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  • 1.
    Aaby, Peter
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The state of Guinea-Bissau: African socialism or socialism in Africa?1978Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2. Aall, Cato
    et al.
    Hamrell, Sven
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Refugee problems in Africa1967Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Aasland, Tertit
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    On the move-to-the-left in Uganda 1969-1971: the Common man's charter - dissemination and attitude1974Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Abdallah, Mustapha
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sapiano, Jenna
    Okyere, Frank
    Bentum, Doreen Ivy
    Exploring the post-Gaddafi Repercussions in the Sahel: Report from an experts’ workshop organised by the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre and the Nordic Africa Institute with the support of the Australian Government, 28-29 June 20122013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Abdel-Rahim, Muddathir
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Africa's identity: From negation to self-assertion1976Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Abdel-Rahim, Muddathir
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Changing patterns of civilian-military relations in the Sudan1978Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose o this paper is to trace the development of the military involvement in Sudanese politics and make some suggestions towards the general assessment of its nature and consequences.

  • 7.
    Abdi, Cawo, M.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A gendered perspective on the impact of conflict in the Horn of Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Note focuses on the gendered consequences of the militarisation of the Horn of Africa. Despite being in different ‘moments’ of conflict, the countries of this region share features of extreme social, economic and political violence, which impact negatively on their citizens. Protracted refugee and refugee-like conditions, extreme disinvestment in social programmes, increasing militarisation and political repression adversely affect women, thereby further entrenching gender disparities. Concerted national and international efforts and resources should support local democratic initiatives to find political solutions to these protracted conflicts and advance the struggle against sexual and gender-based violence and discrimination.

  • 8.
    Abokor, Axmed Cali
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Suugaanta Geela1986Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For centuries livestock have formed the backbone of the Somali economy. Camels are especially highly valued by Somali herdsmen.

    The practical uses of the camel have been eloquently described by Somalis in their extensive oral poetry, handed down through generations from father to son. It forms a complete literacy tradition composed of poems, proverbs, metaphors and tales of wisdom.

    The collection and preservation of Somali oral literature are important subjects that require urgent attention. This rich literature was transmitted to us orally from generation to generation. The cultural and historical life of the Somali people is reflected in this ancient oral data.

    The present collection of oral literature on the Somali camel is the result of an extensive research work. Oral literature has been one of the subjects studied by the "Somali camel research project", a bilateral undertaking between Somalia and Sweden (the Somali Academy of Sciences and Arts, SOMAC, and the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries, SAREC).

  • 9.
    Abutudu, Musa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Garuba, Dauda
    Natural Resource Governance and EITI Implementation In Nigeria2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In their Natural Resource Governance and EITI Implementation in Nigeria, Musa Abutudu and Dauda Garuba provide the most up-to-date and in-depth analysis of the Nigerian Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI), providing a balanced yet critical evaluation of its performance, limitations and potential as an institution for helping Africa’s largest oil exporter to escape the so called resource curse and lay a firm basis for sustainable development. This Current African Issue contains valuable insights and information that will be of interest to all those with a keen interest in institutionalising transparency and accountability in natural resource governance in Africa.

  • 10.
    Adama, Onyanta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Informal recycling2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 16-16 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Adama, Onyanta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Urban governance and spatial inequality in service delivery: a case study of solid waste management in Abuja, Nigeria2012Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial inequality in service delivery is a common feature in African cities. Several factors account for the phenomenon but there is growing attention towards urban governance and the role of the state. Urban governance policies such as privatization serve as key strategies through which the state regulates and (re)produces spatial inequality in service delivery. This study examined how governance practices related to privatization and the regulatory role of the state reinforce spatial inequalities in the delivery of solid waste services in Abuja, Nigeria. It focused primarily on the issue of cost recovery. Privatization became a major focus in Abuja in 2003 when the government launched a pilot scheme. Although it has brought improvements in service delivery, privatization has also increased the gap in the quality of services delivered in different parts of the city. Drawing on empirical data, the study revealed that little sensitivity to income and affordability, and to income differentials between neighbourhoods in the fixing of user charges and in the choice of the billing method is contributing to spatial inequalities in service delivery. Furthermore, the study suggests that these practices are linked to a broader issue, a failure of the government to see the people as partners. It therefore calls for more inclusive governance especially in decision-making processes. The study also emphasizes the need for a policy document on solid waste management, as this would encourage a critical assessment of vital issues including how privatization is to be funded, especially inlow-income areas.

  • 12.
    Adama-Ajonye, Onyanta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Beyond Dysfunctionality: Recycling in Kaduna2011Inngår i: Annual Report : 2010: The rise of Africa: miracle or mirage?, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2010, 38-40 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Adama-Ajonye, Onyanta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Nyanyan Slummin Jätehuollon Hanke Abujassa, Nigeriassa2011Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Adebanwi, Wale
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Globally Oriented Citizenship and International Voluntary Service2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores Nigeria’s human development aid to Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries under its international volunteer programme called the Technical Aid Corps (TAC). It critically examines the relationship between participation in international civic service and civic nationalism. Using a combination of empirical and analytical methods, the author is able to provide insights into the impact of two decades of Nigeria’s aid diplomacy within the context of South-South solidarity and into the inculcation of values linked to globally oriented citizenship in TAC volunteers. The findings of this study are of value to those interested in emerging African development cooperation in the global South and the expanding notions of citizenship beyond borders. Scholars, development actors and policymakers will find this study refreshingly different and highly informative.

  • 15.
    Adelman, Howard
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Suhrke, Astri
    The path of a genocide: the Rwanda crisis from Uganda to Zaire1999Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This collection of essays examines the decade (1986-97) that brackets the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, and is both a narrative of that event and a deep reexamination of the international role in ad-dressing humanitarian issues and complex emergencies. Nineteen donor countries and seventeen international organizations have pooled their efforts for an in-depth evaluation of the international response to the conflict in Rwanda.

  • 16.
    Adepoju, Aderanti
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Migration in sub-Saharan Africa2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africans arriving by rickety fishing boats to the Canary Islands, risking the passage across the Straits of Gibraltar or washed upon the Italian island of Lampedusa are familiar examples of therecent growth in migration from Africa to Europe. There is a darkside of migration in human trafficking, but the picture of a continenton the move also includes highly skilled professionals fromNigeria and Ghana who seek employment in universities and otherprofessions in South Africa. On the positive side migrant remittancesare a major source of income in many sub-Saharan Africancountries, helping to sustain the lives of poor home communities.A major challenge now facing sub-Saharan Africa is how to attractskilled emigrants back for national development.

  • 17.
    Adesida, Olugbenga
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Oteh, Arunma
    African voices, African visions2004Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Does Africa have a future? What are the visions, hopes, ambitions and fears of young Africans for the future of the world, the continent, their nation, and their communities? How do they envisage this world and their roles within it?

    These issues have not previously been explored collectively by Africans because of the enormous challenges and the preoccupation with the present. But Africa must not allow the enormity of the problems to blind it to its past and future. Africa must chart its own vision of a desirable future and therefore young Africans, born just before or after independence, were challenged to reflect on the future of the continent. Many responded to the challenge, which has resulted in this volume containing a number of the contributions.

    In this book, the voices of a new generation of Africa are heard exploring the future from personal and diverse perspectives. The authors have enumerated the ills of Africa, analyzed the problems and explored the opportunities. Remarkably, despite the daunting nature of the challenges, they were all hopeful about the future. They provided their visions of the future, suggested numerous ideas on how to build a new Africa, and implored Africans to take responsibility for the transformation of the continent. Given the current emphasis on African renaissance and union, the ideas presented here could become the basis for a truly shared vision for the continent.

  • 18.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. University of Jos.
    Environmental Degradation, Land Shortage and Identity Conflicts on the Jos Plateau in Nigeria2015Inngår i: Land in the Struggles for Citizenship in Africa / [ed] Sam Moyo - Dzodzi Tsikata - Yakham Diop, Dakar-Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2015, 37-68 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Adetula, Victor
    University of Jos.
    Ethnicity and the dynamics of city politics: The case of Jos2005Inngår i: Urban Africa: Changing contours of survival in the city / [ed] Abdoumaliq Simone and Abdelghani Abouhani (eds.), London ; Dakar: Zed Books ; CODESRIA , 2005, 206-234 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20. Adetula, Victor
    Fiscal federalism and government performance in Nigeria2016Inngår i: Nigerian federalism: continuing quest for stability and nation-building / [ed] Okechukwu Ibeanu and Mohammad J. Kuna, Ibadan: Safari Books Ltd , 2016, 111-145 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An underlying assumption of fiscal federalism is that it should create incentives for both the central and constituent governments to efficiently and effectively deliver services to their citizens. Recent discontents with Nigeria’s federal practice, especially since 1999 when the country returned to civil rule, are mostly associated with issues of fiscal federalism. Disputes and conflicts now occur more frequently between the federal and state governments that have to do with resource allocations and intergovernmental finance especially the intergovernmental fiscal transfers. The perceived vertical and horizontal inequalities engendered by the extant revenue sharing formula and the strident demands in several quarters for “true federalism” have become one of the critical sources of threat to Nigerian nationhood.  These trends point to contradictions in the conceptualization and implementation of the Nigerian federalism including its fiscal components. This chapter discusses the challenges of fiscal federalism in Nigeria within the context of the principle of decentralisation, which is understood generally as the devolution by a central government of political, administrative and fiscal powers to local-level government. It also assesses the effects of decentralisation on government performance and the implications for good governance especially since 1999 when the country returned to civil rule. In order to understand decentralisation it is essential for one to study how government is working at the sub-national levels. Fiscal federalism is treated in this chapter from a broad perspective, which is not limited by either the discipline of Economics especially its classical notion of “fiscal federalism” or the discourse in Political Science on “federalism and democracy”. The approach adopted here is the historical perspective; one that presents a holistic analysis of the challenges of Nigeria’s fiscal federalism in relation to their origins as well as current phases. Therefore, the task here is undertaken  guided by the wisdom in  Adiele Afigbo’s counsel  that “the best way to know anything is to know how it began, what factors dictated its origins and what factors dictate its development, as well as where it is heading.” Thus, while it is necessary to pay attention to contemporary trends and developments in the practice of federal system in Nigeria, and factor these into explanatory frameworks for understanding fiscal federalism in the country, it is important that the historical context be incorporated into the discourse. In this regard, historical realities and social conditions such as the colonial origins of the Nigerian federalism, and the overwhelming influence and domination of the federal polity by the military for a period of over three decades need to be recognized as important background or contextualizing variables. Structural and institutional problems in the Nigeria political economy such as over dependence on income from oil and its associated problems, the nature and character of the Nigerian state, and the orientation of the power elites that exhibit greed and lack of patriotism constitute essential part of the intervening variables. Also of importance is the emerging democratic environment in the country that is providing an enabling milieu for the expression of dissatisfaction with the status and role of the centre in the federation’s fiscal system.

  • 21.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Growing mistrust – a threat to democracy in Ghana: opportunities and challenges in the upcoming general elections2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison with other African countries, faith in democracy is strong in Ghana. But the legal tussles that followed the last general election in 2012, and the disqualification of some candidates on trifling grounds in the lead-up to this year’s presidential elections, has spurred public mistrust. This policy note issues a warning about hate speech, violent demonstrations and macho-men militias.

  • 22.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Land Ownership, Politics of Belonging and Identity Conflicts in the Jos Metropolis2015Inngår i: Studies in politics and society: journal of the Nigerian Political Science Association, ISSN 2006-9243, Vol. 3, nr 1, 67-80 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The conflicts in the Jos metropolis are not different from other identity conflicts over land in Africa. Studies have shown that dispute over environmental resources is not sufficient by itself to cause violence. When it does contribute to violence, it interacts with other political, economic, and social factors. This perspective draws attention to the social, economic and political contexts underlying environmental resource scarcity’s causal role in African conflicts. This is useful for situating the Jos sectarian conflicts within the context of the interplay of political, economic and social forces in the Jos metropolis. The conflicts connect more strongly to a long historical process on the Jos Plateau than some of the immediate problems widely reported in the media. At the centre of this historical process were British colonialism, the growth of the tin mining economy that brought the early Hausa and Fulani migrant labour to Jos, and the struggles over land. The British colonial administration through its policy of Indirect Rule, and the organization of ethnically segregated communities of ‘natives’ and ‘settlers’ created the settler-indigene divide. The Berom, Afizere and Anaguta who see themselves as the ‘first comers’ refer to themselves as ‘indigenes’ while they regard the Hausa and Fulani as ‘later comers’ and derogatorily labelled them as ‘settlers’. Both the indigenes and non-indigenes have always demonstrated strong emotional appeals to historical factors in their autochthonous claims. This paper examines the role of ethnicity, religion and other primordial sentiments in the Jos conflicts including the politics of belonging and how it relates to land ownership. This paper draws data from the author’s close observations of events in the Jos metropolis for a period of over two decades. Informal interviews, events analyses and qualitative data complement historical and contemporary documentary secondary sources on people, economy and politics of the city of Jos.

  • 23.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. University of Jos.
    Markets, Revolts, and Regime Change: The Political Economy of the Arab Spring2011Inngår i: Nigerian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 37, nr 2, 17-48 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the political economy of the Arab Spring. It draws attention to the economic and social factors underlying the recent uprisings in the Arab world. Essentially the article relates the internal dynamics in the Arab countries with their status and role in the global economy. It also notes especially the rising awareness in the Arab world on the role of the civil society in domestic politics, especially its capacity to demand political and economic change. The article is divided into five sections. The first section introduces the main issues, while the second section conceptually interprets the Arab Spring within the intellectual discourse on social revolution mainly but with a brief overview on regime change and democratic transition. The third section examines the relationship between oil, politics, and economy in the MENA region. The fourth section contains an analysis of the economic crisis and the various adjustment measures adopted by some governments on the eve of the uprisings. The fifth section examines the external dimensions of the Arab Spring including the international responses. The discussion of the lessons learned and policy recommendations concludes the article.

  • 24.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. University of Jos.
    Measuring democracy and ‘good governance’ in Africa: a critique of assumptions and methods2011Inngår i: Governance in the 21st Century / [ed] Kwandiwe Kondlo, Chinenyengozi Ejiogu, Cape Town: HSRC Press, 2011, 10-25 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Adetula, Victor
    University of Jos .
    Nigeria’s Response to Transnational Organise Crime and Jihadist Activities in West Africa2015Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nigeria's status and role as a regional power continues to impact the entire West African sub-region. However the country is facing serious security challenges that are complicated by transnational threats which are associated with organised crime and the activities of jihadist movements. Threats to security linked to the activities of illegal migrants, smugglers, drug traffickers and human traffickers in West Africa have attracted considerable attention from scholars, policy makers and practitioners alike. As the activities of the Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad (People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad) also known as Boko Haram are spreading fast through the northern part of the country into a number of countries in West and Central Africa - notably Chad, Niger, and Cameroon - fears and anxiety have become more noticeable among stakeholders. Also, the challenge of piracy and maritime insecurity in the Gulf of Guinea threatens Nigeria's national security as well as regional stability. This study presents the role of Nigeria as a regional hegemon, and also discusses its response to transnational organised criminality and jihadist activities in the sub-region, highlighting Nigeria's official response as well as other interventions undertaken through bilateral and multilateral platforms. The study concludes that there is no controversy about the desirability of the Nigerian government to curb transnational organised crime and jihadist activities in the country. However, the complexities of strategies and modalities for effective curbing of transnational threats still requires in-depth and concerted efforts than have been given by stakeholders. One may argue that the prospects for effective control of cross-border crime in West Africa are positive. Both at bilateral and multilateral levels, Nigeria has shown commitment to working with other countries within the West African sub-region to address the menace of transnational criminality including smuggling, human trafficking and cross-border banditry. On the otherhand, the oversubscription of Nigeria and some of its immediate neighbours to pseudo-nationalist policies hinder the implementation of broad-based regional strategies to address transnational threats. Thus the general apathy and lack of courage in official circles and among civil society organizations and other non-state actors in West Africa to organise across national frontiers and engage in security and development discourse, all have the tendency to limit the prospects of effective control of transnational criminality. The efforts of the Nigerian government at combating transnational organised crime and the spread of jihadist activities are yielding somegains. However, lack of political will, bad governance, and poorly equipped and motivated defence and security agencies coupled with other problems such as the porosity of the borders and non-involvement of the people have continued to inhibit progress.

  • 26.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Principle and practice of supranationalism in ECOWAS and the implications for regional integration in West Africa2016Inngår i: Political Science Review, ISSN 1996-4124, Vol. 7, nr 1, 17-34 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ‘supranationalism’ covers procedures and processes of decision-making in multi-national political communities that encourages the transfer of power to an authority broader than governments of member states. This paper acknowledges that the world is experiencing a re-awakening of supranationality, and that contemporary globalisation processes is contributing to this development that has not only checkmated the state and dissolves the absolutes of the Westphalian system, but has brought in other non-state actors including the civil society to be closely associated with the operations of international organizations. Globalisation processes have come with new challenges for governance and the management of global public goods (such as health, education, human security, etc.). The established of the African Economic Community (AEC) motivated other African regional organisations to introduce elements of supranationality in their operations. From various provisions in the Abuja Treaty, the understanding of supranationality as a situation where an international organization is endowed with powers to take decisions that are binding on it and all the member states is quite clear. The influence of this development is significant for regional integration in Africa. Using historical data and information on the performance of ECOWAS, this paper contextualizes the experience of ECOWAS in its practice of supranationalism. It highlights the opportunities, pressures and constraints for the effective and efficient operation of the supranational organization for ECOWAS These developments are important given that inter-governmentalism for long dominated the process of regional integration in Africa with each member states of regional organization retaining and exercising their full sovereign power in their separate decisions on the application and implementation of regional agreements. The paper concludes by arguing that ECOWAS, with the support of an efficiently run supranational body in the form of the ECOWAS Commission, can facilitate the process of regional integration in West Africa. This, of course, has several political ramifications demanding complex institutions and structures, and extensive political will, as well as unity of objectives and commitments at national and sub-regional.  It suffices to say here that the success of West African integration will depend first on the commitment of states in the ECOWAS region to redefine regional integration in a way that moves the process beyond state-centered approaches to include, among other things, the increased participation of civil society - the people and their representatives in associations, professional societies, farmers’ group, women’s groups and so on, as well as political parties - in regional integration processes.

  • 27.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Sweden's bid for a UN Security Council seat and what Africa stands to gain2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government should involve the African diaspora in Sweden to secure the support of African countries in the UN. It also needs to clarify in what ways Sweden's feminist foreign policy is compatible with African values of respect and dignity for womanhood. These are a couple of recommendations provided in this policy note on how Sweden should act to improve relations with African countries and succeed in its ambitions to achieve the sustainable development goals of Agenda 2030.

  • 28.
    Adetula, Victor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. University of Jos.
    Welfare Associations and the Dynamics of City Politics in Nigeria: Jos Metropolis as Case Study2002Inngår i: Under Siege: Four African Cities Freetown, Johannesburg, Kinshasa, Lagos: Documenta11_Platform 4 / [ed] Okwui Enwezor et al., Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2002, 259-379 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Adetula, Victor A. O.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    African conflicts, development and regional organisations in the post-Cold War international system: the annual Claude Ake memorial lecture : Uppsala, Sweden 30 January 20142015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of recent studies have expressed optimism about the constant decrease in armed conflicts around the world. The prognosis for Africa does not reflect the same optimism. Poverty reduction, transparent and accountable governance and citizen satisfaction with the delivery of public goods and service have shown no sign of significant improvement. In this lecture, Victor Adetula examines the performance of Africa’s regional organisations in ensuring peace and security on the continent. In doing this, he draws attention to the need for national and regional actors to pay attention to good governance and development as part of their efforts to operate effective collective security systems and conflict resolution mechanisms without ignoring the essence of the global context.

  • 30.
    Adetula, Victor A. O.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Bereketeab, Redie
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Jaiyebo, Olugbemi
    Regional economic communities and peacebuilding in Africa: the experiences of ECOWAS and IGAD2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    African states have responded to the challenges of the post-Cold War international system mostly by collectively promoting subregional and continental-wide initiatives in conflict resolution and peacebuilding. Admittedly, the existence of many violent conflicts in Africa, as well as their ‘domino’ effects at thesub-regional level, contributed significantly to the growing desire for collective security systems and conflict management mechanisms. The broadening of the role and functions of African regional organisations to include responsibility for peacebuilding and conflict management generally adds credence to the efficacy of regional integration. Many issues, however, present themselves in the engagement of RECs with the peacebuilding process in Africa. Although primarily set up to promote economic integration, Africa’s RECs have increasingly taken up a prominent role in conflict resolution and peace support operations, as evident in the recent peace processes in Burundi, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Mali, Congo DRC, Sudan, and South Sudan, among others. In spite of the challenges they face, RECs are capable of playing important roles with regard to peace mediation, peacekeeping and peacebuilding.

  • 31. Adie, W. A. C.
    et al.
    Widstrand, Carl-Gösta
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Hamrell, Sven
    The Soviet bloc, China and Africa1964Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Adolfo, Eldridge
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Angolans left out of their own future2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 46-46 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Adolfo, Eldridge
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Better-off without a vote?2013Inngår i: Annual Report : 2012: Development Dilemmas, ISSN 1104-5256, Vol. 2012, 44-45 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Angola's Sustainable Growth and Regional Role beyond the Elections2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Angola’s economic boom averaging about 17 per cent per annum, is centred on its extractive oil industry and has made Angola one of the fastest growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa and the world. With national peace providing stability and a strong military to negotiate regional threats, Angola is expected to consolidate its position as a regional power commensurate with its economic and military might. However, Angola faces challenges in the political, social, economic, governance, security and foreign policy arenas. It will also have to contend with election-related violence. While a bright medium-term future is in prospect for Angola, the country will have to negotiate and overcome these challenges to sustain its long-term peaceful development.

  • 35.
    Adolfo, Eldridge Vigil
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Electoral Violence in Africa2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategies to prevent and manage electoral violence.

  • 36.
    Adong, Florence Odora
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Recovery and Development Politics: Options for Sustainable Peacebuilding in Northern Uganda2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Adu, George
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Amporfu, Eugenia
    Does Stock Market Development Enhance Private Investment in Ghana?2016Inngår i: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Research, ISSN 2371-1655, Vol. 2, 68-78 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the extent to which stock market development enhances private investment in Ghana. Quarterly times series data for the period 1991(Q1) to 2011(Q4) are used. Stock market development is proxy by market capitalization. The paper adopts the Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) method of estimation. The results for deposit interest rates, GDP per capita, and public investment confirm complementarity hypothesis, accelerator principle, as well as “crowding-in” effect for Ghana in the long-run in their respective cases. Market capitalization also increases private investment in the long-run. However, inflation reduces private investment. In the short-run, one quarter lag and two quarters lag values of private investment and public investment respectively increases private investment, while one quarter lag value of market capitalization reduces current levels of private investment. The paper recommends further development of the stock market since doing so will attract more investors and ultimately enhance private investment.

  • 38.
    Adu, George
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Natural resource revenues and public investment in resource-rich economies in sub-Saharan Africa2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The general policy prescription for resource-rich countries is that, for sustainable consumption, a greater percentage of the windfall from resource rents should be channelled into accumulating foreign assets such as a sovereign public fund as done in Norway and other developed but resource-rich countries. This might not be a correct policy prescription for resource-rich sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, where public capital is very low to support the needed economic growth. In such countries, rents from resources serve as opportunity to scale-up the needed public capital. Using panel data for the period 1990–2013, we find in line with the scaling-up hypothesis that resource rents significantly increase public investment in SSA and that this tends to depend on the quality of political institutions. We also find evidence of a positive effect of public investment on economic growth, which also depends on the level of resource rents. Using some of the components of public investment, such as health and education expenditure, we find a negative effect of resource rents, suggesting among other things that public spending of resource rents is directed more to other infrastructure investments.

  • 39.
    Adu, George
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    What Drives Structural Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa?2016Inngår i: African Development Review, ISSN 1017-6772, E-ISSN 1467-8268, Vol. 28, nr 2, 157-169 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of the driving forces behind structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa, and to further access the role of structural reforms in accounting for cross-country differences in transformation. Evidence from this paper reveals that country specific fundamentals, institutions and policy reforms as well as governance and fiscal reforms are the key drivers of transformation in the region. A set of policy strategies is proposed to engender sustained transformation and development in the region.

  • 40.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Adu Asamoah, Lawrence
    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
    An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Interest Rates in Ghana2016Inngår i: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 17, nr 3, 377-396 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of the bank lending rate in Ghana using annual time series data from 1970 to 2013. We found evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the average lending rate charged by commercial banks and its determining factors. In the long run, bank lending rates in Ghana are positively influenced by nominal exchange rates and Bank of Ghana’s monetary policy rate but negatively with fiscal deficit, real GDP and inflation. We also find positive dependence of the bank lending rate on exchange rates, and the monetary policy rate both in the short and long run. Specifically, our findings reveal that the Bank of Ghana’s monetary policy rate and the exchange rate, by far, show strong contemporaneous effects on the average bank lending rate in Ghana.

  • 41.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Alagidede, Paul
    Climate, Technological Change and Economic Growth2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the incentive for developing adaptation technology in a world with changing climate within the directed technical change framework. Consistent with the market size effect, we show that technological change will tend to be biased in favour of the sector that employs the greater share of the work force over time, when the inputs are sufficiently substitutable. An economy with dominant climate sensitive sector can maintain sustained economic growth if it is capable of undertaking frontier innovations in the form of adaptation technology that increases the productivity of the inputs employed in the climate sensitive sector

  • 42.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.
    Alagidede, Paul
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Boakye Frimpong, Prince
    Garden City University College.
    The effect of climate change on economic growth: evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa2016Inngår i: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 18, nr 3, 417-436 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a contribution to the empirics of climate change and its effect on sustainable economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using data on two climate variables: temperature and precipitation, and employing panel cointegration econometric technique of the long- and short-run effects of climate change on growth, we establish that temperatures beyond 24.9 °C would significantly reduce economic performance in SSA. Furthermore, we show that the relationship between real GDP per capita on one hand and temperature on the other is intrinsically nonlinear.

  • 43.
    Agbu, Osita
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethnic militias and the threat to democracy in post-transition Nigeria2004Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The democratic opening presented by Nigeria’s successful transition to civil rule (June 1998 to May 1999) unleashed a host of hitherto repressed or dormant political forces. Unfortunately, it has become increasingly difficult to differentiate between genuine demands by these forces on the state and outright criminality and mayhem. Post-transition Nigeria is experiencing the proliferation of ethnic militia movements purportedly representing, and seeking to protect, their ethnic interests in a country, which appears incapable of providing the basic welfare needs of its citizens.

    It is against the background of collective disenchantment with the Nigerian state, and the resurgence of ethnic identity politics that this research interrogates the growing challenge posed by ethnic militias to the Nigerian democracy project. The central thesis is that the over-centralization of power in Nigeria’s federal practice and the failure of post-transitional politics in genuinely addressing the “National Question, has resulted in the emergence of ethnic militias as a specific response to state incapacity. The short- and long-term threats posed by this development to Nigeria’s fragile democracy are real, and justify the call for a National Conference that will comprehensively address the demands of the ethnic nationalities.

  • 44.
    Agbu, Osita A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Ethnicity and Democratisation in Africa: Challenges for Politics and Development2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper explores the challenges that ethnicity poses for democratisation and development in Africa. It provides an overview of the literature on ethnicity and democratisation and an analysis of the trends on the continent since the end of the Cold War. In this regard, it critically examines perspectives on the impact of ethnicity on democracy and analyses the ethnicity-citizenship nexus in the context of the national democratic question in Africa. This provides the basis for the analysis of emerging challenges facing Africa and the way forward. The paper provides additional insights into the ongoing debates about democracy and the nation-state question in Africa and is of interest to scholars, practitioners and the general reader.

  • 45.
    Ahlsén, Bengt
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Namibia (Sydvästafrika)1970Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46.
    Ahlsén, Bengt
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Portugisiska Afrika: Beskrivning av ett kolonialimperium och dess sönderfall1972Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Ahlsén, Bengt
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sydafrika, Namibia, Rhodesia: Minoritetsstyrda länder i södra Afrika1973Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West Africa: Issues and responses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This discussion paper examines the linkages between gender and gender inequality in the context of conflict, sexual violence and HIV transmission, and their impact on postconflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone and Liberia. It makes two critical contributions to a gendered perspective on post-conflict transitions in West Africa. First, it notes that contrary to conventional wisdom, post-war transitions to relative peace have made little difference to women’s exposure to chronic sexual violence, with potential implications for increased HIV transmission. Second, the study interrogates those assumptions linking war-related sexual violence to high HIV prevalence in post-conflict contexts, by showing that despite over a decade of armed conflict, Liberia and Sierra Leone had adult HIV prevalence rates that were among the lowest in West Africa. This paper goes beyond generally held notions of the sexual and gender dimensions of civil wars in Africa and points to a gap in, and key challenge for studies and policies on post-conflict reconstruction in Africa.

  • 49.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Towards More Informed Responses to Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West African Settings2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence is incontrovertible that Liberia (with its two civil wars, 1989-97 and 2000-03) and Sierra Leone (with its 1991-2001 war) have emerged from two of the most inhuman, ferocious and cruel conflicts in the post-Cold war era. The scale of destruction, rape, mayhem, arson and torture perpetrated during these wars was among the greatest in Africa’s postcolonial history. Women, especially adolescents and young adults, were exposed to extreme sexual brutality at a time when a growing heterosexually-driven HIV pandemic was occurring in the West African sub-region. Both countries also experienced an economic and social collapse that resulted in human development indicators on employment, income, health, education, women’s status and child well-being that are among the lowest in the world. Protracted armed conflicts, as witnessed in Liberia and Sierra Leone and beyond, expose women and girls to unprecedented levels and forms of sexual violence. Moreover, the expectation that the transition from war to peace will lead to significantly reduced sexual violence against women (SVAW) is often disappointed. Instead, post-conflict transitions tend to produce a change in the predominant forms of sexual violence and the profile of its perpetrators. The extended and interlinked conflicts in these neighbouring countries relate at a fundamental level to the persistent denial of citizenship rights to particular population sub-groups over several decades. Within such landscapes of severe social, economic and political marginalization and deprivation, women and girls were bound to suffer more than men and boys during and after the wars as a result of long-established and deeply entrenched patriarchal structures and ideologies in both countries. The persistence of SVAW during post-conflict transitions tends to increase the risk of HIV infection among younger women relative to the phase of armed conflict. A key causal factor is men’s highly exploitative, transactional and cross-generational multiple sexual activities. Thus far, the dominant responses to this complex of issues in post-conflict West Africa have lacked a nuanced understanding of the underlying drivers of sexual violence and its intersections with women’s higher risk of HIV infection.The policy responses to the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building in West Africa have generally focused more on traditional security, physical infrastructurere building and economic revitalization issues than on such highly gendered human security concerns as sexual violence and violations of reproductive rights. Left unaddressed, these persisting or worsening human security challenges, affecting at least half their populations, make sustainable peace and development in post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone nearly impossible.

  • 50.
    Ahtisaari, Martti
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    50th anniversary conference 'Fifty years with Africa in focus': Keynote speech by President Martti Ahtisaari: 'Celebrating 50 Years of Nordic-Africa Partnership: Reflections on the Past and the Future2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Filmed during the 50th anniversary conference 'Fifty years with Africa in focus', 12 October 2012 in Uppsala, Sweden. Part 1: 18 min. 39 sek. Part 2: 48 min. 47 sek.

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