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  • 101.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Political Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Centre for Gender and Africa Studies, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Populism in Southern Africa under liberation movements as governments2018In: Review of African Political Economy, ISSN 0305-6244, E-ISSN 1740-1720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Portrait of a Namibian patriot: the life of Andimba (Herman) Toivo ya Toivo (1924-2017)2017In: Journal of the Namibia Scientific Society, ISSN 1018-7677, Vol. 65, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Southern Africa2018In: Africa Yearbook Volume 14: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2017 / [ed] Jan Abbink, Victor Adetula, Andreas Mehler and Henning Melber, Leiden: Brill , 2018, p. 415-423Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 104.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The African middle class(es) – in the middle of what?2017In: Review of African Political Economy, ISSN 0305-6244, E-ISSN 1740-1720, Vol. 44, no 151, p. 142-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Melber, Henning
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The shifting grounds of emancipation: From the anti-colonial struggle to a critique of post-colonial society2018In: Writing Namibia: Literature in Transition / [ed] Sarala Krishnamurty and Helen Vale, Windhoek, Namibia: UNAM Press , 2018, p. 17-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Melber, Henning
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Kromrey, Daniela
    Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz.
    Welz, Martin
    Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    Changing of the guard?: An anatomy of power within SWAPO of Namibia2017In: African Affairs, ISSN 0001-9909, E-ISSN 1468-2621, Vol. 116, no 463, p. 284-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an anatomy of power relations and policymaking within the ranks of the former liberation movement South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) in Namibia. It summarizes the features of Namibia's dominant party state and argues that Namibia is a case of competitive authoritarian rule. Our analysis documents how the first generation of SWAPO activists, in exile after the early 1960s, has since independence in 1990 remained the most influential segment of the former anti-colonial movement. This continuity is personified in the country's third president, Hage Geingob, and parts of his team in cabinet. Despite some gradual and increasingly visible shifts in the composition of SWAPO MPs, the party's first generation has so far remained largely in control of the country's political affairs. Analysing the background of the ministers serving since independence also shows that a second generation of SWAPO activists, in exile after the mid-1970s, gradually expanded their influence and took over leading positions. Given the dominance of SWAPO and the lack of any meaningful political opposition, a new leadership depends on upward inner-party mobility. Given the limited scope for a younger generation to move into higher offices, the strengthening of democracy through new leadership and innovative thinking is very limited. Rather, politics tends to be reproduced through established networks and bonds with a low degree of permissiveness, which reinforces the nature of the competitive authoritarian regime under the control of ‘old men’.

  • 107.
    Mohamed Nour, Samia Satti
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Khartoum.
    Africa bridging the digital divides2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Africa’s leapfrogging information and communication technology development is fueled by mobile broadband. The number of mobile-broadband subscriptions on the continent has increased more than 15 times over the past six years, a growth rate that is three times the global average. However, there are also worrying trends, such as a growing digital divide between men and women, and between urban and rural areas.

  • 108.
    Mususa, Patience
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Autoritäre Politik, wachsende Ungleichheit: Das südliche Afrika steht vor großen Herausforderungen2018In: Welt-Trends : das außenpolitische Journal, ISSN 0944-8101, no 144, p. 36-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges 1989, der Unabhängigkeit Namibias 1990 und dem Sturz des Apartheidregimes in Südafrika 1994 begann für viele Länder des südlichen Afrikas eine Zeit relativer Stabilität und des politischen Pluralismus. Die Friedensdividende erfüllte jedoch nicht die in sie gesetzten Erwartungen. Der Demokratisierungsprozess der Southern-African-Development-Community-Staaten (SADC) verläuft unübersichtlich; eine Wende hin zu autoritären Tendenzen zeichnet sich bei einigen Mitgliedstaaten ab.

  • 109.
    Mususa, Patience
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Political authoritarianism amidst growing inequalities in Southern Africa2018In: Pambazuka News : Voices for Freedom and JusticeArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the cold war, the independence of Namibia in 1990 and the fall of the apartheid regime in South Africa in 1994, the Southern African region entered an era of relative political stability and competitive multi-party politics. But the peace dividend proved unable to finance the hopes and promises, and more and more political analysts point to the “mixed bag” of democratisation processes. 

  • 110.
    Mususa, Patience
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Who is setting Africa’s intellectual agenda?2017In: CODESRIA Bulletin, ISSN 0850-8712, no 1&2, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    African scholars argue that Africa’s intellectual agenda has largely been set by Euro-American interests and that this reflects former colonial relationships and geopolitical power. They worry that they are being crowded out of setting their own intellectual agenda.

  • 111.
    Mususa, Patience
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Laterza, Vito
    Department of Global Development and Planning, University of Agder, Norway.
    Is China really to blame for Zambia's debt problems?2018In: Al Jazeera EnglishArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns over Zambia’s public debt, in particular from China have attracted debate on debt sustainability, Chinese loans and the role of the International Monetary Fund.

  • 112.
    Mususa, Patience
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, CristinaThe Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Africa's urban future: conference report, Helsinki 12 May 20172017Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Navarra, Cecilia
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Contracts between smallholders and private firms in Mozambique and their implications on food security2017Report (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Navarra, Cecilia
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Debt, aid and poverty in Mozambique: lessons learned from the Mozambican debt crisis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In opaque and unregulated financial markets, there can be strong incentives for banks to provide loans even when the appropriate guaranties or assessments are lacking. This is part of the Mozambican debt story, according to NAI researchers Navarra and Rodrigues. In this case, the consequences are most likely to be borne by Mozambican people, strongly affecting their living conditions.

  • 115.
    Ndirangu, Wangai
    et al.
    Batiment Engineering and Associates.
    Ngonzo Luwesi, Cush
    University of Kwango.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Akudugu, Mamudu Abunga
    University for Development Studies.
    Africa's water sector development and financing outlook2018In: Water finance innovations in context / [ed] Atakilte Beyene and Cush Ngonzo Luwesi, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2018, p. 43-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 116. Nindorera, Willy
    et al.
    Bjarnesen, Jesper
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The geography of violence in Burundi’s 2015 elections2018In: Violence in African elections: Between Democracy and Big Man Politics / [ed] Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs and Jesper Bjarnesen, London: Zed Books, 2018, p. 87-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Obando, Joy Apiyo
    et al.
    Kenyatta University.
    Ngonzo Luwesi, Cush
    University of Kwango.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Tshimanga, Raphael Mwamba
    University of Kinshasa.
    Ruhakana, Albert
    Rwanda Agriculture Board.
    The core business of integrated water management: achieving water governance performance2018In: Water finance innovations in context / [ed] Atakilte Beyene and Cush Ngonzo Luwesi, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2018, p. 61-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Holy water: the works of water indefining and understanding holiness2017In: WIREs Water, ISSN 0935-879X, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holy water has a central role in shaping the understanding and beliefs of holiness in general, but how does holy water work, and what defines holy water? By analyzing holy water in three different religious traditions—Christianity in Northern Europe, Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and Hinduism—the aim is to discuss the metaphysical essence of water in human understanding and ideas of holiness embodied in water. On the one hand, holy water represents purity and has to be protected from defilement, but on the other hand, many holy rivers are severely polluted. This seeming paradox will be analyzed by focusing on actual beliefs and uses of holy water in ritual and religious practices. Holy water transmits purity and holiness, but it also transfers, transports, and transforms impurities. In the process of obtaining spiritual purity, devotees may pollute the holy because holy water is believed to have a divine agency. By comparing ritual practices and beliefs in three distinct religious traditions in Europe, Africa, and Asia, it is possible to enhance the understanding of the ways holiness and holy water are perceived to work in cultural-specific religious worldviews based on essential capacities of water cross-culturally. This directs the attention to the structuring mechanisms at work because water is conceptualized and used as holy in remarkably similar ways in many religions.

  • 119.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Jason O’Donoughue. Water from stone: archaeology and conservation at Florida’s springs. 2017. Gainesville: University Press of Florida; 978-1-68340009-7 $74.952018In: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 92, no 362, p. 549-551Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Prehistoric Ethics: Comment to Liv Nilsson Stutz’ article2016In: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 24, p. 65-70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Rainfed agriculture, drought and hunger in Tanzania2016In: A History of Water, Series 3, Volume 3. Water and Food: From Hunter-Gatherers to Global Production in Africa / [ed] Terje Tvedt & Terje Oestigaard, London: I.B. Tauris, 2016, p. 332-354Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    The Sources of the Nile and Paradoxes of Religious Waters2018In: Open Rivers : Rethinking Water, Place & Community, ISSN 2471- 190X, no 11, p. 66-85Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Water, national identities and hydro-politics in Egypt and Ethiopia2016In: Land and Hydro-politics in the Nile River Basin: Challenges and New Investments / [ed] Sandström, E., Jägerskog, A. & Oestigaard, T., London: Routledge, 2016, p. 211-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Kaliff, Anders
    Cremation, Corpses and Cannibalism : Comparative Cosmologies and Centuries of Cosmic Consumption2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Death matters and the matters of death are initially, and to a large extent, the decaying flesh of the corpse. Cremation as a ritual practice is the fastest and most optimal way of dissolving the corpse’s flesh, either by annihilation or purification, or a combination. Still, cremation was not the final rite, and the archaeological record testifies that the dead represented a means to other ends – the flesh, and not the least the bones – have been incorporated in a wide range of other ritual contexts. While human sacrifices and cannibalism as ritual phenomena are much discussed in anthropology, archaeology has an advantage, since the actual bone material leaves traces of ritual practices that are unseen and unheard of in the contemporary world. As such, this book fleshes out a broader and more coherent understanding of prehistoric religions and funeral practices in Scandinavia by focusing on cremation, corpses and cannibalism.

  • 125.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Sandström, EmilAnders, Jägerskog
    Land and Hydropolitics in the Nile River Basin: Challenges and New Investments2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nile River Basin supports the livelihoods of millions of people in Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan and Uganda, principally as water for agriculture and hydropower. The resource is the focus of much contested development, not only between upstream and downstream neighbours, but also from countries outside the region. This book investigates the water, land and energy nexus in the Nile Basin.

    It explains how the current surge in land and energy investments, both by foreign actors as well as domestic investors, affects already strained transboundary relations in the region and how investments are intertwined within wider contexts of Nile Basin history, politics and economy. Overall, the book presents a range of perspectives, drawing on political science, international relations theory, sociology, history and political ecology.

  • 126.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Sandström, Emil
    Jägerskog, Emil
    Changing challenges: new hydro-political landscapes in the Nile Basin2016In: Land and Hydro-politics in the Nile River Basin: Challenges and New Investments / [ed] Sandström, E., Jägerskog, A. & Oestigaard, T., London: Routledge, 2016, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Tvedt, Terje
    A History of Water, Series 3, Vol. 3: Water and Food: From Hunter-Gatherers to Global Production in Africa.2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All societies must manage their water resources. From the early civilizations of the Indus valley, nearly 5,000 years ago, to today’s megacities, meeting the water needs of an urban population remains a perpetual task. How a society manages and controls its water resources - whether for food and farming, drinking, sanitation, power or transport – plays a formative role in its development. And never more so than in our own century, with the global population approaching seven billion and the continuing threat of climate change.

    As concerns over global water resources continue to grow, the pioneering History of Water series brings a much needed historical perspective to the relationship between water and society. Covering all aspects of water and society - social, cultural, political, religious and technological - the volumes reveal how water issues can only be fully understood when all aspects are properly integrated. Unprecedented in its geographical coverage and unrivalled in its multidisciplinary span, the History of Water series makes a unique and original contribution to a key contemporary issue.

  • 128.
    Oestigaard, Terje
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Tvedt, Terje
    Approaches to African Food Production in a Water Society Systems Perspective.2016In: A History of Water, Series 3, Volume 3. Water and Food: From Hunter-Gatherers to Global Production in Africa / [ed] Terje Tvedt & Terje Oestigaard, London: I.B. Tauris, 2016, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 129. Palmer, Eric
    et al.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Editorial2016In: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, E-ISSN 1744-9634, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 130.
    Sjögren, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    From rural rebellions to urban riots: political competition and changing patterns of violent political revolt in Uganda2017In: Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, ISSN 1466-2043, E-ISSN 1743-9094, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 22-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violent political revolt has been common in independent Uganda. For a long time such revolts were exclusively expressed as rural-based rebel groups fighting the government. Since the mid-2000s, however, this seems to have come to an end. Instead, urban riots, very rare in the past, have become much more common. This article analyses the changing patterns of types and location of violent political revolt in Uganda under the National Resistance Movement. It argues that the earlier prevalence of rural rebellions can be explained by the combination of a coercive and militarised state, and weak and ethnically factionalised political forces who took their violent resistance to rural regional bases. Over time, however, government counter-insurgency became more effective and the conditions for insurgency were undermined by withdrawal of external support. Furthermore, the reintroduction of multi-party politics in 2005 opened up new avenues for political expression. The changes to the political system were however more nominal than real in many respects. While the rebel option had become less attractive and feasible, a series of social, economic and political grievances remained which were only partly channelled through party politics. They also found expression through sporadic urban violent revolt.

  • 131.
    Sjögren, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Wielding the stick again: the rise and fall and rise of state violence during presidential elections in Uganda2018In: Violence in African elections: between democracy and Big Man politics / [ed] Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs and Jesper Bjarnesen, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2018, p. 47-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Sjögren, Anders
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Oloo, Onyango
    Patel, Shailja
    State, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya: Kenyans for Peace with Truth and Justice (KPTJ) and the Political Crisis of 2007-20082017In: Democracy, Constitutionalism, and Politics in Africa: Historical Contexts, Developments, and Dilemmas / [ed] Eunice N. Sahle, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 265-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    et al.
    Folke Bernadotteakademin .
    Bjarnesen, JesperThe Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Violence in African elections: between democracy and Big Man politics2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiparty elections have become the bellwether by which all democracies are judged, and the spread of these systems across Africa has been widely hailed as a sign of the continent’s progress towards stability and prosperity. But such elections bring their own challenges, particularly the often intense internecine violence following disputed results.While the consequences of such violence can be profound, undermining the legitimacy of the democratic process and in some cases plunging countries into civil war or renewed dictatorship, little is known about the causes.

    By mapping, analysing and comparing instances of election violence in different localities across Africa – including Kenya, Ivory Coast and Uganda – this collection of detailed case studies sheds light on the underlying dynamics and sub-national causes behind electoral conflicts, revealing them to be the result of a complex interplay between democratisation and the older, patronage-based system of ‘Big Man’ politics.

    Essential for scholars and policymakers across the social sciences and humanities interested in democratization, peace-keeping and peace studies, Violence in African Elections provides important insights into why some communities prove more prone to electoral violence than others, offering practical suggestions for preventing violence through improved electoral monitoring, voter education, and international assistance.

  • 134.
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Commanding abuse or abusing command?: Ex-command structures and drugs in Liberia2018In: Third World Thematics : A TWQ Journal, ISSN 2380-2014, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 46-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Conclusion : Ambiguous Peacelords: the Diminishing Returns of Democracy2017In: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2017, p. 222-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Demobilisering och säkerhetsreform2017In: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam och Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2017, 2 uppl.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Introduction: warlord democrats : wartime investments, democratic returns?2017In: Warlord democrats in Africa: ex-military leaders and electoral politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2017, p. 1-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Violence in post-conflict societies: remarginalization, remobilizers and relationships2014 (ed. 2nd ed.)Book (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Themnér, Anders
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Warlord democrats in Africa: ex-military leaders and electoral politics2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-war democratization has been identified as a crucial mechanism to build peace in war-ridden societies, supposedly allowing belligerents to compete through ballots rather than bullets. A byproduct of this process, however, is that military leaders often become an integral part of the new democratic system, using resources and networks generated from the previous war to dominate the emerging political landscape.

    The crucial and thus-far overlooked question to be addressed, therefore, is what effect the inclusion of ex-militaries into electoral politics has on post-war security. Can 'warlord democrats' make a positive contribution by shepherding their wartime constituencies to support the building of peace and democracy, or are they likely to use their electoral platforms to sponsor political violence and keep war-affected communities mobilized through aggressive discourses?

    This important volume, containing a wealth of fresh empirical detail and theoretical insight, and focussing on some of Africa's most high-profile political figures – from Paul Kagame to Riek Machar to Afonso Dhlakama – represents a crucial intervention in the literature of post-war democratization.

  • 140.
    Themnér, Anders
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Utas, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Governance through Brokerage: Informal Governance in Post-Civil War Societies2016In: Civil Wars, ISSN 1369-8249, E-ISSN 1743-968X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a lack of knowledge about how elites rule post-civil war societies without strong state institutions. This paper argues that elites oftentimes overcome such institutional deficiencies by engaging in governance through brokerage. According to this perspective, elites outsource central state functions to influential broker figures. This is particularly true when dealing with war-affected groups that possess much violent agency. By functioning as social membranes, brokers can help elites and war-affected groups to redefine a new social contract. Liberia is employed as an example to illustrate the paper’s central arguments.

  • 141.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Angola Since the Civil War: Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, Magnificent and Beggar Land: Angola Since the Civil War2017In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1112-1114Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Changes to Urban Society in Angola: From Limited to Multi-Criteria Stratification2017In: African Studies Review, ISSN 0002-0206, E-ISSN 1555-2462, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the transformations to urban social stratification inAngola during the last decades. The analysis is centered on the indicators of socialdifference throughout these years: the racial criteria of the colonial times; the politicalprecedence in the first years after independence; and the multi-criteria of thepostwar period. Based on research conducted before and after the end of the civilwar in 2002, the article explores the construction and reconfiguration of urban societytoday, providing evidence of increased social mobility—despite the poverty anddeeper inequalities—and of the importance of economic and residential criteria.

  • 143.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Climate change and DIY urbanism in Luanda and Maputo: new urban strategies?2019In: International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, ISSN 1946-3138, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-related phenomena historically have had an impact on the lives of urbandwellers of Luanda and Maputo. Recently, however, urban expansion and congestionof different sorts, aggravated by climate change impacts, call for renewedresponses on the part of residents. Rising sea levels and harder impacts of floodingare the most disturbing issues in the two coastal capitals, demanding both institutionalresponses and strategies of urban residents, particularly the most vulnerable.Based on qualitative data collected in Luanda and Maputo, this article describes howurban residents aim to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change and bydoing so, shape the cities they live in and their environment.

  • 144.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Configuring the living environment in mining areas in Angola: contestations between mining companies, workers, local communities and the state2017In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 727-734Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Emergent Urbanism in Angola and Mozambique: Management of the Unknown2020In: Routledge Handbook of Urban Planning in Africa1st EditionEdited by Routledge / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, London/New York: Routledge, 2020Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impressive urbanisation and the growth of cities – and migration and mobility related to this trend – are important concerns today. While major cities increasingly concentrate economic growth, global networks and relations, they also capture and absorb significantly the efforts for urban management and governance. Evidence of this fact can be seen in the recently issued Sustainable Development Goals or Habitat III's New Urban Agenda. At the same time though, emergent towns and cities – which attract urban and rural populations to new opportunities – are potentially transforming themselves into new forms of urbanism that are not always clearly addressed by standard urban management and policy. This chapter contributes to identifying and discussing the features of these trends in African contexts, particularly in settings affected by rapid transformations, such as those of Angola and Mozambique. More specifically, it discusses the importance of emergent towns for urban policy and management, describing some types of new towns that are increasingly prevalent. Based on field research, the chapter highlights the main features of the urban transformation in such towns, referring to important dimensions to better understand these realities: state and urban dwellers' investments and the consolidation of urban type of living.

  • 146.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Emergent urbanism in Angola and Mozambique: management of the unknown2019In: Routledge Handbook of Urban Planning in Africa / [ed] Carlos Nunes Silva, London and New York: Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Migração, Movimento e Urbanização em Angola e Moçambique2018In: Desafios para Moçambique 2018 / [ed] Salvador Forquilha, Maputo: Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Económicos , 2018, p. 449-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Nationalisms in Lusophone Africa2016In: Journal of Southern African Studies, ISSN 0305-7070, E-ISSN 1465-3893, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 793-795Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    No walk in the park: Transboundary cooperation in the Angolan war-torn Okavango2017In: Environmental Practice, ISSN 1466-0466, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango region is currently part of a transboundary project extending to three neighboringcountries—Angola, Namibia, and Botswana. This article discusses the unequal trajectory and presentconditions for such cross-border cooperation, with a particular focus on Angola. Angola’s disadvantageousposition is above all due to the lasting effects of war that adversely hindered the developmentof structures and resources to engage in such joint programs. The central argument is that theinequalities pose particular challenges to the country to accompany the pace of the neighboringcountries. The article looks at the fragilities focusing on institutional resources, Angolan policy background,existing dedicated institutions, and human resources, as they are major concerns for post-warreconstruction. On the other hand, it poses questions regarding resilience effects on local levellivelihoods and on the future environmental management of the Okavango. This article is based ona literature and documental review and on data from fieldwork where local communities have to relymore heavily on the available natural resources in absence of others.

  • 150.
    Udelsmann Rodrigues, Cristina
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Organization and Representation of Informal Workers in São Tomé and Príncipe: State Agency and Sectoral Informal Alternatives2017In: African Studies Quarterly: The Online Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1093-2658, ISSN 2152-2448, no 2, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In São Tomé and Príncipe, both the size of the informal economy and the scope of the mechanisms of organization and representation are little known. A research conducted recently showed that the almost always limited and irregular incomes generated in this sector are also associated with precarity and a lack of social protection mechanisms. While initiatives led by the state and supported by international funders positioned unions as privileged organizations for representing and supporting the workers in this sector, the limited results generated opportunities for the creation of sectoral bottom-up initiatives. The discussion is then focused on the areas addressed by the initiatives of specific sectors and types of activity – taxi and motorbike drivers and money exchangers – comparing the outcomes with those of the unions in terms of increased social protection and representation.   

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