of this population potential, the sub-continent could become a major player in the world economy. A major reason sub-Saharan Africa remains poor is the very high child-dependency arising from a very high total fertility rate, and low life expectancy based on both high infant mortality and high adult mortality rates. Reduced mortality and lower fertility are key requirements if sub-Saharan Africa is to enter a development trajectory that makes possible increasing per capita incomes and reductions in poverty.

  • 35.
    Mbabazi, Pamela K.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The Oil Industry in Uganda; A Blessing in Disguise or an all Too Familiar Curse?: The 2012 Claude Ake Memorial Lecture2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As Uganda comes closer to full scale commercial production of its recently discovered oil resources, the state has much work to protect its economy from possible negative effects. Although much of the literature regarding oil globally, as well as in Uganda, paints a rather pessimistic picture, Dr. Pamela Mbabazi provides a set of alternatives, looking at oil as an opportunity rather than a curse. While oil is still in its infancy, many in Uganda have already predicted how it will play out over the next 50 years. While some are quick to point out the flaws and potential problem areas, Dr. Mbabazi suggests a more balanced approach, recognizing both the issue areas as well as the opportunities presented. Uganda has just celebrated its 50th anniversary as an independent nation. What is certain is that over the next five decades, oil will play a significant role in Uganda´s development. Thus, she argues that by heeding the suggestions made in this contribution, the government and key decision makers can help set Uganda on the right path to becoming Africa’s first oil success story. Dr. Pamela Mbabazi held the Claude Ake Memorial Chair in 2012-2013, working with the Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University and the Nordic Africa Institute. She is Associate Professor of Development Studies, Mbarara University of Science & Technology, Uganda.

  • 36.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Media, public discourse and political contestation in Zimbabwe2004Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation in Zimbabwe under the ZANU-PF government shows increasing signs of abuse of power by those in political control. They also direct their desire to suppress criticism towards the media. Press organs in private ownership have been closed down and journalists have been physically harassed, arrested and expelled. Laws are abused to regulate and manipulate public opinion by a policy of banning. Worldwide condemnation of the growing restrictions upon the freedom of expression goes hand in hand with the protests inside the country against the growing tendencies of totalitarian rule.

    Current events are critically reflected upon and the background to these developments is summarised in this publication. It is based on some of the contributions to a recent conference on Zimbabwe organised by the Nordic Africa Institute and offers insights into the contested space of public opinion in Zimbabwe. The critical analyses of current developments are there-by complemented with particular reference to the media sector in the ongoing battle for hegemonic control over the public sphere.

  • 37.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The new African initiative and the African Union: a preliminary assessment and documentation2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the year 2000 an initiative among the African states to transform the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) into the African Union (AU) gained momentum. It resulted in the ratification of the Constitutive Act and its adoption at the 36th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Lusaka. Parallel to this process of reorganisation towards closer inter-state collaboration on the African continent in the spirit of Pan Africanism emerged the systematic effort to redefine developmental priorities and to claim a new common position of African states in the globalised world. The "African Renaissance" initiative of South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki resulted in a "Millenium Africa Recovery Programme", which was finally revised and presented as the "New Africa Initiative" (NAI). Adopted at the same OAU Summit in Lusaka in July 2001, the NAI serves as a blueprint for Africa's development strategy at the beginning of the 21st century. It was presented to the G8 summit in Genoa, where the leaders of the world's powerful countries decided on a follow up by appointing individual special advisers to explore support to the NAI and future collaboration on the basis of this document.

    This paper offers a preliminary assessment of the New Africa Initiative within the context of the transformation of the OAU into the AU. It identifies and summarises essential new aspects advocated, critically examines the degree of realism and points at the possible limitations. The analysis also considers first reactions to the initiatives and reflects on the perspectives.

  • 38.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Trade, development, cooperation: what future for Africa?2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bi- and multilateral trade relations between external actors and individual African states or regional blocs are becoming ever more decisive. The trade policies of both the USA and the EU are anything but helpful. This is true of the USAs African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), the EU Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with South Africa and more recently the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) negotiated in the Post-Cotonou era of European relations with the South. All these initiatives have a potentially detrimental impact on regional integration. The latter remains however a priority in the developmental policy and strategy documents as formulated both by African agencies as well as the partners in development cooperation in the OECD countries. Hence the question of coherence between trade as aid and other areas of development strategy and cooperation remains to be answered.

    The three analyses presented in this publication are centred on related issues in the ongoing process of globalisation under the WTO regime, and their likely effect on African countries. Each chapter critically examines recent trends in the discourse on trade reform and development.

    The contributions to this volume offer discussion and food for thought for scholars, policy makers and NGO activists alike on closely related topical issues in European-African trade relations and development cooperation.

  • 39.
    Minter, William
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    African Migration, Global Inequalities, and Human Rights: Connecting the Dots2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration from and within Africa, just like migration elsewhere in the world, often generates anti-immigrant sentiment and ignites heated public debate about the migration policies of the destination countries. These countries include South Africa as well as others outside the continent. The countries of origin are also keen to minimize losses through “brain drain” and to capture resources such as remittances. Increasingly, international organizations and human rights advocates have stressed the need to protect the interests of migrants themselves. However, while the UNDP’s 2009 Human Development Report talks of “win-win-win” solutions, in practice it is the perceived interests of destination countries that enjoy the greatest attention, while the rights of migrants themselves are afforded the least. Yet migration is not just an issue in itself: it also points to structural inequalities between countries and regions. Managing migration and protecting migrants is too limited an agenda. Activists and policymakers must also address these inequalities directly to ensure that people can pursue their fundamental human rights whether they move or stay. It is not enough to measure development only in terms of progress at the national level: development must also be measured in terms of reductions in the gross levels of inequality that now determine differential rights on the basis of accident of birth.

  • 40.
    Mohamoda, Dahilon Yassin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Nile Basin cooperation: a review of the literature2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two interrelated developments can be identified in the Nile basin, during the last decade: an emphasis on potential conflict over the Nile waters on the one hand, and an evolving process of basin-wide cooperation on the other.

    The history of the Nile basin is dominated by tensions and conflicts. Relationships between major Nile basin countries are usually described in terms of mutual distrust and confrontation. The Nile basin, moreover, has frequently been referred to by many observers and analysts as an example where conflict over water resources as a result of water scarcity will lead to armed confrontation. Recent years, on the other hand, have witnessed a growing cooperation among the basin countries. The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) is a case in point. All the ten countries that share the Nile waters agreed, for the first time, to cooperate on development of the Nile basin. This is a significant step, although a number of serious problems and challenges remain. Many donors have made formal pledges to support the initiative.

    This paper reviews literature on the Nile basin cooperation and issues related to this process, focusing on more recent publications. The literature on utilization and management of the Nile waters related to basin-wide cooperation efforts has been growing fast during the last decade. At least seven books have been published on the subject between the years 2000 to 2002, while the number of papers presented at conferences and articles in various journals and on the Internet is enormous. This review discusses and covers a wide range of issues, which include: debate on water scarcity and its potential consequences in general, and its implications for the Nile basin countries in particular; legal aspects of utilization of the Nile waters focusing on the UN Watercourse Convention of 1997; conflicts and major attempts at cooperation; divergent views and interests of the basin countries; and challenges and prospects of the recent basin-wide cooperation.

  • 41.
    Naur, Maja
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Social and Organisational Change in Libya1982Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 42.
    Nilsson, David
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Sweden-Norway at the Berlin Conference 1884–85: History, national identity-making and Sweden's relations with Africa2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The image of Sweden is one of a small, democratic and peace-loving country without the moral burden of a colonial past. However, in this Current African Issues publication, the notion that Sweden lacks a colonial past in Africa is brought into question. At the Berlin Conference 1884–85, the rules for colonisation of Africa were agreed upon among a handful of white men. With the blessing of King Oscar II, the united kingdoms of Sweden-Norway participated in the Berlin conference, ratified the resulting convention and signed a trade agreement with King Leopold’s International Congo Association. Thereafter, hundreds of Swedish militaries, seamen and missionaries took an active part in the brutal colonial project in the Congo. What was Sweden-Norway really doing at the Berlin Conference and in the ensuing Scramble for Africa? Is it now time to re-assess Swedish identity in relation to Africa, an identity so far centered on colonial innocence? Dr DAVID NILSSON is a researcher at the Division of History of Science, Technology and Environment, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. His research focuses on global longtermperspectives on sustainable development in Africa.

  • 43.
    Nordberg, Erik
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Winblad, Uno
    Urban environmental health and hygiene in sub-Saharan Africa1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of environmental hygiene problems in urban low-income areas in Africa. Urban shantytowns with extreme crowding, poor housing and unsanitary environmental conditions are growing problems. The authors mean that development assistance organizations must pay attention to these problems in urban areas, where in a few decades about half of the people in most developing areas will reside.

  • 44.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Peasants and Agricultural Production in Africa. A Nordic Research Seminar. Follow-up Reports and Discussions1981Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    South Africa, the West and the Frontline States: Report from a Seminar1981Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    From Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the political and social situation in the DRC since May 1997, together with the prospects for a successful political and social transition. Consistent with the deepest aspirations of the Congolese population, such a transition will succeed if it involves an irreversible development towards multiparty democracy and the full utilisation of the country’s immense resources for economic and social development. In other words, a successful transition is one in which basic freedoms and liberties will be guaranteed through democratic governance and the rule of law, with tangible improvements in living conditions.

  • 47.
    Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    From Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the political and social situation in the DRC since May 1997, together with the prospects for a successful political and social transition. Consistent with the deepest aspirations of the Congolese population, such a transition will succeed if it involves an irreversible development towards multiparty democracy and the full utilisation of the country’s immense resources for economic and social development. In other words, a successful transition is one in which basic freedoms and liberties will be guaranteed through democratic governance and the rule of law, with tangible improvements in living conditions.

  • 48.
    Odén, Bertil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Namibia's economic links to South Africa1991Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dammed divinities: the water powers at Bujagali Falls, Uganda2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The damming of Bujagali Falls, located only 8 kilometers north of the historic source of the White Nile or the outlet of Lake Victoria, has been seen as one of the most controversial dams in modern times. In 2012, the dam was eventually inaugurated after years of anti-dam opposition and delays. A unique aspect of the controversies was the river spirit Budhagaali living in the falls blocking the dam and opposing the destruction of the waterfalls. This spirits embodies a particular healer – Jaja Bujagali, but he was bypassed by another healer who conducted no less than three grandiose appeasement and relocation ceremonies for the Budhagaali spirit clearing the way for the dam. Why has this particular dam been so controversial? How can a water spirit block a nearly billion dollar dam? What was the ritual drama behind the construction of the dam and is it possible to move a spirit? And what happened to Budhagaali and the indigenous religion after the falls were flooded and can a river spirit be drowned in its own element – water?

  • 50.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Water Scarcity and Food Security along the Nile: Politics, population increase and climate change2012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2050, the population in all the Nile Basin countries is expected to be ten times higher than it was in 1950. This will put ever increasing pressure on water as a resource for development. The Nile Basin catchment area is shared by 11 countries covering about one-tenth of the African continent. Globally, around 70 per cent of fresh water consumption is used in agriculture. This puts the spotlight on future scenarios regarding food production: will there be enough water for food security in the Nile Basin countries? In this Current African Issues publication, water scarcity and food security are analysed from a range of perspectives. What are the future predictions regarding population increase and climate change, and how will these affect development in Nile Basin countries? What are the current water theories addressing the above issues, and what are the main challenges the Nile Basin countries will face in a context that is also strongly shaped by its history?

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