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  • 151.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Regional-Global Security: The African Union - United Nations Partnership in Darfur2012Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the century the regional-global security partnership became a key element of peace and security policy-making. This book investigates the impact of the joint effort made by the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN) to keep the peace and protect civilians in Darfur.

  • 152.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    PoC in Darfur: AMIS and UNAMID2012Ingår i: The protection of Civilians in UN Peacekeeping: Concept, Implementation and Practice / [ed] Benjamin de Carvalho and Ole Jacob Sending, Berlin: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2012, s. 127-142Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 153.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Bachmann, Jan
    Between Protection and Stabilization? Addressing the Tensions of Contemporary Western Interventions in Africa: An Introduction2012Ingår i: African Security, ISSN 1939-2206, E-ISSN 1939-2214, Vol. 5, nr 3-4, s. 129-141Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue sets out to analyze—from different epistemological perspectives and based on different case studies—tensions that have arisen in a number of recent security interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The character of international peace and security missions in the Global South has changed significantly after the end of the Cold War. On the one hand, we witness a greater willingness to engage in order to terminate or prevent violent conflict. This willingness is grounded in a broader understanding of security in which the protection of the population is prioritized over the claim to security of a sovereign state. A state’s sovereignty is increasingly interpreted as entailing a responsibility to protect the citizenry. On the other hand, a broadened international will to intervene in conflicts in the Global South raises a number of controversial questions regarding when and how and on whose behalf to intervene. What should be the projected end state of such liberal interventions? What does a responsibility to protect entail, conceptually and in practice? Who are the principal actors in complex and ambitious missions aimed at creating stability, peace, or (human) security? When should a stabilization mission end? What are the consequences when (short-term) security or humanitarian interests and (long-term) state-building or development interest are all legitimized through a discourse of protecting vulnerable populations? And, perhaps most importantly, what stakes do the actors directly affected by the conflict and the international response have? These are some of the questions the contributors address and analyze in this special issue.

  • 154.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Bachmann, Jan
    The African Union and the protection of civilians: mediating ownership and sovereignty2013Ingår i: Globalization and Development. Rethinking interventions and governance / [ed] Arne Bigsten, England: Routledge, Routledge studies in development economics , 2013, s. 213-236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 155.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Gelot, Ludwigde Coning, Cedric
    Supporting African peace operations2012Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Africa Institute, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs hosted a seminar in Uppsala, Sweden, on 15 and 16 December 2011, that brought together AU, EU and UN officials closely involved in peace operations in Africa. The seminar’s purpose was to allow participants to compare their experiences of the different support models that have been used to date in Sudan and Somalia. International support for African peace operations provides opportunities but also poses challenges. This report examines four of these challenges in some detail: the AU Commission’s limited capacity to plan and manage peace operations; insufficient political engagement by African member states with AU peace operations; the short-termism and self-interest of some of the AU’s partners; and the need for UN Security Council permanent members to value and ensure a shared AU-UN strategic vision. The report also includes policy recommendations for resolving these challenges.

  • 156.
    Gelot, Linnéa
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Söderbaum, Fredrik
    Rethinking Intervention and Interventionism2012Ingår i: Development Dialogue, ISSN 0345-2328, nr 58, s. 134-152Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 157.
    Green, Reginald Herbold
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    From Südwestafrika to Namibia: the political economy of transition1981Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 158.
    Green, Reginald Herbold
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Toward socialism and self reliance: Tanzania's striving for sustained transition projected1977Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 159.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Senegal: det koloniala arvet1975Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 160.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Tre västafrikanska socialismer1970Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 161.
    Haarløv, Jens
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Labour regulation and black workers' struggles in South Africa1983Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 162. Hagmann, Tobias
    et al.
    Reyntjens, Filip
    Aid and authoritarianism in Africa: development without democracy2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID, DFID,the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromisebetween aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo.

    Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes actually perpetuating authoritarian rule?

  • 163.
    Halkjaer, Eivor
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Konflikten mellan norra och södra Sudan1967Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 164.
    Halldin Norberg, Viveca
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Swedes in Haile Selassie's Ethiopia, 1924-1952: a study in early development co-operation1977Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 165.
    Hansen, Holger Bernt
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Ethnicity and military rule in Uganda: a study of ethnicity as a political factor in Uganda, based on a discussion of political anthropology and the application of its results1977Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 166.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Dietz, Antonius Johannes
    Oestigaard, Terje
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Kaag, Mayke
    Introduction: A changing world and its consequences2011Ingår i: African Engagements: Africa Negotiating an Emerging Multipolar World / [ed] Dietz, Antonius Johannes, Havnevik, Kjell, Kaag, Mayke, Oestigaard, Terje, Leiden; Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, s. 1-32Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the end of the Cold War, the world seemed to move from a bipolar to a unipolar system, with the neoliberal West globally imposing its laws. However, it has been acknowledged that other actors, such as China, India and Brazil, have become increasingly influential, helping to lead to a new multipolarity at the global level. The question of what this emerging multipolarity means for Africa is important. Will Africa become crushed in a mounting struggle over raw materials and political hegemony between superpowers and fall victim to a new scramble for Africa? Or does this new historic juncture offer African countries and groups greater room for negotiation and manoeuvring, eventually leading to stronger democracy and enhanced growth? The chapters in this volume offer food for thought on how Africa’s engagements with the world are currently being reshaped and revalued, and, importantly—on whose terms?

  • 167.
    Havnevik, Kjell
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Isinika, Aida C.
    Tanzania in transition: From Nyerere to Mkapa2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    This book is the first comprehensive contribution to understanding the character of important societal transitions in Tanzania during Benjamin Mkapa's presidency (1995 - 2005). The analyses of the trajectory of these transitions are conducted against the background of the development model of Tanzanian's first president, Julius Nyerere (1961 - 1985), a model with lasting influence on the country. This approach enables an understanding of continuities and discontinuities in Tanzania over time in areas such as development strategy an ideology, agrarian-land, gender and forestry issues, economic liberalization, development assistance, corruption and political change.

    The period of Mkapa's presidency is particularly important because it represents the first phase of Tanzania's multi-party political system. Mkapa's government initially faced a gloomy economic situation. Although Mkapa's crusade against corruption lost direction, his presidency was characterised by relatively high growth rates and a stable macro-economy. Rural and agrarian transitions were dominated by diversification rather than productivity growth and transformation. Rural attitudes in favour of land markets emerged only slowly but formal land disputes showed more respect for women's rights. Some space emerged for widening local participation in forest management, but rural dynamics was mainly found in trading settlements feeding on economic liberalization and artisanal mining.

    The transitions documented and analysed of Mkapa's presidency, however, indicate only limited transformational change. Rural poverty is therefore likely to remain deep and the sustainability of economic development to be at risk in the future. Mkapa was, however, able to protect the legacy of peace and political stability of Nyerere, but there were nevertheless important challenges to the first multiparty elections and governance, and particularly in Zanzibar. The post- script (covering 2005 2010), indicates that the incumbent president, Jakaya Kikwete, has yet to prove that he can change this legacy of Mkapa.

    The contributions to the eleven chapters of this book are evenly shared between Tanzanian, Nordic and other European researchers with a long-term commitment to Tanzanian development research. The book is dedicated to the youth of Tanzania.

  • 168.
    Hedlund, Hans
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Lundahl, Mats
    Migration and change in rural Zambia1983Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book focuses on the process of rural-urban migration in Zambia and on the consequences migration has had for the rural economy and society.

  • 169.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Radicalisation and terrorist recruitment among Kenya’s youth2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With little chance of getting any education or jobs, young slum dwellers in Kenya are easy prey for terrorist recruiters from al-Shabaab and ISIS. Politicians must therefore address the social development of poor neighbourhoods and specifically target the youth. Equally important in order to prevent further radicalisation, this policy note argues, is the fight against corruption.

  • 170.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Rheotric and Politics of 'New Africa'2016Ingår i: Théories de la justice: Justice globale, agents de la justice et justice de genre : Semininaires doctoraux de Youndé; Yaoundé PhD seminars 2012-2014 / [ed] Ernest-Marie Mbonda and Thierry Ngosso, Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses universitaires de Louvain , 2016, s. 83-95Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 171.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Transitional Justice, Gender Programming, and the UNSCR 1325: African Context and the case of Kenya2016Ingår i: Journal of International Development, ISSN 0954-1748, E-ISSN 1099-1328, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 360-375Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines the implementation of UNSCR 1325 ‘Women, Peace, and Security’ within the framework of post-colonial feminism. The author argues that in current international development co-operation, there is a need for deeper understanding of the complex, context-relevant social and political power structures and processes that prevent gender programming from enhancing gender justice. As an empirical case study the article discusses the challenges that the implementation of the UNSCR 1325 has been facing in Kenya.

  • 172.
    Hellsten, Sirkku K.
    University of Dar es Salaam.
    Africa humanism in re-conceptualization of global development: bringing ethics back to governance2013Ingår i: Zanzibar Yearbook of Law, Vol. 3, s. 3-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 173.
    Hellsten, Sirkku
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Palmer, Eric
    Editorial2016Ingår i: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, E-ISSN 1744-9634, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 123-126Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 174.
    Herlitz, Gillis
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Dagbok från Zimbabwe: rapport från en stats födelse1981Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    18 april 1980 kunde den nya staten Zimbabwe utropa sin självständighet efter många års kamp mot den vita minoritetsregimen. Under två månader i början av året vistades författaren på olika platser i landet som deltagare i den grupp observatörer som hade att övervaka de zimbabwiska flyktingarnas återkomst till hemlandet.

    I dagbokens form berättar författaren om sina upplevelser: möten med flyktingar, poliser, "vanliga" människor, om alla hinder man hade att övervinna innan de första fria valen i landets historia äntligen kunde genomföras.

  • 175.
    Holmqvist, Göran
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Utbudsteori eller hackordningsteori för att förstå SDs valframgångar?2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    En kort diskussion av hur SDs valframgångar skall förstås utifrån tre tänkbara teorier: "Konventionell teori" (SDs framgångar reflekterar missnöje med migrationspolitiken), "utbudsteori" (SD får röster där de tenderar att etablera sig)samt "hackordningsteori" (väljarnas efterfrågan på SD bör sökas i hur svenskfödda relaterar till varandra, inte bara i deras relation till invandrare).

  • 176. Hulterström, Karolina
    et al.
    Kamete, Amin Y.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Melber, Henning
    Political opposition in African countries: the cases of Kenya, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper is another result of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was coordinated at the Institute between 2001 and 2006. The papers are revised versions of presentations to a Session of the Research Committee “Comparative Sociology” at the XVI World Congress of Sociology held at the end of July 2006 in Durban. They explore the role of opposition parties under different aspects in several East and Southern African countries, which differ according to the socio-political determinants.

  • 177.
    Hveem, Helge
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Uganda - en politisk översikt1972Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 178.
    Hydén, Göran
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kenya: en politisk översikt1969Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 179.
    Hydén, Göran
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Leslie, MichaelOgundimu, Folu Folarin
    Media and democracy in Africa2002Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA provides the first comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the role of the media in political change in sub-Saharan Africa.

    The central argument of the volume is that while the media may still be relatively weak compared to their positions in liberal democracies, they have come to play a much more important role than ever before since independence.

    This volume shows that the media scene in Africa is diverse. It stretches from the well-developed and technologically advanced situation in South Africa to the still fledgling media operations that are typical in sub-Saharan Africa. In these countries, print media as well as television and radio are just beginning to take their place in society and do so using simple and often outdated technology.

    MEDIA AND DEMOCRACY IN AFRICA is organized to provide a historical perspective on the evolution of the African media, placing the present in the context of the past, including both colonial and post-colonial experiences. It will be of interest to Africa area specialists, students of media and communications, political scientists and sociologists.

  • 180.
    Højlund Madsen, Diana
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Women’s Political Representation and Affirmative Action in Ghana2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With only 13 per cent female representation in parliament, Ghana is lagging behind most other African states. A proposal for affirmative action is currently being debated. This policy note assesses the barriers to women’s political representation in Ghana, and gives recommendations on how the issue might be addressed.

  • 181.
    Ibrahim, Jibrin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Transforming elections into opportunities for political choice2007Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This monograph presents a well-informed overview and analysis of political transitions, democratic struggles and elections in West Africa. It explores the ways in which various authoritarian regimes across the sub-region have tried to subvert democracy and how the citizens of various countries have struggled against dictatorship and impunity, to achieve the return to democratic rule. Drawing on insights from the Ghanaian model of free and fair elections, Niger's difficult, but successful transtion to democracy, elections in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia, and the struggles for democracy in Nigeria, Jibrin Ibrahim proposes concrete strategies that will empower the people of West Africa to make political choices which will advance and secure their individual and collective socio-economic and democratic rights.

  • 182.
    Jinadu, L. Adele
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Explaining & managing ethnic conflict in Africa: towards a cultural theory of democracy2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 183.
    Kameir, El-Wathig
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Kursany, Ibrahim
    Corruption as a "fifth" factor of production in the Sudan1985Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 184.
    Kanyeihamba, George W.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    McAuslan, J. Patrick W. B.
    Urban legal problems in Eastern Africa1978Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to raise for discussion some of the issues and problems involved in the legal regulation of urban planning and housing in Africa.

  • 185.
    Kaunda, Kenneth
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    de St. Jorre, John
    Rotberg, Robert I.
    Politiska och ekonomiska problem i Zambia1968Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 186.
    Kelsall, Tim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    An introduction to some issues in transitional justice2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 187.
    Kelsall, Tim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Contentious politics, local governance and the self: a Tanzanian case study2004Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Governance Agenda is the framework that currently organises the West’s relations with Africa. The present work is an attempt to see Governance through the lens of a contemporary, local history. The report analyses three periods of contentious politics at local level in Tanzania and two multi-party elections. It provides a window on mismanagement in local government, it examines the intervention by national and local elites in district conflicts, and it points to the difficulties ordinary people face in holding their leaders to account.

    The argument of the report is that current approaches to the study of Governance overlook an essential ingredient for its potential success: namely, the sociological conditions in which forms of collective action conducive to improved political accountability become possible at a grassroots level. The analysis aims to show that economic diversification and multiple livelihoods have given rise to a reticular social structure in which individuals find it difficult to combine to hold their leaders to account. People have fragmented identities formed in networks of social relations, which impedes the emergence of strong collective identities appropriate to effective social movements.

  • 188.
    Khama, Seretse
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Botswana - a developing democracy in southern Africa1970Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an address given by H.E. Sir Seretse Khama, the President of Botswana, at a seminar arranged by the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the Scandinavian Institute of African Studies in Uppsala, November 11, 1970.

  • 189.
    Kibreab, Gaim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Eritrea: a dream deferred2009Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Eritrean independence under the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (now the People's Front for Democracy and Justice) became an international cause celebre during the 1980s. Eritrea was the first African nation to gain independence in the post-colonial period and appeared to be opening a new and progressive path in African politics. But the promise of the revolution was soon betrayed by the outbreak of war with Ethiopia, the PFDJ's increasingly repressive domestic policies, its mismanagement of the country's economy, and its hostile relations with its neighbours.The PFDJ government dismantled existing formal and informal institutions, crippled the private sector, banned private newspapers, civil and political society organisations, expelled international NGOs and aid agencies when over two-thirds of the population were dependent on food aid, detained without trial journalists, thousands of dissidents, and former leaders of the liberation struggle, and turned national service from an instrument of nation building and national integration into an instrument of open-ended forced labour.In this well-researched first account of post-independence Eritrea, Gaim Kibreab gives a detailed and critical analysis of how things went woefully wrong and how the former 'liberators' turned into oppressors with no respect for the rule of law, human rights and religious freedom.

    CONTENT

    1  Introduction

    2  The Broken Promises, Demand for Change & Violation of Human Rights

    3  Associational Life in Independent Eritrea

    4  Towards an Explanation

    5  The Demise of the Private Sector

    6  PFDJ's Dominance of the Economy & the Consequences

    7  Freedom of Association, Political Stability & Institutions

    8  Shattered Promises: In Lieu of a Conclusion

  • 190.
    Kibreab, Gaim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Reflections on the African refugee problem: a critical analysis of some basic assumptions1983Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 191.
    Kirk-Greene, Anthony Hamilton Millard
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The genesis of the Nigerian civil war and the theory of fear1975Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 192.
    Kjekshus, Helge
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The elected elite: a socio-economic profile of candidates in Tanzania's parliamentary election, 19701975Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 193.
    Kowet, Donald Kalinde
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Land, labour migration and politics in southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland1978Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 194.
    Krüger, Mathias
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Bridging the Gap between Policy and Research on Post-Conflict Transition in Africa2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 195.
    Laakso, Liisa
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa2019Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electoral violence in Africa has garnered a lot of attention in research on African politics. Violence can be the result of manipulation of the electoral process or a reaction to that manipulation. While there is an agreement to distinguish it from the wider political violence by its timing with elections and motivation to influence their outcome, the analysis of its types, content, and impacts varies. There are different assessments of whether repetition of elections reduces violence or not. Elections in Africa are more often marred with violence than elections in other continents, but there is lots of variation between African countries, within countries, and even from one election to another. In addition to well-judged use and development of the existing datasets, qualitative methods and case studies are also needed. Much of the literature combines both approaches. In the analysis of the factors, causes, and contexts of electoral violence, researchers utilize distinct frameworks: emphasizing historical experiences of violence, patrimonial rule and the role of the “big man,” political economy of greed and grievance, as well as weak institutions and rule of law. All of them point to intensive competition for state power. Preelection violence often relates to the strategies of the government forces and their supporters using their powers to manipulate the process, while post-election riots typically follow in the form of spontaneous reactions among the ranks of the losing opposition. Elections are not a cause of the intensive power competition but a way to organize it. Thus, electoral violence is not an anomaly but rather a manifestation of the ongoing struggle for free and fair elections. It will be an issue for researchers and practitioners alike in the future as well

  • 196.
    Laakso, Liisa
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hautaniemi, PetriDepartment of Development Policy, Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Helsinki, Finland.
    Diasporas, Development and Peacemaking in the Horn of Africa2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exiled populations, who increasingly refer to themselves as diaspora communities, hold a strong stake in the fate of their countries of origin. In a world becoming ever more interconnected, they engage in 'long-distance politics' towards, send financial remittances to and support social development in their homelands. Transnational diaspora networks have thus become global forces shaping the relationship between countries, regions and continents.

    This important intervention, written by scholars working at the cutting edge of diaspora and conflict, challenges the conventional wisdom that diaspora are all too often warmongers, their time abroad causing them to become more militant in their engagement with local affairs. Rather, they can and should be a force for good in bringing peace to their home countries.

    Featuring in-depth case studies from the Horn of Africa, including Somalia and Ethiopia, this volume presents an essential rethinking of a key issue in African politics and development.

  • 197.
    Lawson, David
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Dubin, Adam
    Comillas Pontifical University, Department of Public Law, Madrid, Spain.
    Mwambene, Lea
    University of the Western Cape, Department of Private Law, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Ensuring African Women’s Access to Justice: Engendering Rights for Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    About half of the people of Sub-Saharan Africa live below the poverty line, and 80 per cent of them are women. Their access to justice is guaranteed by international and domestic laws. But these laws mean little or nothing without government support and adequate funding. This policy note offers recommendations on how to secure access to justice.

  • 198.
    Legum, Colin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Panafrikanismen och kommunismen1964Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 199.
    Leys, Colin
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Mamdani, Mahmood
    Crises and reconstruction - African perspectives: two lectures1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Discussion Paper two leading scholars address the international crisis of development and African attempts at reconstruction.

  • 200.
    Lindberg, Emy
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    War in Mali: Background study and annotated bibliography. July 2012 - March 20132013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Not long ago, Mali was considered a beacon of stability and a model of democratic evolution in West Africa. The country then experienced a military coup in the capital in March 2012, followed by the usual post-coup volatility and uncertainty. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, armed insurgents swiftly took over half the country. It did not take long to dismantle a country that on the paper appeared to be functioning, stable and democratic. French troops intervened in the conflict in the north. Yet even if this intervention put a stop to the outright threat of the insurgents taking over the south and significantly shifted the balance of forces in the north, it did not end the conflict. The insurgents have dispersed into remote areas in the sub-region, changing their tactics to terrorist-like activities. Different forms of political negotiation and reconciliation are certainly needed in the region. With the current global clash between radical Islam and the Western “War on Terror”, northern Mali will probably continue to be contested terrain for a long time. In the meantime, a transition to democratic rule is planned for the country, with elections scheduled for July this year. In all likelihood, this will prove to be only an illusory end to an intense power tussle over state control in Bamako.

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