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  • 1.
    Amanor, Kojo Sebastian
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Land, labour and the family in southern Ghana: a critique of land policy under neo-liberalisation2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on field work carried out in the Akyem Abuakwa area of the forest region of Ghana, a section of the country rich in agricultural land, gold, and diamonds.

    Through the field work which was undertaken and the empirical material generated, the author attempts to chart the processes and patterns of differentiation connected to land and land use in contemporary Ghana. In addition to class-related differentiation, he also identifies intra-household, generational and gender differences as well as their implications for the mobilisation of family labour and the emergence of new land and labour markets.

    The conclusions which the author draws challenge some of the dominant theoretical approaches to the land question in contemporary Africa, particularly the evolutionary property rights and communitarian approaches.

  • 2.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Danielson, Anders
    Tanzania: is the ugly duckling finally growing up?2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The title of this report is inspired by the great Danish author Hans Christian Andersen who in the child's tale "Den Grimme Ælling" ("The Ugly Duckling") tells the story of a particularly ugly duckling. She is so ugly, in fact, that she is despised and disliked by all other ducks and ducklings. After a long and painful period of time, however, she grows up - but not to become an ugly duck. Instead she becomes a beautiful white swan, admired by all. So Andersen's tale has a happy ending-at least as far as the ugly duckling goes. The major question tackled in this report is whether a similar fate is awaiting Tanzania. Having been something of an enfant terrible since the deep crisis in the early 1980s, economic progress since 1995 provides some hope that the duckling period is Tanzania is finally over.

    The study initially emerged as part of the "Emerging Africa" research program launched by the OECD's Development Centre in 1997. Comments from participants in that research program are gratefully acknowledged, particularly Jean-Claude Berthélemy (project leader), Aristomene Varoudakis and Ludvig Söderlind. Jean Bonvin, President of the Development Centre (until spring, 1999) guided the project from the start. The project was financed by generous grants from the governments of Switzerland and Belgium.

     

  • 3.
    Bigsten, Arne
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve
    Is Uganda an emerging economy?: a report for the OECD project "Emerging Africa"2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of serious external shocks and political destabilisation in part of the country, Uganda has remained a good economic performer since the late 1980s, with over a decade of high per capita growth in excess of three per cent.

    This study concludes that Uganda's medium to long-term success will depend on the achievements in institutional reforms, including raising the quality of the civil service, curbing corruption and implementing an effective regulatory framework. This is important as a poorly functioning public sector is both unable to uphold the rule of law, thus losing the public goodwill necessary for implementing new measures, and a burden on the private sector as it implies increased transaction costs.

    There is a widespread domestic and international concern that the civil strife in the Great Lakes Region might lead Uganda and its neighbours from the path of economic reform back to socio-economic instability.

  • 4.
    Bovin, Mette
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Nomads who cultivate beauty: wodaabe dances and visual arts in Niger2001Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do young men use mirrors and make-up more than girls? Why do the Wodaabe nomads of West Africa have beauty parades for men? Wodaabe's extraordinary and unique live performances are often misunderstood by outsiders. The book provides some answers about these aesthetic activities. One answer is courtship and "wife-stealing ceremonies" involving enemy clans, another is ethnic identity. Beauty and existence are linked. Wodaabe dances and visual arts are not "exotic" but are arenas for social action and identity politics in the largely agricultural society of the arid regions of Niger, Nigeria and Chad.

    The author describes Wodaabe cultural choices as "active archaisation". Different art forms are analysed in the light of identity construction by the Wodaabe. Their elaborate cultivation of beauty in make-up, tattoos, body paintings, calabash carvings, embroideries, and architecture all follow the principle of symmetry and order in the cosmos. The author emphasizes the gendered aspects of social life and identity construction and explores masculinity among nomadic Wodaabe men, who are living sculptures displaying their beauty as a spiritual act, full of honour and dignity.

    The book has many colour photographs and examples of Wodaabe art.

     

  • 5.
    Dahl, Gudrun
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Responsibility and partnership in Swedish aid discourse2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997 the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs elaborated a 'New Policy for Africa'. Its purpose was to co-ordinate the country's cultural assistance, trade and development aid to African countries by giving these activities a frame of common goals and an ideological rationale, emphasising 'partnership' rather than 'solidarity' or 'aid'. This paper analyses the metaphors and paradoxes of the rhetorical draping of the policy as presented in the main report and the speeches of various officials. Of particular concern is what image of moral and reciprocal relations the policy mediates.

  • 6.
    Davidson, Basil
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Afrika i det tjugonde seklet2001Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ny omarbetad upplaga. Afrikas moderna politiska och sociala historia presenteras här insiktsfullt och översiktligt på ett sätt som gör den till ett standardverk i sig och en oundgänglig bakgrund till de enskilda afrikanska ländernas historia. Boken har skrivits i skuggan av de kriser som många afrikanska samhällen och institutioner drabbades av i slutet av 1900-talet och som fortfarande pågår. Bokens författare, den kände afrikaexperten Basil Davidson, diskuterar orsakerna till sönderfallet och de afrikanska staternas sårbarhet. Men han tar också itu med de industrialiserade ländernas misslyckanden att förändra förhållandet mellan de rika länderna i nord och de fattiga i syd. Boken avslutas med en diskussion om hur Afrika idag söker sina egna lösningar. I boken finns ett detaljrikt och praktiskt index och flera specialritade kartor. Den är lämplig som studie- och referensbok på gymnasiet och i vuxenutbildningen. Basil Davidson är en brittisk journalist och historiker som skrivit ett 20-tal böcker om Afrikas historia. Han har nått en stor publik i sina strävanden att framställa Afrikas historia ur ett afrikanskt perspektiv med afrikanska källor.

  • 7.
    Diagne, Souleymane Bachir
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Melber, HenningThe Nordic Africa Institute.Mama, AminaNyamnjoh, Francis B.
    Identity and beyond: rethinking Africanity2001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper presents the plenary presentations by the three main speakers during the Nordic Africa Days, with an introduction offering an overview and comment on the various approaches on Gender and Power in African Contexts, Africanity as an Open Question and Rethinking Power in Africa.

  • 8.
    Lund, Christian
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Benjaminsen, Tor A.
    Politics, property and production in the West African Sahel: understanding natural resources management2001Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding natural resources management requires an interdisciplinary approach. Through a number of case studies from the West African Sahel, this book links and explores natural resources management from the perspectives of three distinct but interrelated spheres (politics, property and production) and within a broad and empirically based political ecology.

    Natural resources management is first of all profoundly political. Seen from above, it is constantly the object of planning efforts where one 'master-plan' follows another, each sponsored by one of the major international donors. Policies and plans are again informed by global discourses of 'decentralisation', 'disengaging the State', 'democratisation' or 'desertification'. Seen from below, natural resources management is always the object of power struggles and politicisation linked to property rights to land.

    Property may in fact be one of the most comprehensive, yet at the same time most elusive, concepts in the natural resources debate. To say that someone has a 'right' to land is to summarise in one word a complex and highly conditional state of affairs. African and Sahelian land tenure is a field where property relations are multifarious, overlapping and competing.

    The prospects for African and Sahelian production systems and their influences on the environment are also contested. The conventional belief says that these systems are marked by agricultural stagnation and environmental degradation, but this is increasingly being questioned or qualified. Under certain policy environments production systems and resources seem to follow more optimistic paths. Such emerging experiences which cut against the grain of conventional perceptions of the Sahelian environment should encourage us to rethink both Sahelian research and policy formulation.

  • 9.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    The new African initiative and the African Union: a preliminary assessment and documentation2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the year 2000 an initiative among the African states to transform the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) into the African Union (AU) gained momentum. It resulted in the ratification of the Constitutive Act and its adoption at the 36th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in July 2001 in Lusaka. Parallel to this process of reorganisation towards closer inter-state collaboration on the African continent in the spirit of Pan Africanism emerged the systematic effort to redefine developmental priorities and to claim a new common position of African states in the globalised world. The "African Renaissance" initiative of South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki resulted in a "Millenium Africa Recovery Programme", which was finally revised and presented as the "New Africa Initiative" (NAI). Adopted at the same OAU Summit in Lusaka in July 2001, the NAI serves as a blueprint for Africa's development strategy at the beginning of the 21st century. It was presented to the G8 summit in Genoa, where the leaders of the world's powerful countries decided on a follow up by appointing individual special advisers to explore support to the NAI and future collaboration on the basis of this document.

    This paper offers a preliminary assessment of the New Africa Initiative within the context of the transformation of the OAU into the AU. It identifies and summarises essential new aspects advocated, critically examines the degree of realism and points at the possible limitations. The analysis also considers first reactions to the initiatives and reflects on the perspectives.

  • 10.
    Melber, Henning
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Saunders, Christopher
    Transition in Southern Africa: comparative aspects2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1990s completed a process of transition in Namibia and South Africa that brought formal decolonisation in Africa to an end. These two contributions review some aspects of the transformation and complement each other. They take stock of the transformation in a historical, comparative perspective and investigate the experiences and prospects of democratisation under sovereign, legitimate political rule. They were compiled subsequent to a public lecture arranged by the Nordic Africa Institute and given by Christopher Saunders on "The Transitions to Democracy in Namibia and South Africa" on 5 April 2001. Henning Melber was a discussant at the presentation.

  • 11.
    Melber, Melber
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Regionalism and regional integration in Africa: a debate of current aspects and issues2001Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Consultative Workshop on "Regional Integration in Africa" was organised by and at the Nordic Africa Institute on March 8 and 9, 2001. The contributions compiled in this volume were related to this policy oriented but academic endeavour. They identify and review current issues of regionalism and regional integration within the era of globalisation in the African context. Their approaches present different theoretical and regional perspectives which provide new insights, challenge existing concepts and perceptions and contribute to an enriched debate.

  • 12.
    Mupedziswa, Rodreck
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Gumbo, Perpetua
    Women informal traders in Harare and the struggle for survival in an environment of economic reforms2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the results of the fourth and final round of interviews carried out among informal sector women traders in Harare, Zimbabwe as part of a longitudinal study of their conditions of work and livelihood in the context of economic crisis and structural adjustment.

    The evidence which was available from the interview points to a deepening social crisis in Zimbabwe as attested to by the increasing crisis of subsistence and livelihood among the overwhelming majorette of the informal sector workers.

    Far from being the terrain where sections of the populace might be able to find economic liberation, the informal sector is, in fact characterised by serious internal differentiation, very low incomes, and an over-saturation that results in the inability of the women survey to do anything other than struggle at the margins for basic survival.

  • 13.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet,
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Number 3 October 20012001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14. Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges
    et al.
    Suttner, Raymond
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Africa in the new millenium2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions to this Discussion Paper were prepared for a workshop on "Africa in the new millennium" held in Stockholm in May 2001. The idea of the workshop was not to counter "negative" perceptions of Africa with "positive" ones. Nor was it to arrive at finalised ideas or prescriptions for governments or the continent as a whole. The aim was to raise important questions, which may help contextualise and deal with the problems facing the continent. It was an attempt to go below the surface of immediate crises and open up a debate around Africa and its international relations. It is hoped that publication of these papers will encourage further debate, and contribute towards realising the goal of African recovery.

  • 15.
    Obi, Cyril
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    The changing forms of identity politics in Nigeria under economic adjustment: the case of the oil minorities movement of the Niger Delta2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to capture the transformations in ethnic minority identity politics in the oil-producing areas of the Niger delta. In doing this, attention is simultaneously drawn to the factors informing the shift from peaceful agitation to violent protest as well as the dynamic of decay and renewal in the various ethnic minority movements that are active in the delta. It is suggested that part of the solution to the crisis in the delta will involve not only a thorough-going restructuring of the Nigerian state but also the re-orientation of the mode of operation of the giant oil multinationals in order to make them both more sensitive and accountable to the local communities.

  • 16.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Beyond “isms” and “posts”: Imagining Epistemology in Africa in the age of Globalization2001In: Journal of Cultural Studies, ISSN 1595-0956, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Global, state and local intersections: power, authority, and conflict in the Niger Delta oil communities2001In: Intervention and Transnationalism in Africa: Global-Local Networks of Power / [ed] Thomas Callaghy; Ronald Kassimir; Robert Latham, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Globalization and Local Resistance: The Case of Shell versus the Ogoni2001In: Globalization and the Politics of Resistance / [ed] Barry Gills, Hampshire, New York: Palgrave , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Introduction: Some Critical Issues in Women’s Political Participation Through Economic Empowerment2001In: Women’s Political Participation Through Economic Empowerment / [ed] Cyril I. Obi, Lagos: Human Development Initiatives , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Oil minority rights versus the Nigerian state: conflict and transcendence2001Book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Reconstructing Africa’s Development in the New Millennium through NEPAD: Can African Leaders Deliver the Goods?2001In: African Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 4, no 1&2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    The State of Research in Nigerian Social Sciences: Challenges for Capacity-Building in a Changing World2001In: Paths to the Sustainability of Higher Education in Nigeria: Proceedings of the 12th General Assembly of the Social Science Academy of Nigeria, Abuja, July 3-7 / [ed] -, Social Science Academy of Nigeria , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Palmberg, Mai
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Cultural Images and Expressions.
    Encounter images in the meetings between Africa and Europe2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1995 the Nordic Africa Institute initiated a research project on cultural aspects of development and Nordic-African relations. One of the aims was to contribute to providing other images of Africa than the negative images of misery, war and catastrophes often conveyed by the mass media. Another was to encourage cultural aspects of change in Africa, and the dynamics of cultural production itself. It is indisputable that negative images of Africa increasingly dominate everyday reporting and therefore public opinion too. The generalised pessimistic pictures are in stark contrast to what those of us have experienced who have had the opportunity to visit Africa and work there. It was important not only to encourage alternatives to stereotypes and generalisations, which portrayed Africans as helpless victims, but also to try to understand how and why, and to what extent these images had developed. This was the theme of the first conference organised within the new project on culture, coordinated by Mai Palmberg. This research project was called "Cultural Images in and of Africa", and the seminar dealt primarily with the images of Africa developed in Europe. A selection of edited papers from this seminar is presented here.

  • 24.
    Palmberg, Mai
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Cultural Images and Expressions.
    Eriksson Baaz, Maria
    Same and other: negotiating African identity in cultural production2001Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of African Otherness has occupied a central role in discourses on cultural production in Africa, whether film, literature, music or the arts. These claims, articulated both by 'Western' and 'African' critics and consumers, means that particular criteria and standards are adopted in relation to cultural production in Africa. The claim to African Otherness is gaining new strength in the wake of globalisation, but it is also increasingly challenged by a number of contemporary artists. This book deals with the question of relevance and meaning of the signifier in various fields of contemporary cultural production in Africa: literature, film, sculpture, music, popular drama.

  • 25.
    Reyntjens, Filip
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Again at the crossroads: Rwanda and Burundi, 2000-20012001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the third overview by Filip Reyntjens on recent developments in Rwanda and Burundi. The first one "Talking or Fighting?" (published 1999) covered the period 1998-1999, the second one "Small States in an Unstable region"covered the period 1999-2000. In the new publication the political evolution of Rwanda and Burundi is investigated in a broader regional geopolitical context.

  • 26.
    Riehl, Volker
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Who is ruling in South Sudan?: the role of NGOs in rebuilding socio-political order2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the role of NGOs in rebuilding socio-political order in South Sudan. It describes the socio-political determinants of the last ten years which will throw some light on the political stage in South Sudan and might contribute to the main question of who really has the political power and influence in South Sudan today.

  • 27.
    Rudebeck, Lars
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Colapso e reconstrução política na Guiné-Bissau 1998-2000: um estudo de democratização difícil2001Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of recent developments in Guinea Bissau. Lars Rudebeck seeks to investigate how democratic rule emerges and functions in real life. His analysis extends far beyond the multi-party system and election procedures as he discusses contrasts in people's perceptions of democracy. He assesses their access to influential structures, the roles of civil and political society, of the military, and of international assistance and argues that complex power structures need to be addressed if democracy is to be consolidated.

  • 28.
    Saugestad, Sidsel
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    The inconvenient indigenous: remote area development in Botswana, donor assistance, and the first people of the Kalahari2001Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The book deals with the relationship between the government of Botswana and its indigenous minority, known as Bushmen, San, Basarwa, or more recently N/oakwe, and tries to understand why the San people remain a marginalised minority in a country that since Independence in 1966 has committed itself to a democratic and non-racial agenda. The use of the concept 'indigenous' is controversial in Botswana and in the rest of Africa, and the book asks thought-provoking questions about the responsibility of the state, the role of the international community and the need for representative organisations. While there have been dozens of books published on the ethnography of the San, this is the first book that places them in the comparative context of indigenous peoples' struggle for recognition. An in-depth documentation and analysis is given of a series of events in 1992 and 1993 that were crucial in establishing San indigenous organisations and identities, and the emergent San organisations are followed from the communities in Kalahari to international meetings in Geneva.

  • 29. Soule, Bio Goura
    et al.
    Obi, Cyril I.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Trade between Nigeria and its Prospects for Neighbours2001Book (Other academic)
  • 30. Tostensen, Arne
    et al.
    Tvedten, IngeThe Nordic Africa Institute.Vaa, Mariken
    Associational life in African cities: popular responses to the urban crisis2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is about the multitude of associations that has emerged in African cities in recent years. In many cases, they are a response to mounting poverty, failing infrastructure and services, and more generally, weak and abdicating urban governments. Some associations are new, in other cases existing organisations are taking on new tasks. Associations may be neighbourhood-based, others may be city-wide and based on professional groupings or a shared ideology or religion. Still others have an ethnic base.

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