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  • 1.
    Abdi, Cawo, M.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    A gendered perspective on the impact of conflict in the Horn of Africa2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Note focuses on the gendered consequences of the militarisation of the Horn of Africa. Despite being in different ‘moments’ of conflict, the countries of this region share features of extreme social, economic and political violence, which impact negatively on their citizens. Protracted refugee and refugee-like conditions, extreme disinvestment in social programmes, increasing militarisation and political repression adversely affect women, thereby further entrenching gender disparities. Concerted national and international efforts and resources should support local democratic initiatives to find political solutions to these protracted conflicts and advance the struggle against sexual and gender-based violence and discrimination.

  • 2.
    Agbu, Osita
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethnic militias and the threat to democracy in post-transition Nigeria2004Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The democratic opening presented by Nigeria’s successful transition to civil rule (June 1998 to May 1999) unleashed a host of hitherto repressed or dormant political forces. Unfortunately, it has become increasingly difficult to differentiate between genuine demands by these forces on the state and outright criminality and mayhem. Post-transition Nigeria is experiencing the proliferation of ethnic militia movements purportedly representing, and seeking to protect, their ethnic interests in a country, which appears incapable of providing the basic welfare needs of its citizens.

    It is against the background of collective disenchantment with the Nigerian state, and the resurgence of ethnic identity politics that this research interrogates the growing challenge posed by ethnic militias to the Nigerian democracy project. The central thesis is that the over-centralization of power in Nigeria’s federal practice and the failure of post-transitional politics in genuinely addressing the “National Question, has resulted in the emergence of ethnic militias as a specific response to state incapacity. The short- and long-term threats posed by this development to Nigeria’s fragile democracy are real, and justify the call for a National Conference that will comprehensively address the demands of the ethnic nationalities.

  • 3.
    Ahonsi, Babatunde A.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Towards More Informed Responses to Gender Violence and HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict West African Settings2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The evidence is incontrovertible that Liberia (with its two civil wars, 1989-97 and 2000-03) and Sierra Leone (with its 1991-2001 war) have emerged from two of the most inhuman, ferocious and cruel conflicts in the post-Cold war era. The scale of destruction, rape, mayhem, arson and torture perpetrated during these wars was among the greatest in Africa’s postcolonial history. Women, especially adolescents and young adults, were exposed to extreme sexual brutality at a time when a growing heterosexually-driven HIV pandemic was occurring in the West African sub-region. Both countries also experienced an economic and social collapse that resulted in human development indicators on employment, income, health, education, women’s status and child well-being that are among the lowest in the world. Protracted armed conflicts, as witnessed in Liberia and Sierra Leone and beyond, expose women and girls to unprecedented levels and forms of sexual violence. Moreover, the expectation that the transition from war to peace will lead to significantly reduced sexual violence against women (SVAW) is often disappointed. Instead, post-conflict transitions tend to produce a change in the predominant forms of sexual violence and the profile of its perpetrators. The extended and interlinked conflicts in these neighbouring countries relate at a fundamental level to the persistent denial of citizenship rights to particular population sub-groups over several decades. Within such landscapes of severe social, economic and political marginalization and deprivation, women and girls were bound to suffer more than men and boys during and after the wars as a result of long-established and deeply entrenched patriarchal structures and ideologies in both countries. The persistence of SVAW during post-conflict transitions tends to increase the risk of HIV infection among younger women relative to the phase of armed conflict. A key causal factor is men’s highly exploitative, transactional and cross-generational multiple sexual activities. Thus far, the dominant responses to this complex of issues in post-conflict West Africa have lacked a nuanced understanding of the underlying drivers of sexual violence and its intersections with women’s higher risk of HIV infection.The policy responses to the challenges of post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building in West Africa have generally focused more on traditional security, physical infrastructurere building and economic revitalization issues than on such highly gendered human security concerns as sexual violence and violations of reproductive rights. Left unaddressed, these persisting or worsening human security challenges, affecting at least half their populations, make sustainable peace and development in post-conflict Liberia and Sierra Leone nearly impossible.

  • 4.
    Booth, Charlotte
    et al.
    Life & Peace Institute .
    Norberg, CarinNordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Somalia: a nation without a state2008Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Report from four public seminars on the conflict in Somalia, held during October and November 2007 in Stockholm, Sweden with Nuruddin Farah, Somali Novelist, Roland Marchal, Senior Research Fellow at the Centre d’Études et de Recherches Internationales, Paris, Asha Hagi, member of the Somalia Transitional Federal Parliament and civil society activist, Jens Odlander, Swedish Ambassador for the Somali Peace Process, Shane Quinn, Programme officer at the Life and Peace Institute, Sweden, and Sahra Bargadle and Hayan Ismail from the swedish-somali Diaspora. Marika Fahlén, Special Advisor for the Horn of Africa at the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs acted as moderator for the panel discussion.The seminars were jointly organized by the Life and Peace Institute, The Nordic Africa Institute and ABF Stockholm.

  • 5.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Göteborgs universitet.
    African Regional Organizations, Peace Operations and the UN: Legitimacy and Disengagement2015Inngår i: Regional Organizations and Peacemaking: Challengers to the United Nations / [ed] Peter Wallensteen & Anders Bjurner, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyses the new and difficult roles of regional organizations in peacemaking after the end of the Cold War and how they relate to the United Nations (UN).

    Regional organizations have taken an increasingly prominent role in international efforts to deal with international security. The book highlights the complex interaction between the regional and sub-regional organizations, on the one hand, and their relations with the United Nations, on the other. Thus, the general issues of UN and its authority are scrutinized from legal, practical and geopolitical perspectives. Taking on a broad geographical focus on Africa, the Arab world and Europe, the book also provides an extensive range of case studies, with detailed analysis of particular situations, organizations and armed conflicts.

    The authors scrutinise the heterogeneous relationship between the different organizations as well as the challenges to them: political resources, legal standing, financial assets, capabilities and organizational set up. Moreover, they investigate whether regional organizations, as compared to the UN, are better suited to deal with today’s intra-state conflicts. The book also aims to dissect the evolution of these institutions historically – in relation to Chapter VIII of the UN Charter which mentions the resort to 'regional arrangements’ for conflict management – as well as more generally in relation to the principles of international law and UN principles of peacemaking.

    This book, written by a mixture of established scholars, diplomats and high-level policymakers, will be of great interest to students as well as practitioners in the field of peace and conflict studies, regional security, international organisations, conflict management and IR in general.

  • 6.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Civilian protection in Africa: How the protection of civilians is being militarized by African policymakers and diplomats2017Inngår i: Contemporary Security Policy, ISSN 1352-3260, E-ISSN 1743-8764, Vol. 38, nr 1, 161-173 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how the protection of civilians is being militarized by African policymakers and diplomats. I draw on practice approaches to analyze what social groups are doing when they claim to “protect civilians.” I show how innovative protection mechanisms can be seen as a function of officials and diplomats coping with the changing circumstances of increasingly militarized politics in Africa. Specifically, accountability mechanisms for unintended and intended civilian harm by African security operations have originated in connection with this development. I argue that these are results of anchoring practices, which means that everyday informal interactions in one context become linked to another context. I argue that these emerging accountability mechanisms represent a new combination of practices, with the potential of changing the routine activities and mutual learning between policymakers and diplomats.

  • 7.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    The Role and Impact on the African Union2016Inngår i: Political Rationale and International Consequences of the War in Libya / [ed] Dag Henriksen and Ann Karin Larssen, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 269-285 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Karlsrud, John
    de Coning, Cedric
    Strategic Options for the Future of African Peace Operations 2015-2025: Seminar Report2015Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    An African model of peace operationsIncreasingly complex security environments are placing high demandson African peace operations, and complicating efforts at long-termpeace- and statebuilding. From the experiences of the African Union(AU) and the sub-regions over the last decade, an African model ofpeace operations has emerged that is at odds with the missionscenarios and multi-dimensional assumptions that underpinned theoriginal framework of the African Standby Force (ASF).

  • 9.
    Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    What does it mean to be human in the aftermath of historical trauma?: re-envisioning The Sunflower and why Hannah Arendt was wrong2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    What does it mean to be human in the aftermath of mass trauma and violence? When victims and perpetrators of gross human rights violations live in the same country, and sometimes as neighbours, what strategies can help individuals and communities deal with trauma in a way that restores dignity to victims and enables perpetrators to be accountable for their crimes? This essay explores these questions. Examples that illustrate attempts to create sites for listening, for moral reflection and for initiating the difficult process of dialogue at community and individual levels after mass trauma and violence are discussed. It is argued that in the aftermath of historical trauma, restoring human bonds requires a new vocabulary of re-humanization. This new mode of being human calls for a “reparative humanism” that opens towards a horizon of an ethics of care for the sake of a transformed society.

  • 10.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    A short note on Kenya and early warning signals2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kenya crisis came largely as a surprise, at least to outsiders. Was it possible to see it coming? Is Kenya a special case, or are there reasons to expect similar crises in other ”stable” African nations with politics, ethnicity and inequality forming an explosive blend?

    This short exploratory note will approach these questions by taking a look at opinion poll datafrom the Afrobarometer 2005 and 2003. Were any signals of what was coming already there,before our eyes?

  • 11.
    Ismail, Olawale
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Dynamics of post-conflict reconstruction and peace building in West Africa: between change and stability2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This NAI Discussion Paper critically explores the concepts, norms and practices of reconstruction and peace building in post-conflict West Africa, drawing largely on the case of Liberia and Sierra Leone. It provides an up-to-date analysis and critique of the impact of the UN-led praxis and practice of peace building in the post-conflict states in the region. The material in this study covers the context of post-conflict reconstruction and peace building in West Africa; the evolution and analysis of the global peace building regime; the architecture of peace building in West Africa; the ‘un-making’ of peace building in Sierra Leone. It also interrogates the basic assumtions that underpin international peace building in Africa, noting that at best, it is designed to promote stability and security rather than a deeper and more sustainable popular and socially rooted peace.

  • 12. Jörgel, Magnus
    et al.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Mano river basin area: formal and informal security providers in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    King, Nathaniel
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Conflict as integration: youth aspiration to personhood in the teleology of Sierra Leone's 'senseless war'2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rebel war in Sierra Leone has been given various characterisations. One of the most commonplace of them brands it a ‘senseless war’. In this study the author examines the views of the Sierra Leoneans themselves on this notion, and through a sociological lens he explores the “youthscape“ of the war. The study also revisits some of the central works on the Sierra Leonean war by authors such as Paul Richards, Ibrahim Adbdullah and Yusuf Bangura.

  • 14.
    Lanzano, Cristiano
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Crisi e transizione in Burkina Faso2014Inngår i: Afriche e Orienti, ISSN 1592-6753, Vol. XVI, nr 3, 133-139 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Norberg, Carin
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Obi, Cyril
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Reconciling winners and losers in post-conflict elections in West Africa: political and policy imperatives2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In post-conflict societies, elections play several roles. They provide citizens with the opportunity to freely chose their leaders and representatives, and provide countries emerging from civil wars with new opportunities to come to terms with a traumatic past and rebuild their lives and societies in a secure and stable environment. For the international community, post-conflict elections lend credibility to peace agreements and provide an exit strategy. However, when elections are poorly timed or administered, and outstanding issues of justice, participation, national ownership and sustainability of the peace process are not well addressed, there is always a chance that the entire process may unravel. This report based on the debates and discussions of a panel debate on Winners and Losers in Post-Conflict Elections in West Africa, draws on insights from post-conflict elections in the sub-region and provides some crucial policy recommendations as well as areas for further research.

  • 16.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Positiv kunnskapsflukt2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Rosquist, Catrin
    et al.
    Life & Peace Institute.
    Norberg, CarinNordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mapping Darfur2007Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Darfur Peace Agreement was signed on 5 May 2006 in Abuja, Nigeria. It has not brought safety to the people of Darfur. The humanitarian crisis continues to be deeply worrying despite aspirations to achieve improved conditions for the suffering population of Darfur. The report Mapping Darfur is published one year after the peace agreement was signed. It is based on a series of seminars during February and March 2007 organised by the Nordic Africa Institute, the Life and Peace Institute and ABF Stockholm. The key intention was to increase knowledge and good understanding of the underlying causes of the crisis in Darfur through contributions from different actors and observers, such as academia, politicians and humanitarian aid workers.

  • 18.
    Schoeman, Maxi
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    South African female peacekeepers on mission in Africa: Progress, challenges and policy options for increased participation2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa’s contribution of troops to peace missions is the 13th largest in the world, and the country has the largest women’s contingent deployed in Peace Support Operations (PSOs). Although, South Africa is one of only a handful of countries incorporating women in combat positions and PSOs, on average the picture of female participation remains less rosy.On the policy level, South Africa has committed itself to gender mainstreaming in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) in line with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). The UN Resolution on Women, Peace and Security calls for, among other things, full inclusion of women in all aspects of peace-related activities, including peacekeeping. On 31 October2010, the world will mark the 10th anniversary of Resolution 1325, just as in 2009 South Africa celebrated ten years of participation in international peacekeeping operations. This is a pertinent time to take stock of South Africa’s progress in improving the gender balance in its military, specifically in its contribution to PSOs, and the opportunities and obstacles that exist in this process.This Policy Note is based on information collected from questionnaires, interviews and reports, along with insights gleaned from discussion groups at the 2007 SANDF Women’s Day Conference to identify the progress of, and challenges to the SANDF in improving the gender balance in its peacekeeping activities. These initial research findings form part of a larger project on South African involvement in peacekeeping, focusing in particular on the status, position and role of women decision-makers and peacekeepers. Problems encountered by women peacekeepers and the challenges faced by the SANDF are not unique and the recommendations may therefore be of relevance beyond South Africa, particularly to those African countries across the continent attempting to attract more women into, and mainstream gender in the military and PSOs.

  • 19.
    Sesay, Amadu
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Does one size fit all?: the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission revisited2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Societies emerging from protracted conflict and violence face numerous challenges at the individual, community and national levels. Accordingly, a variety of strategies have been suggested for "healing" the wounds of the past and coping with the future, thereby facilitating national reconciliation and peace buildings. One of these approaches is the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, TRC, believed to provide a veritable platform for victims and perpetrators alike, to have a voice that would enable them to come to terms with the horrifying past. In Africa, TRCs as strategies for coming to terms with the past in Africa came into prominence following the example of South Africa after the end of apartheid in 1994. Since then, TRCs have been set up in Rwanda and Sierra Leone, while one has been proposed for Liberia. From such a standpoint it is tempting to argue that there has emerged what we can call  a  "one size fits all" syndrome, that is, if the TRC "worked" for South Africa, a position that is the subject of intense debate within and outside that country, then it is "good" for Sierra Leone, Liberia or any other African society that is emerging from protracted violent conflict. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to draw attention to the TRC phenomenon in Sierra Leone, to stimulate discussion on the diverse questions surrounding its rationale, processes and outcomes, especially its impacts on post conflict reconciliation in the country. Another goal of the project is to document the multiple and conflicting perceptions among various groups in the TRC processes, and how such perceptions were reflected in the Commission's work and recommendations. Finally, it is expected that the study would form the basis for future empirically grounded research and policy analysis, more extensive research and perhaps even collaboration, between the author and those working on innovative but home-grown mechanisms for promoting reconciliation in post war Sierra Leone and elsewhere.

  • 20.
    Teppo, Annika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Houssay-Holzschuch, Myriam
    Gugulethu™: revolution for neoliberalism in a South African township2013Inngår i: Canadian Journal of African Studies, ISSN 0008-3968, E-ISSN 1923-3051, Vol. 47, nr 1, 51-74 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Teppo, Annika
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Millstein, Marianne
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    The Place of Gentrification in Cape Town2015Inngår i: Global gentrifications: uneven development and displacement / [ed] Loretta Lees, Hyun Bang Shin, Ernesto López-Morales, Bristol: Policy Press, 2015, 419-440 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Tobisson, Eva
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Consequences and challenges of tourism and seaweed farming: a narrative on a coastal community in Zanzibar2013Inngår i: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 12, nr 2, 169-184 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although international influences have affected Zanzibar for centuries, some rural areas have remained largely unaffected by globalization until a few decades ago when Zanzibar emerged as a tourist destination and commercial seaweed farming was introduced. This paper focuses on local responses to these two external drivers of change, from the perspectives of women and men on the south-eastern coast of Unguja Island where they strive to improve their livelihoods. Longitudinal social anthropological surveys using interactive methods were used to reveal the perspectives and coping strategies of individuals under multidimensional poverty. The study thus focused on micro-level diversity and diversification in the modes of livelihood over time and within broader national and global frameworks. The tourist boom in the 1990s was followed by fluctuations and a decline in backpackers who had until then benefited the local economy. Seaweed production, undertaken almost exclusively by women, has steadily increased since the late 1980s. Although it entails hard work for limited returns, seaweed has become highly significant in boosting women’s empowerment and securing their livelihood; economic diversification is central to the livelihood of poor women.

  • 23.
    Ukiwo, Ukoha
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Causes and cures of oil-related Niger Delta conflicts2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nigeria’s political and economic fortunes and the country’s ability to play a stabilizing role in the African region partly depend on the resolution of the lingering Niger Delta conflict. The Niger Delta covers nine out of 36 states and 185 out of 774 local government areas of the Nigerian federation. It occupies a total land area of 75,000 square kilometers and is the world’s third largest wetlands. The 2006 Nigerian population census shows that 30 million out of the country’s 140 million people reside in the Niger Delta region. Nearly all of Nigeria’s oil and gas reserves are located in the region. Oil and gas have accounted for about 40 per cent of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) since 1990. Between 2000 and 2004, oil and gas accounted for 75 per cent of total government revenues and 97 per cent of foreign exchange. Apart from being vital to Nigeria’s fiscal viability, the Niger Delta is important to global energy security.

  • 24.
    Ukiwo, Ukoha
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Les causes et les remèdes des conflits pétroliers du Delta du Niger2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [fr]

    Les fortunes économique et politique du Nigéria, et la capacité du pays à jouer un rôle stabilisant dans la région africaine, dépendent de la résolution du conflit qui persiste dans la zone du delta du Niger. Le delta couvre neuf états, sur un total de 36, et 185 des 774 gouvernements locaux de la fédération nigériane. Il occupe une étendue totale de 75,000 mètres carrés et constitue la troisième plus grande zone humide de la terre. Le recensement Nigérien de 2006 montreque 30 million d’habitants, sur une population total de 185 million, résident dans la région du delta du Niger. La quasi-totalité des réseaux de gaz et de pétrole du Nigéria sont situés dans la région. Depuis 1990, le pétrole et le gaz représentent environ 40% du produit intérieur brut (PIB). Entre 2000 et 2004, ces deux industries ont engendré 75% des revenus totales du gouvernement, et ont généré 97% des échanges commerciaux. En plus d´être essentiel à la viabilité financière du Nigéria, le delta du Niger est important pour la sécurité énergétique mondiale.

  • 25.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Diamanter är för evigt - men Sierra Leonsk ungdom är utbytbar2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Urban Dynamics.
    Freetown: Berättelser från den osynliga staden2007Inngår i: Den Ny Verden, ISSN 0029-6775, Vol. 40, nr 2, 27-37 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Utas, Mats
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Sexual abuse survivors and the complex of traditional healing: (G)local prospects in the aftermath of an African war2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In its efforts to assist post-conflict societies in africa the international aid community has acitvely promoted projects of psycho-social healing among people traumatized during wars and violent conflict. To a large degree these projects have been established in the tradtion of Western psychology. More recently, however, it has been realized in order to help survivors of war effectivley it is necessary to adapt projects and enhance “local” psycho-social healing. This policy report locates the structures – with local legitimacy – that are available to young people who experienced sexual abuse during the Sierra Leone civil war (1991–2002). To this end, this booklet discusses a healing complex that comprises a number of overlapping actors, including herbalists, Zoe Mammies (heads of the female secret societies), Mori-men (Muslim healers); Karamokos (Muslim teachers) and Christian pastors.

    CONTENTS

    1. Introduction

    2. Scope of the study

    2.1 Methods

    2.2 Research ethichs

    3. Limitations of the study

    4. War-related sexual abuse

    4.1 Quantitative findings

    4.2 Qualitative findings

    4.3 Turning a page? Sexual abuse in post-war reality

    5. Variations of traditional healing

    5.1 Notes on mental illness in Sierra Leone

    5.2 The healing complex6. Traditional healing of sexual abuse

    6.1 From the girls’ and young women’s perspective

    6.2 The herbalist

    6.3 The Karamoko and the Mori-man

    6.4 The Soweh mammy and female herbalist (Kuntumoi musu)

    6.5 Cleansing the bush

    6.6 The pastor

    6.7 Talking trauma – notes on counselling

    7. Findings and recommendations

    7.1 Social approaches towards the sexually abused

    7.2 Girls’ and young women’s practices related totraditional healing

    7.3 Findings on traditional healers

    7.4 Recommendations

    Appendices

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