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  • 201.
    Lodhi, Abdulaziz Y.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The institution of slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba1973Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 202.
    Lopes, Carlos
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Rudebeck, Lars
    The socialist ideal in Africa: a debate1988Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 203.
    Madsen H., Diana
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Gender, Power and Institutional Change: the Role of Formal and Informal Institutions in promoting Women's Political Representation in Ghana2018Inngår i: Journal of Asian and African Studies, ISSN 0021-9096, E-ISSN 1745-2538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 204.
    Maeda, Justin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Brief presentation of the organs of Tanu1969Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The student organization Verdandi in co-operation with the Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (NAI) organized a special seminar on Tanzania for Verdandi members going to make a study visit in Tanzania in the summer 1969. During the ten meetings of the seminar various aspects of Tanzania's development - political, social, cultural and economic - were studied and discussed in detail. One of the topics discussed in this seminar was Tanzania's political system. In connection with this presentation, a detailed description of the organization and structure of Tanzania's ruling party (TANU) was given by Mr Justin Maeda, the leader of the seminar. We are pleased to present a modified summary of Mr Maeda's presentation which we consider to be of great value to people interested in Tanzania.

  • 205.
    Maghimbi, Sam
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Globalization, Trade and Regional Integration.
    Lokina, Razack B.
    Senga, Mathew A.
    The Agrarian Question in Tanzania?: A State of the Art Paper2011Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mwalimu Nyerere Professorial Chair in Pan-African Studies was established at the University of Dar es Salaam in 2008. The main objective of the chair is to reinvigorate intellectual debate on the campus and stimulate basic research on burning issues facing the country and the continent from a pan-African perspective. This is the first state of the art paper published by the chair.

    The Agrarian Question in Tanzania. There are about four million peasant families in Tanzania. They farm on the smallest scale, the average farm being two acres in size. The principal agricultural equipmentis the hand hoe. Since the onset of the colonial era, those in authority have pursued policies to dominate the peasantry. It is argued that the small scale of operations has contributed to the widespread poverty among farmers. There is still good agricultural land that is not farmed, but the current land tenure of peasants reproduces itself on new farmland. The conclusion is that in order to accelerate agricultural development, land tenure must be institutionalized.

  • 206.
    Magnusson, Åke
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Sydafrika i världen1979Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 207.
    Malaquias, Assis
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Rebels and robbers: violence in post-colonial Angola2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rebels and Robbers is about the political economy of violence in post-colonial Angola. This book provides the first comprehensive attempt at analyzing how the military and non-military dynamics of more than four decades of conflict created the structural violence that stubbornly defines Angolan society even in the absence of war. The book clearly demonstrates that the end of the civil war has not ushered in positive peace. The focus on structural violence enables the author to explore the continuities since colonial times, especially in the ways race, class, ethnicity, and power have been used by governing elites as mechanisms to oppress the powerless. Thus, although corruption as structural violence manifesting itself so ubiquitously in Angola today may have been taken to new levels after independence, its origin is unmistakably colonial. Similarly, the zero-sum character of political interactions that defined colonial Angola is yet to be fully exorcized. But there are also important discontinuities. The unabashed propensity to capture public resources for personal aggrandizement is purely post-colonial. So is the tendency toward personal, unaccountable rule. Given its rich endowments, the end of the civil war provides Angola with an opportunity to finally realize its developmental potential. This will depend on whether the wealth resulting from the exploration of natural resources is directed toward creating the conditions for the citizens' realization of their aspirations for the good life thus ensuring sustainable peace.

  • 208.
    Malmström, Maria Frederika
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Affective Politics in Transitional North Africa: Imagining the Future: Workshop and roundtable report. 27–28 may 2013, Alexandria, Egypt2014Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 209.
    Manger, Leif O.
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Abd el Ati, Hassan
    Survival on meagre resources: Hadendowa pastoralism in the Red Sea Hills1996Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the first comprehensive study of Hadendowa Beja pastoralism in Eastern Sudan. The various chapters deal with the effects of drought and of human activities on the natural environment; the effect on pastoral migration patterns, and socio-cultural changes. The authors argue that the recurrent pastoral disasters cannot be blamed only on the pastoralists, but must be related to wider economic and political contexts, in which the pastoralists are becoming increasingly marginalised.

  • 210.
    Manghezi, Nadja
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Amizade traída e recuperada: O ANC em Moçambique (1976-1990)2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 211.
    Manning, Carrie
    et al.
    Georgia State University in Atlanta, Department of Political Science.
    Themnér, Anders
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning.
    Discourses of peace and fear: the electoral navigations of Sekouh Conneh and Prince Johnson in post-war Liberia2017Inngår i: Warlord Democrats in Africa: Ex-Military Leaders and Electoral Politics / [ed] Anders Themnér, London ; Uppsala: Zed Books ; Nordiska Afrikainstutet , 2017, s. 95-120Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 212.
    Melander, Göran
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Nobel, Peter
    African refugees and the law1978Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings from a conference held in Uppsala 1977.

  • 213.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Explorations into modernity, colonialism and genocide: revisiting the past in the present2017Inngår i: Acta Academica, ISSN 0587-2405, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 39-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 214.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Faith as politics: reflections in commemoration of Beyers Naudé (1915-2004)2015Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Beyers Naudé was in his later life one of the leading Afrikaner anti-apartheid activists. Convinced by the strength of his faith he took a courageous political stand in a time in South African history when it was much needed. In May 2015, Oom Bey's hundredth birthday was reason to remember and celebrate his service to the people. Faith As Politics is an anthology with contributions from researchers, diplomats, activists and clergies who all have one thing in common – they were all engaged in the struggle against apartheid at the same time as Naudé. And almost all of them worked with him in one way or another. This is a unique depiction of aman whose faith, struggle and courage deserve to be recognized.

  • 215.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Genocide Matters: Negotiating a Namibian-German Past in the Present2017Inngår i: Stichproben : Vienna Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1992-8610, Vol. 17, nr 33, s. 1-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 216.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Governance and state delivery in Southern Africa: examples from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper highlights in complementary ways problems and challenges for governance issues under centralised state agencies, which base their authority and legitimacy on a dominant party and its influence. The case study on Namibia argues for a need for parliamentary and administrative reform to improve the efficiency of lawmakers. The Botswana chapter explores the decision on the location of the country’s second university as an act without consultation of the local population. The Zimbabwe paper advocates an approach in favour of using the African Peer Review Mechanism as an instrument to assist in a change towards better governance. All the authors have intimate knowledge of the matters discussed through their own involvement with the respective cases and/or their individual positioning within these societies. This publication is among the final results of the project “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSA), which was undertaken at the Institute between 2001 and 2006.

  • 217.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Heroic narratives, patriotic history and Namibian politics: The case of (Herman) Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo (1924–2017)2017Inngår i: Journal of Namibian Studies : History Politics Culture, ISSN 1863-5954, Vol. 22, s. 45-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On 9 June 2017 Namibia became poorer. A moral beacon physically left behind the people, whose right to live in freedom and dignity was his core motivation throughout most of his 92 years. (Herman) Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo – Toivo is Finnish for hope – was active until the end. He had just returned from a trip with his close friend and fellow inmate on Robben Island Helao Shityuwe – another largely ignored and little recognized icon in Namibia’s struggle for liberation. Hours later, at his home, Ya Toivo died in his sleep. The article combines a portrait of Ya Toivo and his legacy with the heroic narratives at play when the history of the liberation struggle is rewritten for political purposes.

  • 218.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    How Democratic Is Namibia’s Democracy?: An Anatomy of SWAPO’s Political Hegemony2017Inngår i: Taiwan Journal of Democracy, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 155-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 219.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Looking East/Going South: The Namibian-Chinese "All Weather Friendship"2018Inngår i: Stichproben : Vienna Journal of African Studies, ISSN 1992-8629, Vol. 18, nr 35, s. 25-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 220.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Media, public discourse and political contestation in Zimbabwe2004Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The current situation in Zimbabwe under the ZANU-PF government shows increasing signs of abuse of power by those in political control. They also direct their desire to suppress criticism towards the media. Press organs in private ownership have been closed down and journalists have been physically harassed, arrested and expelled. Laws are abused to regulate and manipulate public opinion by a policy of banning. Worldwide condemnation of the growing restrictions upon the freedom of expression goes hand in hand with the protests inside the country against the growing tendencies of totalitarian rule.

    Current events are critically reflected upon and the background to these developments is summarised in this publication. It is based on some of the contributions to a recent conference on Zimbabwe organised by the Nordic Africa Institute and offers insights into the contested space of public opinion in Zimbabwe. The critical analyses of current developments are there-by complemented with particular reference to the media sector in the ongoing battle for hegemonic control over the public sphere.

  • 221.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Mission Impossible: Hammarskjöld and the UN Mandate for the Congo (1960–1961)2017Inngår i: African Security, ISSN 1939-2206, E-ISSN 1939-2214, Vol. 10, nr 3-4, s. 254-271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 222.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Portrait of a Namibian patriot: the life of Andimba (Herman) Toivo ya Toivo (1924-2017)2017Inngår i: Journal of the Namibia Scientific Society, ISSN 1018-7677, Vol. 65, s. 57-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 223.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Re-examining liberation in Namibia: political culture since independence2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1960, SWAPO of Namibia led the organised and later armed struggle for independence. In late 1989, the liberation movement was finally elected to power under United Nations supervision as the legitimate government. When the Republic of Namibia was proclaimed on 21 March 1990, the long and bitter struggle for sovereignty came to an end. This volume takes stock of emerging trends in the country's political culture since independence. The contributions, mainly by authors from Namibia and Southern Africa who supported the anti-colonial movements, critically explore the achievements and shortcomings that have been part of liberation in Namibia.

  • 224.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    The African middle class(es) – in the middle of what?2017Inngår i: Review of African Political Economy, ISSN 0305-6244, E-ISSN 1740-1720, Vol. 44, nr 151, s. 142-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 225.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Transitions in Namibia: which changes for whom?2007Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume completes the research project on "Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa" (LiDeSA). It mainly addresses socioeconomic and gender-related issues in contemporary Namibia. Most of the contributors are either Namibian, based in Namibia or have undertaken extensive research in the country. Their interest as scholars and/or civil society activists is guided by a loyalty characterised not by rhetoric but by empathy with the people. They advocate notions of human rights, social equality and related values and norms instead of being driven by an ideologically determined party-political affiliation. Their investigative and analytical endeavours depict a society in transition, a society that is far from being liberated. Not surprisingly, this compilation explores the limits to liberation more than its advances.

  • 226.
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Zimbabwe's presidential elections 2002: evidence, lessons and implications2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Presidential Elections that took place from March 9 to 11, 2002 in Zimbabwe provoked enormous internal and international controversies. The impact of the politically contested continued presidency of Robert Mugabe, head of state and leader of the government under ZANU-PF since Zimbabwe's Independence in 1980, for the country, the region and the continent might be far reaching. The consequences are not yet fully apparent, but the current debates also centre around the case of Zimbabwe as a litmus test for the notion of "good governance" and democracy as perceived and acknowledged by other African leaders especially in the context of the "New Partnership for Africa's Development" (NEPAD). The contributions to this Discussion Paper offer critical and political comments from scholars mainly in or from the Southern African region, who have been closely involved with regional and Zimbabwean issues.

  • 227.
    Melber, Henning
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Kromrey, Daniela
    Zukunftskolleg, University of Konstanz.
    Welz, Martin
    Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    Changing of the guard?: An anatomy of power within SWAPO of Namibia2017Inngår i: African Affairs, ISSN 0001-9909, E-ISSN 1468-2621, Vol. 116, nr 463, s. 284-310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an anatomy of power relations and policymaking within the ranks of the former liberation movement South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) in Namibia. It summarizes the features of Namibia's dominant party state and argues that Namibia is a case of competitive authoritarian rule. Our analysis documents how the first generation of SWAPO activists, in exile after the early 1960s, has since independence in 1990 remained the most influential segment of the former anti-colonial movement. This continuity is personified in the country's third president, Hage Geingob, and parts of his team in cabinet. Despite some gradual and increasingly visible shifts in the composition of SWAPO MPs, the party's first generation has so far remained largely in control of the country's political affairs. Analysing the background of the ministers serving since independence also shows that a second generation of SWAPO activists, in exile after the mid-1970s, gradually expanded their influence and took over leading positions. Given the dominance of SWAPO and the lack of any meaningful political opposition, a new leadership depends on upward inner-party mobility. Given the limited scope for a younger generation to move into higher offices, the strengthening of democracy through new leadership and innovative thinking is very limited. Rather, politics tends to be reproduced through established networks and bonds with a low degree of permissiveness, which reinforces the nature of the competitive authoritarian regime under the control of ‘old men’.

  • 228.
    Melber, Henning
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Saunders, Christopher
    Transition in Southern Africa: comparative aspects2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1990s completed a process of transition in Namibia and South Africa that brought formal decolonisation in Africa to an end. These two contributions review some aspects of the transformation and complement each other. They take stock of the transformation in a historical, comparative perspective and investigate the experiences and prospects of democratisation under sovereign, legitimate political rule. They were compiled subsequent to a public lecture arranged by the Nordic Africa Institute and given by Christopher Saunders on "The Transitions to Democracy in Namibia and South Africa" on 5 April 2001. Henning Melber was a discussant at the presentation.

  • 229.
    Melber, Melber
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Regionalism and regional integration in Africa: a debate of current aspects and issues2001Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A Consultative Workshop on "Regional Integration in Africa" was organised by and at the Nordic Africa Institute on March 8 and 9, 2001. The contributions compiled in this volume were related to this policy oriented but academic endeavour. They identify and review current issues of regionalism and regional integration within the era of globalisation in the African context. Their approaches present different theoretical and regional perspectives which provide new insights, challenge existing concepts and perceptions and contribute to an enriched debate.

  • 230.
    Mengisteab, Kidane
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Critical Factors in the Horn of Africa's Raging Conflicts2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when much attention is focused on the Horn of Africa as one of Africa’s most war-ravaged regions and a continued source of security concern regionally and globally, this Discussion Paper provides deep insights into the complex dimensions of and linkages between the violent conflicts in the region. Delving into history and the core and contextual factors underpinning these wars in the postcolonial era, the author provides a conceptual framework for grappling with the complex inter- and intra-state conflicts by focusing on the institutional and structural causes of war. He goes on to make a compelling argument that conflict for institutional and democratic state transformation in the Horn of Africa is a fundamental step towards long-term peace and sustainable development.

  • 231.
    Menkhaus, Ken
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    If Mayors Ruled Somalia: Beyond the State-building Impasse2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Policy Note critically assesses the strengths and weaknesses of two competing school of thoughts on state-building and international aid in Somalia - the ”Marshall Plan” approach and the ”Social Contract” approach. It also proposes a third option - a transitional strategy that includes more support to municipalities as the source of the most practical, legitimate, and effective formal governance in Somalia.

  • 232.
    Meyer, Angela
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Peace and Security Cooperation in Central Africa: Developments, Challenges and Prospects2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper provides the most up-to-date insights into Central Africa’s peace and security architecture. Its breath and depth attest to a deep knowledge of the history and politics of regional cooperation in a region that has attracted less attention in the literature than West, East and Southern Africa. It provides readers with first-hand knowledge of regional cooperation and integration, and the expansion of this agenda in Central Africa to include peace and security issues. Dispassionate and clear insights are offered into the intra-regional dynamics of the regional peace and security institutions FOMAC and MICOPAX, the challenges and constraints confronting regional peace in Central Africa and the potential for change. It is essential reading for all those seeking a good grasp of the complex dimensions of peace and security in Central Africa and the prospects for the future.

  • 233.
    Morgenstierne, Christopher Munthe
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Denmark and national liberation in Southern Africa: a flexible response2003Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes and documents the development of Danish support to national liberation in Southern Africa and the two-sided humanitarian and political character of this support. It is based on previously restricted Danish ministry records and on NGO archives and interviews.The Nordic countries were unique in the Western world in their support to individuals, organisations and refugees, struggling to end institutionalised colonialism and racism and alleviate their humanitarian consequences. Nordic support was humanitarian and civilian, and to a large extent was given to refugees and to education. Increasingly, it came to involve national liberation movements and financial support to their civilian activities, at a time when these movements were politically and militarily struggling against the regimes in their countries-including the government of Portugal, a NATO military partner of Norway and Denmark.Danish support developed differently from that of the other Nordic countries. Official support was never given directly to liberation movements. Rather, Danish NGOs were employed to advise on Danish allocations and to distribute these allocations and carry out activities, using their own capacity or through their international networks. In the field of sanctions, Denmark shifted from a policy of awaiting a UN Security Council decision to imposing unilateral trade sanctions as the first Western country to do so, and the book analyses the political developments behind this.The study seeks to determine the events, rationales, arguments and decisions that led to the various forms of Danish support. Key questions are how Danish support was established as a purely humanitarian facility that later developed into supporting also the liberation movements, and how boycott was first considered to be an issue for the individual but eventually became national, official policy. The study seeks to describe why support and sanctions developed in the way and at the pace they did. Major factors involved were Danish public awareness of developments in Southern Africa, domestic political debates and mobilisation through NGOs.This focus on processes of change has been necessary in a field of Danish foreign relations that during the course of the research was recognised as being a very wide as well as a very interesting one. As a new field of research, and with the majority of the sources never having been studied before, this study has an aim to provide a platform for other researchers, journalists and students. Hopefully it will inspire others to investigate the whole issue further-or to consider it in a different perspective.

  • 234.
    Moyo, Sam
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Land reform under structural adjustment in Zimbabwe: land use change in the Mashonaland provinces2000Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines the role of economic liberalisation in the reconstruction of the political economy of Zimbabwe's land question. Since the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP) was introduced in 1990, the universe of policies surrounding and influencing the nature and scale of land reform has been changing in tandem with changing and varied supply responses to ESAP-related policy incentives within Zimbabwe's bi-modal agrarian structure. These responses are manifested in emerging new land use patterns and production processes oriented towards global markets. The growth of new export oriented land uses are a key determinant of the changing land question through their salient influence on transforming the structural and technological parameters of land use and the exchange values of land, and, therefore, of land ownership.

    Unequal benefits from ESAP reforms, especially from new land uses, however, fuel the struggle for more land redistribution. Thus a major result of these land use shifts is the changing organisation of the politics of landholders and land seekers, especially in their relations to the state, reflecting renewed struggle among various constituencies for historical and normative land rights against those seeking to preserve existing land rights in the context of an increasingly market-based land policy framework.

    A case study approach focusing on horticulture, wildlife and ostrich land uses, their economic features and impacts, and their socio-political ramifications was pursued between 1995 and 1997. Detailed case data and experiences were garnered from Zimbabwe's Mashonaland provinces and numerous secondary sources from the macro to the farmer and household level. The study assesses the direction and scale of these new rural land uses in Zimbabwe's prime lands with particular emphasis on the 1990-1996 period. It traces the new forms of land use in relation to emerging land bidding and ownership structures/ social relations of production among large scale and small farmers, private agrarian market agents, and the state itself. The emergence of new forms of rural land and commodity markets, new trends in socio-political organisation and policy advocacy among farmers' groups and other interest groups, as well as the changing relationship of government agencies to the control and use of land and commodity production, were the main social processes and relations examined.

  • 235.
    Murithi, Tim
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Centre for African and Gender Studies, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Regional Reconciliation in Africa: The Elusive Dimension of Peace and Security2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Africa has endured the debilitating effects of cyclical violent conflict for several decades. Despite the existence of well-intentioned policy frameworks and the use of significant resources to stabilise countries, conflicts in the region have remained resistant to resolution. Africa’s crises demonstrate that conflicts have a tendency to spill across borders, affecting communities in more than one country. These cases challenge reductionist understandings of traditional interstate and intra-state wars across the continent. The regional nature of conflicts means that the notion of ‘civil war’ is anachronistic, with increasingly limited descriptive utility.This paper argues that unless concrete efforts are geared towards dealing with the past and promoting regional reconciliation in Africa, the consolidation of peace and security will remain an elusive quest. More specifically, if state resources were deployed in equal measure to lay the foundations for regional reconciliation, this would ultimately be a more effective way to stabilise countries and improve relations with their neighbours. In fact, the pursuit of regional reconciliation could contribute towards the fulfilment of the incomplete project of decolonisation across Africa.

  • 236.
    Murunga, Godwin R.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Spontaneous or premeditated?: Post-Election Violence in Kenya2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper examines the high levels of post-electoral violence that followed the 2007 Kenyan elections. While noting that the conflict was triggered by the incumbent party’s abuse of the electoral process with the complicity of certain state agencies, the author traces the background causes to the long pent-up grievances among the majority of Kenyan peoples, alienated from and oppressed by a fractious but predatory ruling elite. The paper provides insights into the roots and nature of Kenya’s post-election violence; its manifestations in various regions of the country; and the roles of the ruling Party of National Unity and the opposition Orange Democratic Movement, the police and the international community. Overall, it provides a highly informative and critical account of the unprecedented levels of post-electoral violence in Kenya, exploring its complex ramifications, and the prospects for justice, reconciliation and democratic governance.

  • 237.
    Mususa, Patience
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Research Unit.
    Autoritäre Politik, wachsende Ungleichheit: Das südliche Afrika steht vor großen Herausforderungen2018Inngår i: Welt-Trends : das außenpolitische Journal, ISSN 0944-8101, nr 144, s. 36-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [de]

    Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges 1989, der Unabhängigkeit Namibias 1990 und dem Sturz des Apartheidregimes in Südafrika 1994 begann für viele Länder des südlichen Afrikas eine Zeit relativer Stabilität und des politischen Pluralismus. Die Friedensdividende erfüllte jedoch nicht die in sie gesetzten Erwartungen. Der Demokratisierungsprozess der Southern-African-Development-Community-Staaten (SADC) verläuft unübersichtlich; eine Wende hin zu autoritären Tendenzen zeichnet sich bei einigen Mitgliedstaaten ab.

  • 238.
    Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    The Zimbabwean Nation-State Project: A Historical Diagnosis of Identity and Power-based Conflicts in a Postcolonial State2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Discussion Paper draws attention to the often overlooked aspects of the limits, poverty and contradictions embedded in the “unfinished business” of the Zimbabwe nation state project. It is located within the broader context of the crisis of the nation-state in an African continent increasingly buffeted by waves of globalisation. It also revisits the debate on whether postcolonial nationalism can completely avoid reproducing the racial and ethnic discrimination that characterised its colonial past. Zeroing in on Zimbabwe, the paper argues that the nation-state crisis has roots in the legacy of settler colonialism, the ethnic fragmentation that marked the history of the liberation movement and the character of the nationalist elite. Its critique of the politics of the nationalist and political elite, the Lancaster House Agreement, the National Democratic Revolution and the Global Political Agreement makes this paper an important contribution to the debates on the real legacy of the liberation struggle in Zimbabwe and the prospects for a common national identity based on nationalism, social justice, inclusive democracy and development in the country.

  • 239.
    Negash, Tekeste
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    No medicine for the bite of a white serpent: notes on nationalism and resistance in Eritrea, 1890-19401986Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 240.
    Negash, Tekeste
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Rethinking education in Ethiopia1996Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Only 20 percent of the school-age population in Ethiopia have access to primary education. This study attempts to explore an alternative strategy as regards expansion of literacy and the fulfilment of educational and developmental needs. It argues that the strategy of non-formal education is in both cases a far better alternative.

  • 241.
    Negash, Tekeste
    et al.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Rudebeck, Lars
    Dimensions of development with emphasis on Africa: Proceeding from the interdisciplinary conference on third world studies, Uppsala, march 19941995Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 242.
    Nellis, John R.
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    The ethnic composition of leading Kenyan government positions1974Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 243. Nellis, John R.
    Who pays tax in Kenya?1972Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 244. Neocosmos, Michael
    et al.
    Suttner, Raymond
    Taylor, Ian
    Melber, Henning
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Political cultures in democratic South Africa2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The democratic transition in South Africa that emerged during the 1990s and became manifest in a democratically elected government, has not yet brought to completion the post-Apartheid social and political transformation of that country. In fact, it has far from consolidated a new socio-political culture.

    The contributions to this Discussion Paper reflect upon different but related aspects of South African democracy after Apartheid as represented in a variety of social forces, institutions and individuals. They illustrate that societies in transition have to make sustained efforts to overcome the legacies of the past, and that the present reproduces some of the past structural constraints and patterns of power and control in the new framework.

    This publication has been compiled under the aegis of the research network on “Liberation and Democracy in Southern Africa” (LiDeSa), currently coordinated through the Nordic Africa Institute. The contributions were originally presented to a workshop organised in Cape Town in December 2001.

  • 245.
    Nlandu Mayamba Mbuya, Thierry
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Conflict, Displacement and Transformation.
    Building a Police Force "for the good" in DR Congo: Questions that still haunt reformers and reform beneficiaries2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The police in DRC are indeed a permanent domestic risk. The lack of policy, service or management regime for the acquisition of equipment explains the deficient, dilapidated, obsolete and very often inappropriate equipment. Moreover, police units have very weak operational capacity and police officers lack self-confidence and pride in their profession. These shabbily dressed men and women in faded uniforms daily develop an indifferent attitude towards their profession and work in general. Inefficient and ineffective, the Congolese policeforce is wholly demoralised and unprofessional. This has negatively affected the relationship between police and population. It has led to the withdrawal of people’s cooperation, a must for successful police work and for meeting people’s expectations.

  • 246.
    Nobel, Peter
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Meeting of the OAU-Secretariat and voluntary agencies on African refugees: Arusha, March 19831983Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 247.
    Nobel, Peter
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Refugees and development in Africa1987Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book discusses why refugees flee, how and whether they become integrated, the relations between development assistance and refugee assistance, and the legal status of the refugees. The concept of 'people's rights' is discussed, and the rights to development with special reference to the refugees.

  • 248.
    Nobel, Peter
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Réunion du Secrétariat de l'OUA et des agences bénévoles sur les réfugiés: Arusha, mars 19831983Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 249.
    Norberg, Carin
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Västsahara – Afrikas sista koloni: Inledningsanförande vid seminariet ” När pengar går före mänskliga rättigheter – EU och Västsahara”, anordnat av svenska avdelningen av internationella juristkommissionen2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 250.
    Nord, Erik
    Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
    Militärkupper i Afrika1967Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
2345678 201 - 250 of 536
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